Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Architecture Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Series

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

Articles 1 - 30 of 40

Full-Text Articles in Architecture

Data Driven Approach To Thermal Comfort Model Design, Mostafa Rafaiejokandan Dec 2018

Data Driven Approach To Thermal Comfort Model Design, Mostafa Rafaiejokandan

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

Apart from the dominant environmental factors such as relative humidity, radiant, and ambient temperatures, studies have confirmed that thermal comfort significantly depends on internal personal parameters such as metabolic rate, age, and health status. This study reviews the sensitivity of the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) thermal comfort model relative to its environmental and personal parameters of a group of people in a space. PMV model equations adapted in ASHRAE Standard 55–Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy, are used in this investigation to conduct a parametric study by generating and analyzing multi-dimensional comfort zone plots. It has been found that ...


Evaluation Of Hospital Soundscapes To Improve Patient And Staff Experience, Jay Bliefnick Nov 2018

Evaluation Of Hospital Soundscapes To Improve Patient And Staff Experience, Jay Bliefnick

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

Hospital soundscapes can be difficult environments to assess acoustically due to the continuous activity within units. Routinely, patients perceive these soundscapes poorly when rating their hospital experience on HCAHPS (Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems) surveys administered after discharge. In addition, hospital staff can be negatively impacted by the acoustical environments in which they work, affecting both performance and job satisfaction. This doctoral research addressed these issues across three phases by collecting acoustical measurements within three individual hospitals, comparing results with provided patient and staff survey information, and conducting laboratory tests of hospital noise perception. In the first ...


A Case Study On The Design Of Safe Spaces In Hospitals Vulnerable To Tornadoes In Central Us, Lucy Owusua Ampaw - Asiedu May 2018

A Case Study On The Design Of Safe Spaces In Hospitals Vulnerable To Tornadoes In Central Us, Lucy Owusua Ampaw - Asiedu

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

In the wake of recent disasters happening around the world such as the earthquake in Italy (January 2017); hurricanes in the United States (U.S.) (September 2016 and 2017); and compounding disasters in Haiti (September 2010 and 2016); to our best knowledge, never has the world seen the need to work on preemptive rather than reactionary measures to address this issue. Tornadoes are natural hazards that commonly occur in mid-western and central states of the U.S. Tornadoes, like all natural hazards, are very destructive and result in massive destruction to building structures, causing billions of dollars in damage and ...


Effects Of Reverberation Conditions And Physical Versus Virtual Source Placement On Localization In Virtual Sound Environments, Anna Catton Apr 2018

Effects Of Reverberation Conditions And Physical Versus Virtual Source Placement On Localization In Virtual Sound Environments, Anna Catton

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

Sound field synthesis systems vary in number and arrangement of loudspeakers and methods used to generate virtual sound environments to study human hearing perception. While previous work has evaluated the accuracy with which these systems physically reproduce room acoustic conditions, less is known on assessing subjective perception of those conditions, such as how well such systems preserve source localization. This work quantifies the accuracy and precision of perceived localization from a multi-channel sound field synthesis system at Boys Town National Research Hospital, which used 24 physical loudspeakers and vector-based amplitude panning to generate sound fields. Short bursts of broadband speech-shaped ...


Harmonics Elimination In Three Phase Cascade H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter Using Virtual Stage Pwm, Amro Quedan Dec 2017

Harmonics Elimination In Three Phase Cascade H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter Using Virtual Stage Pwm, Amro Quedan

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

The multilevel inverters are one of the great solutions that are proposed to satisfy the demand for high-power application and the significant integration of renewable energy. The conversion process from DC to AC must be done at high efficiency to decrease the energy loss and to ensure the electric grid power quality. The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is the most important feature that indicates the efficiency of the conversion process. In this research, due to the advantages of the cascade H-bridge inverter over other topologies, it has been used with the virtual stage PWM technique to investigate two different methods ...


Perception Of Spatial Impression Due To Varying Positions Of The Source On Stage, Sungbeen Cho Aug 2017

Perception Of Spatial Impression Due To Varying Positions Of The Source On Stage, Sungbeen Cho

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

The listener’s surrounding environment affects the perception of sound. The environment includes physical factors such as space size, shape, and finish materials, and psychological factors such as individual difference of impression, and vision. Acoustic spatial impression can be defined as the concept of the type and size of space at which a listener arrives spontaneously when he/she is exposed to an appropriate sound field. This thesis analyzes how physical factors in enclosed spaces affect the acoustic spatial impression, and how sound sources at different positions on stage are perceived in different shapes of spaces.

