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Greenways

Horticulture

2010

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Full-Text Articles in Architecture

Sustainable Place Making: Australian Exemplars, Christopher Wren Jan 2010

Sustainable Place Making: Australian Exemplars, Christopher Wren

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

This paper provides the background to the case studies that will be presented at the conference. It is aimed at providing a concise view of what constitutes a sustainable place and the important subtleties in achieving an active, walkable and safe environment that is diverse, humane and attractive to people.


Green Infrastructure And Ecological Networks: Teaching Landscape Planning In Collaboration With Municipalities In Helsinki Region Two Examples Of Vantaa And Sipoo, Kati Susi-Wolff, Virva Kajamaa, Kaisa Laine, Sirkku Huisko Jan 2010

Green Infrastructure And Ecological Networks: Teaching Landscape Planning In Collaboration With Municipalities In Helsinki Region Two Examples Of Vantaa And Sipoo, Kati Susi-Wolff, Virva Kajamaa, Kaisa Laine, Sirkku Huisko

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The Bologna Declaration, a new European two-cycle degree system was adopted in Finnish universities in 2005 (The Bologna Process...2010). The W5W2 project (2007-2009) supported the implementation of the Bologna process in the Finnish Universities in order to strengthen their the positions in the European Higher Education Area and to strengthen quality assurance in universities and polytechnics (Five Years, Two Degrees…2010). The project has concentrated on cumulative learning. Knowledge should accumulate in the long-term memory during the studies. In landscape planning education the aim has been to pedagogically support this cumulative process.

Since 2005 there has been a co-operation between Aalto …


Olmsted Park And Parkway System For The 21st Century, Robert G. Shibley, Lynda H. Schneekloth Jan 2010

Olmsted Park And Parkway System For The 21st Century, Robert G. Shibley, Lynda H. Schneekloth

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

This story begins with Frederick Law Olmsted’s vision of new urban form -- of green space woven into a city fabric. When the city leaders brought Olmsted to Buffalo, NY in the 1860s to replicate the successful Central Park of NYC, he transcended the Central Park concept that he and Calvin Vaux had designed and implemented. Instead, he envisioned not a place, but a system -- a system of green that would be accessible to citizens throughout the city (Kowsky 1991). The Buffalo Park and Parkway System was Olmsted’s first experiment with bringing together a collection of spaces and uses …


Rethinking Greenways Design In Context Of Sustainable Development: Towards Landscape Synergism, Archana Sharma Jan 2010

Rethinking Greenways Design In Context Of Sustainable Development: Towards Landscape Synergism, Archana Sharma

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Greenways design and planning has been largely framed as a multi-functional, multi-objective approach to address socio-cultural and ecological concerns (Fabos,2004; Hough 2004, Steiner, 2002; Fabos, 1995, Ahern, 1995; Ndubisi, 1995; Forman,1995). Social well-being, identity and memory have been predominant socio-cultural concerns while biodiversity preservation and natural resources conservation have been key ecological concerns. These concerns have now been superseded by the more urgent concerns of sustainable development such as availability of energy resources, both food and fuel. Whether and how the design and practice of greenways meets these sustainable development challenges is the primary question raised through this paper.

The …


Planning For Change In The Boston Metropolitan Area (Usa): Exploring The Relationship Between Urban Greening And Socio-Economic Processes, Robert L. Ryan, Paige Warren, Susannah Lerman, Kate Taylor, Eric Strauss Jan 2010

Planning For Change In The Boston Metropolitan Area (Usa): Exploring The Relationship Between Urban Greening And Socio-Economic Processes, Robert L. Ryan, Paige Warren, Susannah Lerman, Kate Taylor, Eric Strauss

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Global population growth is increasingly concentrated in urban areas, degrading natural resources and threatening long-term sustainability of both human and biotic systems. Even in a developed nation like the United States, urban areas are expected to double in population and land area over the next fifty years (UNFPA, 2007). In order to plan for a more sustainable urban future, there is a need to understand the relationship between the socio-economic forces that are driving land use and land cover change, and the resulting impacts upon the ecosystem state and structure of the urban forest (Colding, 2007). In particular, this study …


