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Full-Text Articles in Architecture

Kind Gestures: Longtime Aci Members Shape The Career Of Younger Generations, Anahid A. Behrouzi Oct 2018

Kind Gestures: Longtime Aci Members Shape The Career Of Younger Generations, Anahid A. Behrouzi

Architectural Engineering

In this article, an Assistant Professor at California Polytechnic State University describes how her involvement with ACI has helped her to embark on projects that, as a young faculty member, she could have never envisioned. She also tells of her first ACI convention in Spring 2013, her first interaction with ACI Committee 133, Disaster Reconnaissance, in 2014, and using the ACI 318 Building Code in the classroom.


An Introduction To Deep Learning, Maria Pantoja, Anahid A. Behrouzi, Drazen Fabris Sep 2018

An Introduction To Deep Learning, Maria Pantoja, Anahid A. Behrouzi, Drazen Fabris

Architectural Engineering

Deep learning (DL) is currently being researched and implemented to solve civil engineering related problems, including autonomous inspection and inventory of civil infrastructure projects. The article introduces DL, specifically a convolutional neural network and the supervised learning process used to train a model that will enable professional structural engineers to automatically detect types of earthquake damage.


Deep Learning For Automated Image Classification Of Seismic Damage To Built Infrastructure, B. Patterson, G. Leone, Maria Pantoja, Anahid A. Behrouzi Jun 2018

Deep Learning For Automated Image Classification Of Seismic Damage To Built Infrastructure, B. Patterson, G. Leone, Maria Pantoja, Anahid A. Behrouzi

Architectural Engineering

The amount of structural damage image data produced in the aftermath of an earthquake can be staggering. It is challenging for a few human volunteers to efficiently filter and tag these images with meaningful damage information. The proposed solution is to automate post-earthquake reconnaissance image tagging activities by training a computer algorithm to classify each occurrence of damage per building material and structural member type. The approach is based on deep learning (DL), a subset of machine learning loosely based on the operation of a biologic neural system, which aims to learn and extract accurate representations from large data sets ...


Photo Tagging Tool For Rapid And Detailed Post-Earthquake Structural Damage Identification, Anahid A. Behrouzi, Maria Pantoja Jun 2018

Photo Tagging Tool For Rapid And Detailed Post-Earthquake Structural Damage Identification, Anahid A. Behrouzi, Maria Pantoja

Architectural Engineering

A significant task in earthquake reconnaissance is to conduct rapid and accurate assessments of damage to built infrastructure. This can be accomplished, in part, by analyzing the large volumes of high-resolution image data collected after a seismic event. However, detailed image tagging remains a task for trained human volunteers, which is both time-intensive and error prone. The authors developed a software tool to simplify and standardize the process of assigning damage and structure pairs to sub-regions of images. The goal of the tool is to facilitate the tagging of thousands of images from historic and recent earthquakes to train a ...


Seismic Performance Of Slender C-Shaped Walls Subjected To Uni- And Bi-Directional Loading, Anahid A. Behrouzi, A. Mock, D. Lehman, L. Lowes, D. Kuchma Jun 2018

Seismic Performance Of Slender C-Shaped Walls Subjected To Uni- And Bi-Directional Loading, Anahid A. Behrouzi, A. Mock, D. Lehman, L. Lowes, D. Kuchma

Architectural Engineering

Reinforced concrete structural walls are common as the primary lateral load resisting system in modern mid- and high-rise buildings constructed in seismic regions, yet few research programs have investigated the seismic performance of modern, slender walls with nonplanar cross-sectional geometries. Three large-scale, C-shaped wall specimens, designed per ACI 318-08, were tested under uni- and bi-directional loading at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). This paper presents experimental results including the cyclic load-deformation response and measured versus nominal flexural/shear strengths as well as a description of damage sequence. Final failure occurs due to a flexure-tension failure of boundary elements ...


Multidisciplinary Research Efforts In Post-Earthquake Civil Infrastructure Reconnaissance, Jack Bergquist, Anahid A. Behrouzi Jun 2018

Multidisciplinary Research Efforts In Post-Earthquake Civil Infrastructure Reconnaissance, Jack Bergquist, Anahid A. Behrouzi

Architectural Engineering

To address existing challenges with filtering and classification of post-earthquake structural damage images, the authors are engaged in a multidisciplinary project to develop and train a machine-learning algorithm that identifies relevant photographs and assigns damage tags to those images. The research team is predominantly comprised of undergraduate students and is led by a structural engineering and a computer science faculty. While machine-learning algorithms have been successfully used for image tagging in a variety of fields (health care, manufacturing, etc.), the extension of this approach for earthquake reconnaissance is only just beginning. As such, the creation and development of this tool ...