First, existing spatial impression ...


An Investigation Of Dx Cooling Coil Inherent Characteristics, Krittima Santiwattana Dec 2016

An Investigation Of Dx Cooling Coil Inherent Characteristics, Krittima Santiwattana

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

DX cooling coil (DCC) systems have dominated light commercial and household applications in the U.S for several decades. Approximately 14.5% of energy use is consumed by space cooling in commercial buildings, whereas 87% of households are installed with air-conditioners. Improper installation, poor design, and lack of optimized control/operations incur faults in HVAC systems causing 25% to 50% energy waste in a building. These consequences are subject to inefficient equipment modelling of which is developed from: (1) insufficient understanding in equipment characteristics, (2) uncertainties in testing environment and data, and (3) access and cost limitations. Therefore, in this ...


A Generic Benchmark For A Mini-Split Heat Pump System, Yuchen Wang Dec 2016

A Generic Benchmark For A Mini-Split Heat Pump System, Yuchen Wang

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) accounts for half of the building energy consumption in the U.S where Mini-Split Heat Pumps (MSHPs) are an emerging type of HVAC system. Their utilization has greatly increased by 34% from 2009 to 2013 and high potential EER is recognized for MSHPs. However, there is limited research involving MSHPs systems, and there is no generic benchmark for system testing and modeling. The available simulation tools such as VapCyc, GreatLab, and CYCLE_D are either too complicated, difficult to access, or not freely available. Therefore, an accurate and public share generic benchmark is essential and ...


How Acoustics In California High Performance Schools Relate To Student Achievement, Devin K. Wong Nov 2016

How Acoustics In California High Performance Schools Relate To Student Achievement, Devin K. Wong

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

This research project seeks to determine if students attending K-12 schools meeting a minimum standard of high performance classroom conditions in the state of California do evidence higher scholastic achievement, based on publically available results on state-wide standardized tests. In three phases, a subset of 200+ schools applying for grants dedicated to building high performance schools over the past decade was correlated with an existing database of achievement scores for all public schools in California. The criteria utilized to specify high performance classrooms was provided by the California High Performance Initiative (HPI) Grant program. Academic achievement was evaluated on a ...


Design And Optimization Of Membrane-Type Acoustic Metamaterials, Matthew G. Blevins May 2016

Design And Optimization Of Membrane-Type Acoustic Metamaterials, Matthew G. Blevins

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

One of the most common problems in noise control is the attenuation of low frequency noise. Typical solutions require barriers with high density and/or thickness. Membrane-type acoustic metamaterials are a novel type of engineered material capable of high low-frequency transmission loss despite their small thickness and light weight. These materials are ideally suited to applications with strict size and weight limitations such as aircraft, automobiles, and buildings. The transmission loss profile can be manipulated by changing the micro-level substructure, stacking multiple unit cells, or by creating multi-celled arrays. To date, analysis has focused primarily on experimental studies in plane-wave ...


The Effects Of Tones In Noise On Human Annoyance And Performance, Joonhee Lee Apr 2016

The Effects Of Tones In Noise On Human Annoyance And Performance, Joonhee Lee

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

Building mechanical equipment often generates prominent tones because most systems include rotating parts like fans and pumps. These tonal noises can cause unpleasant user experiences in spaces and, in turn, lead to increased complaints by building occupants. Currently, architectural engineers can apply the noise criteria guidelines in standards or publications to achieve acceptable noise conditions for assorted types of spaces. However, these criteria do not apply well if the noise contains perceptible tones. The annoyance thresholds experienced by the general population with regards to the degree of tones in noise is a significant piece of knowledge that has not been ...


Quantification Of Time Varying Directivity Of Musical Instruments, Madeline A. Davidson Apr 2016

Quantification Of Time Varying Directivity Of Musical Instruments, Madeline A. Davidson

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

Static directivity patterns of musical instruments have been mapped somewhat extensively, but little research has been done in analyzing the directivity patterns of musical instruments over time as they play. Directivity patterns can be affected by variables such as instrument, frequency, dynamics, and style. This thesis proposes a set of quantification methods of time varying directivity, all derived from the maximum Directivity Index analyzed at consecutive short-duration time windows comprising the musical excerpt. The instrumental recordings used in this paper are taken in an anechoic chamber using either a 5, 13, or 32 multichannel setup. From the values of maximum ...