Improving Small Cities Competitiveness Through Greenway Planning And Design: Vila-Franca-De-Xira Case Study, Lisboa Metropolitan Area, Portugal, Luís Ribeiro, Teresa Dias Jan 2010

Improving Small Cities Competitiveness Through Greenway Planning And Design: Vila-Franca-De-Xira Case Study, Lisboa Metropolitan Area, Portugal, Luís Ribeiro, Teresa Dias

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Greenway concept as a strategy to support landscape planning and design has been addressed in research studies and publications worldwide (Fabos and Ryan, 2006). However, to fully understand the significance of greenways as a mean to improve cities landscape, the analysis of the design and implementation levels are crucial in order to assess its efficiency towards life quality and acceptance by local populations. This paper aims to further research the role of greenways on medium/small cities in Portugal, as a mean to improve their competitiveness.

Through the case study of greenway design and implementation in the city of Vila- Franca-de-Xira …


Sustainable Landscaping For Paradise: Persian Garden, Samira Pasha, Somayeh Rokhgireh, Ali Pooladi Jan 2010

Sustainable Landscaping For Paradise: Persian Garden, Samira Pasha, Somayeh Rokhgireh, Ali Pooladi

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

This paper introduces the ecological design techniques used to ameliorate harsh environmental conditions in traditional Persian gardens. Hot and dry weather of the Plateau of Iran, scarcity of water and sand storms has shaped large scale decisions (location, water systems) as well as small scale considerations (choice of plants, incorporation of architectural elements and water channels). The gardens in return, impact environmental conditions in large scale (towns and villages) and small scale (walkways and buildings).

This paper discusses passive strategies used in Persian gardens to create comfort conditions with regards to temperature, humidity, and light. This includes introducing resource management …


Central European Greenways – Designing International Corridors Of Sustainable Development, David Murphy, Daniel Mourek Jan 2010

Central European Greenways – Designing International Corridors Of Sustainable Development, David Murphy, Daniel Mourek

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

This paper presents a practitioner’s perspective on Greenways development in the New Member States of the European Union of Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia. Greenways in this region came about as a result of and tool for the development of civil society in these countries after the collapse of communism. Greenways were introduced in Central Europe through direct cooperation with US based initiatives in the early and mid 1990s as part of a wider initiative to promote civic engagement in environmental improvement and decision making in an effort to re-establish a functioning and vibrant civic society. Greenways …


Landscape Ecomosaics Evolution And Land Use Change In South-Sicilian Coastal Area, Enza Marino, Giuseppe Barbera Jan 2010

Landscape Ecomosaics Evolution And Land Use Change In South-Sicilian Coastal Area, Enza Marino, Giuseppe Barbera

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Intensive agriculture, urbanisation and neglected land-country often entail rapid landscape changes, losses of ecological capacity (Feranec, J., 2006) biodiversity and cultural landscape degradation (Farina, A., 1998). Sicily’s countryside is characterised by a rich diversity of cultural landscapes and was shaped by traditional land-uses. The case study covers the middle-south part of Sicily (Agrigento), the socalled Temple’s Valley, a literary territory passed through by many writers like Diodoro (I sec. a. C.), Goethe (1787). In last fifty years, the rural–urban fringe of Agrigento city have become the setting of the intense suburb growth and considerable land use change. One consequence of …


Connecting Green Infrastructure With Transportation Planning, Daniel J. Marcucci, Lauren M. Jordan Jan 2010

Connecting Green Infrastructure With Transportation Planning, Daniel J. Marcucci, Lauren M. Jordan

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The development of green infrastructure planning is increasingly espoused by landscape, conservation, and metropolitan planners as an effective way to create a network of ecological functionality in regions that are otherwise highly impacted by anthropogenic changes. The most common condition is one of expanding metropolitan growth transforming cultivated and natural landscapes into developed ones. Despite its promise, several critical problems arise with green infrastructure planning. We will consider three. The first is that the definition of green infrastructure within the public realm remains highly variable if not embryonic. The second is green infrastructure is a long-term investment whose effects will …