Software Toolset To Enable Image Classification Of Earthquake Damage To Above-Ground Infrastructure, Anahid A. Behrouzi, Maria Pantoja Jun 2018

Software Toolset To Enable Image Classification Of Earthquake Damage To Above-Ground Infrastructure, Anahid A. Behrouzi, Maria Pantoja

Architectural Engineering

A critical task after a significant earthquake is determining the extent of damage to infrastructure networks. The decision-making process to dispatch emergency, repair, and in-field reconnaissance teams depends on whether road/railways and bridges are passible. Another concern is the rapid identification and resolution of physical disruptions to large-volume gas and water pipeline systems. After large seismic events, citizens, amateur photographers, and journalists now post thousands of photographs to formal/social media platforms. In the past, these images would have had to be reviewed by trained volunteers or expert engineers to evaluate whether: road/rail ways were significantly impacted by ...


Motivating And Investing In The Freshmen: Paving The Way For The Future, Allen Estes, John Lawson Jun 2017

Motivating And Investing In The Freshmen: Paving The Way For The Future, Allen Estes, John Lawson

Architectural Engineering

This paper describes an introductory freshman experience course, “Introduction to Building Systems” that was seven years in the making and meets several critical goals for this engineering department. As one of their very first courses, this two-unit course is taken in the Fall quarter by every incoming freshman, which translates into an annual enrollment of 50 to 120 students, depending on the year. Meeting twice a week, the first meeting is in a large lecture format where all of the students are together and are introduced to the topic for the week which includes structural systems, timber, concrete, steel, earth ...


Developing A Robust Teaching Portfolio As A Doctoral Student In A Research-Intensive Engineering Program, Anahid A. Behrouzi Jun 2017

Developing A Robust Teaching Portfolio As A Doctoral Student In A Research-Intensive Engineering Program, Anahid A. Behrouzi

Architectural Engineering

Successful faculty applications to teaching/undergraduate institutions can be difficult for doctoral students transitioning directly from a research-intensive engineering program. Oftentimes, these prospective faculty members have limited opportunities to engage in engineering education research, to serve as a primary instructor for a lecture course, or to receive adequate mentoring to prepare them for the environment of a teaching/undergraduate institution.

This paper will highlight the lessons learned by a new faculty member at a top-ranked undergraduate institution (and recent doctoral candidate at a R1 research institution) about how students can build a comprehensive teaching portfolio outside of the traditional coursework ...


Experimental And Numerical Investigation Of Flexural Concrete Wall Design Details, Anahid A. Behrouzi, T. Welt, Dawn Lehman, Laura Lowes, J. Lafave, Daniel Kuchma Apr 2017

Experimental And Numerical Investigation Of Flexural Concrete Wall Design Details, Anahid A. Behrouzi, T. Welt, Dawn Lehman, Laura Lowes, J. Lafave, Daniel Kuchma

Architectural Engineering

Reinforced concrete structural walls are common in mid- to high-rise structures in high seismic regions, and are expected to have good strength and ductility characteristics if designed in accordance with ACI 318-14. However, experimental and analytical investigations of reinforced concrete structural walls and isolated boundary element prisms indicate that the existing design provisions may be insufficient to provide ductile, flexure-dominated response under cyclic loading. Walls designed with an ACI compliant boundary element length are susceptible to shear-compression failures below the maximum ACI allowable shear stress of 10Acv√fc’. Also of concern is the frequent use of thinner walls in modern ...


Impact Of Cross Section, Web Reinforcement And Load History On The Seismic Performance Of Slender Concrete Walls, Anahid A. Behrouzi Nov 2016

Impact Of Cross Section, Web Reinforcement And Load History On The Seismic Performance Of Slender Concrete Walls, Anahid A. Behrouzi

Architectural Engineering

Many reinforced concrete buildings in seismic regions employ reinforced concrete shear walls as part of the lateral force resisting system and these walls often have non-planar cross-sectional geometries. To date, the majority of experimental tests on slender concrete walls have been conducted on planar walls which have been subject to low shear stress demands. An experimental program was developed to examine the response of flanged C-shaped walls with respect of load history and a computational parametric study was conducted to focus more specifically on the impact of web reinforcement for walls subject to a range of shear stress demands.

The ...