Discomfort Glare From Small, High Luminance Light Sources In Outdoor Nighttime Environments, Yulia I. Tyukhova Dec 2015

Discomfort Glare From Small, High Luminance Light Sources In Outdoor Nighttime Environments, Yulia I. Tyukhova

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

The overarching goal of this research was to examine humans’ subjective and physiological responses to small, high luminance light sources in outdoor nighttime environments. Currently, discomfort glare is rarely calculated in lighting practice (Remaking Cities Institute (RCI) 2011), partly, because it is not known which metric predicts glare most accurately in the given application.

This dissertation describes a parametric experiment evaluating the effects of three glare source luminances (20,000; 205,000; 750,000 cd/m2), two source positions (0°, 10°), two source sizes (10-5, 10-4 sr), and three background luminances (0.03; 0.3; 1 cd ...


Subjective Perception Of Varying Reflection Densities In Room Impulse Responses, Hyun Hong Dec 2015

Subjective Perception Of Varying Reflection Densities In Room Impulse Responses, Hyun Hong

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

Reverberation time (RT) is a metric commonly used to describe room acoustic conditions, but different rooms which have the same reverberation time can have different reflection densities. Much less is known about how humans perceive different reflection densities and how sensitive humans are to changes in reflection density. Previous investigations in the existing literature have studied the upper limit of distinguishable reflection density using artificial impulse responses, but not with more realistic impulse responses simulated in room acoustic software or measured from real rooms. The aim of this dissertation is to investigate methods for quantifying reflection density from measured impulse ...


The Effect Of Classical Order On The Seismic Behavior Of Ancient Masonry Columns, Cody M. Buckley Aug 2015

The Effect Of Classical Order On The Seismic Behavior Of Ancient Masonry Columns, Cody M. Buckley

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

The design and erection of columns in classical Greece and Rome was a deceptively complicated task. Ancient engineers were not guided by a set of building codes, resulting in several regional design variations. The writer Vitruvius condensed these variations into three archetypes or “orders” defined by proportions based on an arbitrary “module”.

The goal of this thesis is to better understand the effect of these proportions on the seismic response of ancient columns through the use of Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure and finite element analysis software. To this end, a parametric study of linearly elastic, free-standing columns with homogeneous material ...


Effect Of The Physical Environment On Teacher Satisfaction With Indoor Environmental Quality In Early Learning Schools, Stuart Shell May 2015

Effect Of The Physical Environment On Teacher Satisfaction With Indoor Environmental Quality In Early Learning Schools, Stuart Shell

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

While the quantity and quality of teacher-child interactions plays a key role in emotional and cognitive development for children, there is scant evidence regarding the contribution of physical environment to child outcomes. This study seeks to understand better the relative importance of variables within the physical environment for occupants. The research design targets teachers’ satisfaction with the physical environment as the outcome variable, based on the assumption that teachers who are more satisfied with their classroom provide higher-quality interactions with children. Teachers from two early learning schools with a total of 31 classrooms completed a written survey that asked about ...


Determining Thresholds Of Annoyance To Tones In Noise, Jennifer Marie Francis Dec 2014

Determining Thresholds Of Annoyance To Tones In Noise, Jennifer Marie Francis

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

Building services equipment often produce noise with prominent tones that can lead to complaints from occupants in the built environment. Previous studies have investigated human perception to tones in noise but it is still unclear at what threshold of prominence these tones lead to human annoyance. The goal of this research is to apply two different methods towards defining thresholds of annoyance to two tonal frequencies: 125 Hz and 500 Hz. In Method I – Direct Assessment with Task, subjects are exposed to 10 minutes of broadband noise with a tonal frequency set at a certain level of prominence while completing ...


Designing Acoustics For Linguistically Diverse Classrooms: Effects Of Background Noise, Reverberation And Talker Foreign Accent On Speech Comprehension By Native And Non-Native English-Speaking Listeners, Z. Ellen Peng Dec 2014

Designing Acoustics For Linguistically Diverse Classrooms: Effects Of Background Noise, Reverberation And Talker Foreign Accent On Speech Comprehension By Native And Non-Native English-Speaking Listeners, Z. Ellen Peng

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

The current classroom acoustics standard (ANSI S12.60-2010) recommends core learning spaces not to exceed background noise level (BNL) of 35 dBA and reverberation time (RT) of 0.6 second, based on speech intelligibility performance mainly by the native English-speaking population. Existing literature has not correlated these recommended values well with student learning outcomes. With a growing population of non-native English speakers in American classrooms, the special needs for perceiving degraded speech among non-native listeners, either due to realistic room acoustics or talker foreign accent, have not been addressed in the current standard. This research seeks to investigate the effects ...