Contributions Of Watercourse-Associated Greenways To Green Infrastructure: A Comparison Between Two Case Studies In Arizona And Maryland, Usa, Margaret Livingston, David Myers Jan 2010

Contributions Of Watercourse-Associated Greenways To Green Infrastructure: A Comparison Between Two Case Studies In Arizona And Maryland, Usa, Margaret Livingston, David Myers

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Greenways have historically played a significant role in the development of green infrastructure design and planning. As one of the many components of greenways, vegetated buffers along urban and suburban watercourses are typically well-suited for recreational uses such as biking, walking trails and wildlife-viewing. However, development pressures in cities and suburban environments can lead to fragmented and redirected watercourses to accommodate other land uses. In some cases, unplanned access increases erosion and loss of vegetation and potential wildlife habitat in these areas. It is critical for future conservation of these natural and restored areas that appropriate access be explored. This …


Preservation Of Natural Patterns Visual Expression Peculiarities And Development Planning In The Peri-Urban Areas Of Contrasting Topography, Giedrė I. Laukaitytė-Malžinskienė Jan 2010

Preservation Of Natural Patterns Visual Expression Peculiarities And Development Planning In The Peri-Urban Areas Of Contrasting Topography, Giedrė I. Laukaitytė-Malžinskienė

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The physical sprawl of a town is one of the main factors having an influence on periurban functional development and economic expansion. After Lithuania became a member of the EU, the biggest towns and especially the capital Vilnius have undergone considerable changes in the landscape of peri-urban areas: agricultural functions are gradually changed by urban functions, what makes negative anthropogenical influence on the landscape character and its ecological stability. The general plan for Vilnius even up to the year 2005 formulated the concept of city greenbelt. Unfortunately, this concept remained unrealized because of juridical assumptions and insufficient collaboration between neighbourhood …


A Concept And Case Study Of Ecological Network Planning In The Fertő-Hanság Basin In Hungary, Éva Konkoly-Gyuró, Dezső Nagy Jan 2010

A Concept And Case Study Of Ecological Network Planning In The Fertő-Hanság Basin In Hungary, Éva Konkoly-Gyuró, Dezső Nagy

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The concept of ecological networks has emerged from the landscape planning on the one side and from the landscape ecology on the other. Landscape planning has been seeking to create greenways and green networks for people. Whereas landscape ecology provided the scientific basis for the assessment of landscape structure thus gave the opportunity to turn the nature conservation approach from the protection of isolated nature reserves into a spatial system approach. A systematic analysis and evaluation of the existing ecological network provides a larger context for the habitat preservation, so an opportunity of more efficiency for the nature conservation. However …


The Role Of Greenways In Promoting Sustainable Cultural Landscapes. The Case Of Greece, Alexander Kantartzis Jan 2010

The Role Of Greenways In Promoting Sustainable Cultural Landscapes. The Case Of Greece, Alexander Kantartzis

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

A primary focus in the Greek Ministry of Culture is the protection and preservation of its cultural/ archaeological sites as “Treasured Landscapes”. Such sites in Greece face problems of neglect and degradation, lacking in attractiveness and visitor services, comprising spaces of limited socio-cultural/historic/educational/ heritage activities only. The greenways movement has been advocating and implementing greenways and ecological networks internationally (Fabos and Ahern.1995). The paper aims to achieve the goal of promoting and upgrading landscapes through protecting/ conserving/restoring sustainable cultural landscapes/sites: a) by developing a single integrated landscape strategy, that of greenway planning, and b) by defining related actions of implementation …


Towards Landscape Integrity: The Integration Of Ecological And Social Frameworks In Open Space Planning, Lindsay Ex, Carlos Licon Jan 2010

Towards Landscape Integrity: The Integration Of Ecological And Social Frameworks In Open Space Planning, Lindsay Ex, Carlos Licon

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

A dichotomy of community versus conservation has long been present in society (Agrawal and Gibson 1999). This dichotomy suggests communities and ecological systems function without dependency on each other. Open space planning efforts have reinforced this dichotomy, as they typically focus on either socially- or ecologically-based frameworks (Maruani and Amit-Cohen 2007).

This study examines the trend of incorporating both social and ecological frameworks into one open space plan. The research is exploratory, attempting to identify best practices and larger concepts related to integrated open space planning in the context of Hellmund and Smith’s “landscape integrity,” where healthy social and ecological …


Concept Of The Green Spaces System – Belgrade Case Study, Jasminka Cvejic, Anica Teofilovic Jan 2010

Concept Of The Green Spaces System – Belgrade Case Study, Jasminka Cvejic, Anica Teofilovic

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Contemporary approach to urban development, founded on sustainable development principles, is counting on urban green spaces system as one of the most significant city infrastructure. The term implies integration of multifunctional open spaces – various types of green spaces, water courses and open rural areas, distributed in such a way to contribute to improvement of life and working conditions in the city, to protection of biodiversities of urban sites and to the attractiveness of city vista (Teofilović, Cvejić, et al.; 2009).

The city of Belgrade is the capital of the Republic of Serbia, situated in South-East Europe in Balkan peninsula. …


Landscape Painting Adding A Cultural Value To The Dutch Countryside, Ernst J. Bos Jan 2010

Landscape Painting Adding A Cultural Value To The Dutch Countryside, Ernst J. Bos

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

In this article it is argued that cultural values should be included in policy making on the Dutch countryside. Since the seventeenth century the Dutch landscape had been a valued subject for art painters. This inheritance provides our rural areas a unique cultural value. The focus of this article is the region surrounding The Hague, where painters from the so-called Hague School had brought a large number of sites to their canvases. This group of painters was mainly active in the second half of the nineteenth century. For this study, various sites have been located that had been painted by …


A Strategy For Integrating Public Art Into Greenway Planning: A Look At The Design Competitions For The Canalside Bike Path In Turners Falls, Massachusetts, Annaliese Bischoff Jan 2010

A Strategy For Integrating Public Art Into Greenway Planning: A Look At The Design Competitions For The Canalside Bike Path In Turners Falls, Massachusetts, Annaliese Bischoff

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Too often the important aspect of art fails to be included into the planning for the linear corridors of greenways. With a focus on the needed work to create the physical corridor itself and make it a reality, the effort to include public art into the process often does not seem essential. Efforts to safeguard ecological networks are often readily recognized as an important integral part of the greenway planning process, where the inclusion of art is often considered to be nonessential. However, several greenway researchers (Lewis, 1964), (Dawson ,1994) speak to the value of including cultural factors in greenway …


Trends Of Landscape Architecture In Hungary In The ‘70s, Eszter Karlócainé Bakay Jan 2010

Trends Of Landscape Architecture In Hungary In The ‘70s, Eszter Karlócainé Bakay

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The history of landscape architecture in the seventies is part of a larger topic which covers the history of Hungarian landscape architecture from the 50-s to the end of Socialist era. The strong political pressure which was so typical in all fields of life in these periods, was determining in landscape architecture as well.

The era has not been researched yet, since it hasn’t been enough long ago to be considered as a history. The parks built at this time are disappearing due to park renovations, alterations or functional changes. These works are not protected yet; the officials of historic …


Leisurescape: A Pan-European Spatial Assessment Of Tourism Between Cities, Nature And Landscape, Dirk M. Wascher, Rini Schuiling, Nick Hazendonk, Bart Looise Jan 2010

Leisurescape: A Pan-European Spatial Assessment Of Tourism Between Cities, Nature And Landscape, Dirk M. Wascher, Rini Schuiling, Nick Hazendonk, Bart Looise

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Part of the project initiative Landscape and leisure, launched by the Dutch Government Advisor on the Landscape, is the development of a European map on the basis of a standard methodological approach for presenting the spatial relations between leisure and tourism on the one hand, and landscape and nature conservation other hand. Due to the increasing need of European institutions for harmonized, reliable data on the state and trends of the environment – and meanwhile on the allencompassing policy domain of sustainability which includes the social, economic and environmental dimension – the production of European data sets has become a …