Effects Of Polyethylene Terephthalate Fibers In The Water Resistance Of Compressed Stabilized Earth Blocks., Ebrima Colley May 2014

Effects Of Polyethylene Terephthalate Fibers In The Water Resistance Of Compressed Stabilized Earth Blocks., Ebrima Colley

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

This research project focuses on investigating the effects of synthetic fibers (PET) and amount of cement stabilization on the water absorption, water surface erosion, and wet compressive strength of the compressed stabilized earth blocks (CSEB). The use of locally available soils blended with fibers and cement was investigated to obtain a design mix for compressed stabilized earth blocks capable of staying intact in wet and humid regions in the world (i.e. regions with annual rainfall of over 50 in). Blocks with varying cement percentages of 5, 8, 10, and 15% by weight were produced with 3 specimens each, with ...


Pump Controller Design For Variable Primary Flow Configuration Systems, Yifan Shi May 2013

Pump Controller Design For Variable Primary Flow Configuration Systems, Yifan Shi

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

Pump systems are utilized widely in Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems. There are mainly three configuration types: (1) the constant primary-only flow configuration, (2) the constant primary/variable secondary flow configuration, and (3) the variable primary-only flow configuration. This thesis focuses on finding the optimal control strategy for it and programming a controller for easy in-field usage.

In this thesis, the pump brake horse power (BHP) of the three pump configurations is simulated and compared using varying control methods. The best pump efficiency staging and DP reset control methods are implemented into the pump controller. A one month field ...


An Innovative Solution Set Of Algorithm For Converting Architectural Drawings To Vector-Based Computer Graphics, Yuye Peng Aug 2012

An Innovative Solution Set Of Algorithm For Converting Architectural Drawings To Vector-Based Computer Graphics, Yuye Peng

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

Appraisal Floor Plan Sketch (AFPS) as a simplified architectural floor plan shows the bird's eye view of a building’s spatial arrangement. An efficient automated vectorization system of AFPS not only fulfills AFPS’s preservation and dissemination purposes but also helps extract the building’s geometric information, which can be used to create 3D models of the building and improve building energy efficiency. The purpose of this study is to develop an automated system for converting scanned AFPS into vector based computer graphics.

Text/graphic separation and corner detection are two essential components in this vectorization system. Text/graphic ...


Effects Of Short Noise Bursts On Human Performance And Perception, Christopher Ainley Aug 2012

Effects Of Short Noise Bursts On Human Performance And Perception, Christopher Ainley

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

The goal of this research project is to better quantify human reactions to short bursts of noise, to complement research at NASA Langley Research Center on evaluating human response inside buildings to low-level sonic booms. The project involved exposing participants over 30-minute sessions to a number of 250 ms broadband noise bursts of certain levels, presented in a controlled yet randomized fashion throughout the session, and gathering responses on human perception and performance on an arithmetic task dealing with short-term memory. While previous research has demonstrated effects of noise bursts of varying amplitudes on other types of tasks that study ...


Residential Energy Recovery Radiant Heat System, Scott Sharp May 2012

Residential Energy Recovery Radiant Heat System, Scott Sharp

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

Energy recovery systems aim to recover waste energy that is normally lost to the environment. Waste energy comes in a variety of forms. Many processes involving building HVAC involves transferring energy from one working fluid to another. Governing codes put strict requirements on ventilation requirements for various occupancy types. Increased ventilation demands more from the HVAC equipment since outdoor air (ventilation air) is being brought into the building and requires tempering in order to retain occupant comfort. The energy required to temper this air increases as ventilation rates increase. Many commercial buildings have implemented exhaust air energy recovery, or runaround ...


Electromagnetic Harvesting To Power Energy Management Sensors In The Built Environment, Evans Sordiashie May 2012

Electromagnetic Harvesting To Power Energy Management Sensors In The Built Environment, Evans Sordiashie

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

Recently, a growing body of scholarly work in the field of energy conservation is focusing on the implementation of energy management sensors in the power distribution system. Since most of these sensors are either battery operated or hardwired to the existing power distribution system, their use comes with major drawbacks. Battery maintenance and associated labor costs can make implementing sensors very expensive. Although hardwired sensors require very little post-installation maintenance, any energy savings they may procure is offset by the amount of energy expended during the course of the sensors normal operation. In response to these energy challenges, this thesis ...