Green Structure Planning. A Norwegian Approach, Kine Halvorsen Thorén, Renata Aradi Jan 2010

Green Structure Planning. A Norwegian Approach, Kine Halvorsen Thorén, Renata Aradi

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Greenway planning has long traditions in Norway (Bruun 1991), and from the late 1980s we have developed the concept further into what we have mentioned as “green structure planning”. Green structure is defined as a multi-functional urban system, where “the green” in the city is attributed to different values and functions inspired by the landscape ecological thinking. Examples of important values and functions of the urban green structure could for example be: 1) Cityscape and aesthetic conditions, 2) Recreation, play and quality of life, 3) Nature and biodiversity, 3) Biological production related to forestry and agriculture, 4 ) Technical matters …


Importance Of Gis Databases In Management And Planning Of Public Green Spaces – Case Study Of The Budapest Zoo And Botanical Garden, Katalin Takács, Vince Zsigmond Jan 2010

Importance Of Gis Databases In Management And Planning Of Public Green Spaces – Case Study Of The Budapest Zoo And Botanical Garden, Katalin Takács, Vince Zsigmond

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The development and long term quality maintenance of public green spaces requires various kinds of knowledge. Most of the onsite information (development history, current state of the garden, ground plan, plant stock, etc.) has to be in the mind of the specialist in charge; however, with the growing quantity and complexity of the data there is a limit to traditional personal expertise. Developing and managing GIS databases creates new assets for documentation (data analysis, queries, reporting, etc.) as well as further practical applications based on them: supplying data for constructors, decision makers and visitors; supporting decisions with accurate derived information; …


Plan-It: A Method Enabling Regional Stakeholders To Design A Green Climate Corridor: The Groningen Case, Eveliene Steingröver, Sabine Van Rooij Jan 2010

Plan-It: A Method Enabling Regional Stakeholders To Design A Green Climate Corridor: The Groningen Case, Eveliene Steingröver, Sabine Van Rooij

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

In this paper we present the implementation of a newly developed method to integrally plan for nature and water measures required to adapt to climate change, together with stakeholders. The identification of required nature adaptation measures is based on metapopulation theories.

The climate is changing and this has a pronounced effect on biodiversity (Van den Hurk, B. et al., 2006; Vos, C. et al., 2008). Researchers expect that a significant part of European biodiversity might be lost in several decades. The shifting climate zones and more frequent extreme weather events, combined with the small and highly fragmented nature areas in …


University Urban Design Centers In The Planning And Implementation Of Urban Greenways. – Possible Strategies For The Umass Amherst Design Center In Springfield, Ma., Frank Sleegers, Michael Dipasquale Jan 2010

University Urban Design Centers In The Planning And Implementation Of Urban Greenways. – Possible Strategies For The Umass Amherst Design Center In Springfield, Ma., Frank Sleegers, Michael Dipasquale

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

University supported community design centers in the United States provide an institutional alternative for urban design and planning. They are a link between the innovative and educational milieu of the university and professional practice. Design centers provide the infrastructure that allows faculty and students’ research opportunities and projects that intersect with the practice of urban design and planning, with the goal of improving the physical and consequently, the social environment.

This paper assesses the following goals that nascent community design centers should pursue in the planning and design of greenways: 1. focus on developing a collective vision and a tangible …


Urban Greenways Planning. A Vision Plan For Milan (Italy), Giulio Senes, Natalia Fumagalli, Alessandro Toccolini Jan 2010

Urban Greenways Planning. A Vision Plan For Milan (Italy), Giulio Senes, Natalia Fumagalli, Alessandro Toccolini

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Greenways are “green infrastructure” to link people and places (Fabos, 1995) and can be planned at different scales (from national to municipal) and for multiple purposes, “including ecological, recreational, cultural, aesthetic” (Ahern, 1995), “to provide people with access to open spaces close to where they live” (President's Commission on Americans Outdoors, 1987), in order to “enhance both the environment and quality of life” (European Greenways Association, 2000).

At the municipal scale, the urban greenways network can help to reshape the city, making it more livable; urban greenways represent “at once the parks for the 21st century and a part of …


Ursynów Escarpment Linear Park Design In The Scope Of A System Of Linear Parks Of The Southern Areas Of Left Bank Warsaw, Katarzyna Rędzińska, Przemysław Wolski Jan 2010

Ursynów Escarpment Linear Park Design In The Scope Of A System Of Linear Parks Of The Southern Areas Of Left Bank Warsaw, Katarzyna Rędzińska, Przemysław Wolski

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

This article presents the concept of the greenways (linear parks) system in the southern region of left-bank Warsaw. This system is based on linear environmental structure of the terrain.

The methodical basis for the study is the project interpretation of natural landscape features, on which the city’s urban composition should be based.

Natural lines and border zones, such as edges of high plains, river valleys, etc. should present the fabric to city planning. Those natural landmarks should be the places where important visual symbols will be located. They also may play the role of recreation areas or ecological corridors, as …


Recreation In Swedish Agricultural Areas – Public Attitudes To Multifunctional Greenway Designs, Anna Peterson, Mats Gyllin, Christine Haaland, Anders Larsson Jan 2010

Recreation In Swedish Agricultural Areas – Public Attitudes To Multifunctional Greenway Designs, Anna Peterson, Mats Gyllin, Christine Haaland, Anders Larsson

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Recreation in the agricultural landscape of SW Sweden is limited in several ways. There is little else than agricultural fields and urbanised areas, and outdoor recreation is limited to a few, small areas. Although the Swedish Right of Public Access allows for accessing the agricultural fields by foot, this is not allowed during periods when there is standing crop. Apart from this, the fields are not particularly inviting, since the winds are continuous and often harsh, and walking on the muddy fields is not comfortable. It should be stressed that this is the everyday landscape for a growing peri-urban population. …


Open Space System As An Armature For Urban Expansion: Evaluation Of Landscape Ecological Spatial Concepts As A Model For Improving Resilience In Urban Systems, Homero Marconi Penteado Jan 2010

Open Space System As An Armature For Urban Expansion: Evaluation Of Landscape Ecological Spatial Concepts As A Model For Improving Resilience In Urban Systems, Homero Marconi Penteado

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Urbanization alters several attributes of natural resources, degrading ecosystems and causing them to lose their ability to maintain their structure and function. As a result, native ecosystems in territories subject to urban expansion lose qualities important to their self-organization and may, in certain cases, disappear altogether. Actions that protect or strengthen the resilience of these native ecosystems in the face of urban development may offer increased capacity for these native ecosystems to survive and endure.

Landscape ecology aims to understand the relationship between spatial patterns and ecological processes across scales (Wu, 2008) considering the interaction with human activities (Naveh & …


Water Greenways. A Case Study In Milano North Area: “V’Arco Villoresi” (Villoresi Gate - Bow), Elvira Pensa Jan 2010

Water Greenways. A Case Study In Milano North Area: “V’Arco Villoresi” (Villoresi Gate - Bow), Elvira Pensa

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

The northern part of Milan, even if it is formed of many medium and small Municipalities, is considered a big metropolitan area. It’s uncontained growth, has caused intense soil consumption and territory capillary fragmentation. Fortunately, natural and agricultural areas survive thanks to some political regulations, on different scales, that have limited damage and protected part of the most significant territory. Most of these are parks, historical agricultural landscape, historical hydraulic system works and architectural emergences. Currently, the principal requisites are, first, to preserve the residual areas, avoiding speculation, and, then, to reconnect a large system that is separated by urbanization …


The New Umbria Regional Landscape Plan, Roberta Panella, Endro Martini Jan 2010

The New Umbria Regional Landscape Plan, Roberta Panella, Endro Martini

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Umbria is a region of central Italy located in the heart of the peninsula. It is one of the smallest Italian regions. It is the only region of Italian peninsula not washed by the sea. It is bordered to the east and northeast with the Marches, west and northwest with Tuscany south and south-west with Lazio. The regional capital is Perugia. It is interesting to point out that because of its geomorphology, during the centuries, this region has always been a land of connection but even of contention.