Damage Detection In Metamorphic Stone Blocks Utilizing Impact-Echo Testing And Modal Analysis, Alexander C. Jording May 2012

Damage Detection In Metamorphic Stone Blocks Utilizing Impact-Echo Testing And Modal Analysis, Alexander C. Jording

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

Existing buildings decay with the passage of time, and as a result, continually require maintenance or rehabilitation. When considering existing structures, testing is often necessary to complete structural analysis in preparation for rehabilitation or repair. Non-destructive testing provides a structural assessment method applicable to a variety of materials and structures. The hypothesis of this research is that impact-echo testing, one of the many NDT techniques, can be adopted to develop a reliable and standardized method to assess the condition of rectangular metamorphic stones. After the baseline material parameters and general response to impact-echo testing were established, a novel method to ...


A Composite Structural Steel And Prestressed Concrete Beam For Building Floor Systems, Nathan Dewit Apr 2012

A Composite Structural Steel And Prestressed Concrete Beam For Building Floor Systems, Nathan Dewit

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

Precast prestressed concrete beams, such as rectangular and inverted tee beam, currently used in residential and commercial buildings are deep, heavy, and limited to span-to-depth ratios of 15. The research proposes a composite structural steel and prestressed concrete beam that is shallow, light, easy to produce and erect, and able to achieve a span-to-depth ratio of 24. The proposed beam is designed to be used with precast columns, hollow-core planks, and a cast-in-place topping to create a moment-resisting floor system that minimizes the need for shear walls. The goal of this system is to eliminate as many of the limitations ...


A Numerical Investigation Of Two Phase Solar-Collector Pipe, Seyyed Hashem Abedini Apr 2012

A Numerical Investigation Of Two Phase Solar-Collector Pipe, Seyyed Hashem Abedini

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

In the United States, major portions of the annual electrical and primary energy are consumed for buildings. To help reduce the energy consumption of non-renewable energy sources, this study investigates a new technology for harvesting solar energy using a boiling-condensing cycle with water in a solar collector. The fluid circulation is under natural forced convection. A solar collector is made of a black lacquer copper with 2 meters in length is used. The design of the system is presented to simulate heat transfer rate in a cold climate an average daily solar irradiation of 4.5kWh/m2/day, e.g ...


The Assessment Of High Dynamic Range Luminance Measurements With Led Lighting, Yulia I. Tyukhova Apr 2012

The Assessment Of High Dynamic Range Luminance Measurements With Led Lighting, Yulia I. Tyukhova

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

This research investigates whether a High Dynamic Range Imaging (HDRI) technique can accurately capture luminance values of a single LED chip. Previous studies show that a digital camera with exposure capability can be used as a luminance mapping tool in a wide range of luminance values with an accuracy of 10%. Previous work has also demonstrated the ability of HDRI to capture a rapidly-changing lighting environment with the sun. However these publications don’t investigate HDRI’s ability to capture a bright light source with a narrow light distribution (LED lighting).

Some of the existing concerns in LED technology today ...


Ann Based Load Identification And Forecasting System For The Built Environment, Hosen Hasna Dec 2011

Ann Based Load Identification And Forecasting System For The Built Environment, Hosen Hasna

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

"Phantom Loads" cause energy waste in homes and the built environment as a whole. Consumers spend more than $3 billion a year on "Phantom Load" in the United States alone. The goal of this work is to conserve energy by increasing consumer awareness on their energy usage and appropriate tools which in turn will be reducing and /or eliminating phantom loads and mismanagement of the load in the built environment. A further goal is to improve upon existing power distribution systems in the built environment with limited hardware additions to increase energy conservation. This work investigates remote identification of load ...


Implementation Of Integrated Commissioning, Retrofits, And Control Optimization Process In A Small Commercial Building, Xiangnan Shi Aug 2011

Implementation Of Integrated Commissioning, Retrofits, And Control Optimization Process In A Small Commercial Building, Xiangnan Shi

Architectural Engineering -- Dissertations and Student Research

A large amount of the primary energy consumed in the US is derived from the built environment followed by energy consumed in the transportation and industrial sectors. Consequently, improving the energy efficiency of buildings is an important part of ensuring a more sustainable world for future generations. Of the various techniques employed to improve the energy efficiency of buildings, commissioning and retrofits continue to be the most widely applied solutions. Control optimization, mainly imbedded with continuous commissioning so far, is not applied as widely. Even though there are currently a few applications that integrate all three techniques, no comparison has ...