Inquiry-Based Learning To Explore The Design Of The Built Environment, Anahid A. Behrouzi, Daniel Kuchma Jun 2016

Inquiry-Based Learning To Explore The Design Of The Built Environment, Anahid A. Behrouzi, Daniel Kuchma

Architectural Engineering

Typically in introductory structural engineering courses with a lab component, the instructional approach is to present the underlying theory via pre-lab lecture/reading and subsequently have students conduct guided experiments that affirm that theory. The new Fall 2015 course offering described in this paper takes the reverse approach where students’ hands-on exploration of a concept occurs prior to formal instruction. As such, the course is based upon Da Vinci’s perspective that: “[i]n the examination of physical problems I begin by making a few experiments,…we must commence with experience, and strive by means of it to discover truth ...


Physical Artifacts In Introductory-Level Reinforced Concrete Design Instruction, Anahid A. Behrouzi Jun 2016

Physical Artifacts In Introductory-Level Reinforced Concrete Design Instruction, Anahid A. Behrouzi

Architectural Engineering

Incorporating physical models and demonstrations in the introductory-level reinforced concrete design course has shown to be beneficial for students in clarifying and engraining fundamental concepts. The research study conducted at the author’s university during Spring 2015 involved the design, fabrication, and implementation of models to supplement traditional lectures on topics that students have found challenging in prior offerings of the course. Specifically, these demonstration tools illustrate:

• Three-dimensional stress blocks for rectangular/flanged beams subjected to varying levels of flexural demand • Distinctions between the flexural behavior of one and two-way slabs • Placement of steel reinforcement for singly/doubly reinforced beams ...


Accreditation Insights And The Next Body Of Knowledge, Allen Estes, Thomas A. Lenox, Kenneth J. Fridley, Richard O. Anderson P.E. Jun 2016

Accreditation Insights And The Next Body Of Knowledge, Allen Estes, Thomas A. Lenox, Kenneth J. Fridley, Richard O. Anderson P.E.

Architectural Engineering

The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) published the second edition of the Civil Engineering Body of Knowledge (BOK2) in 2008 expanding the knowledge, skills and attitudes required of future civil engineers. There were major changes to the BOK2 as the number of expected outcomes increased from 15 to 24 and the cognitive level of attainment was more precisely defined. A major implementation and enforcement mechanism for the BOK is the ABET accreditation criteria which includes both general criteria 3 and 5 and the discipline-specific program criteria. Of those, the program criteria are the easiest to change.

In 2013, ASCE ...


Enhancing An Upper Division Structural Dynamics Course Using K'Nex Toys, Allen Estes, Cole C. Mcdaniel, Alec Roberto Zavala Jun 2016

Enhancing An Upper Division Structural Dynamics Course Using K'Nex Toys, Allen Estes, Cole C. Mcdaniel, Alec Roberto Zavala

Architectural Engineering

K’nex toys consist of various plastic rods and connectors cleverly-sized to allow the creation of a variety of structures. While the K’nex Corporation focuses on the K-12 market, there are a myriad of engineering applications that have been demonstrated at the university level. Many of these occur at the lower division level in freshman experience courses or introductory statics courses. Other applications have included constructing structural models for structural design and capstone courses. This paper takes this use of classroom technology even further by demonstrating how K’nex pieces can be used effectively in an upper-division, highly technical ...


Issues Facing Design Professionals Through The Lens Of Two Rain-Induced Roof Collapses, J. W. Lawson, M. E. Parolini Nov 2015

Issues Facing Design Professionals Through The Lens Of Two Rain-Induced Roof Collapses, J. W. Lawson, M. E. Parolini

Architectural Engineering

The drainage of low-sloped roof systems involves multiple design professionals, and often each has a different opinion as to their design responsibility. Roofing issues have been identified as being a number one source of litigation, and rain-induced roof collapses continue to occur with alarming frequency. With the backdrop of several rain-induced roof collapses, this paper illustrates the complexity of assigning design responsibility for drainage systems; and investigates a variety of outcomes associated with the current building code provisions transporting rainwater from large low-sloped roof structures.


Physical Models In The Reinforced Concrete Design Classroom, Anahid A. Behrouzi Sep 2015

Physical Models In The Reinforced Concrete Design Classroom, Anahid A. Behrouzi

Architectural Engineering

An overview is presented of various physical demonstration tools intended to supplement lectures in topic areas that students consistently identify as being troublesome. The article describes the design, fabrication, and implementation of classroom models to help explain flexural behavior and detailing of beams, slabs, and frame systems.


New Civil Engineering Program Criteria: The Rest Of The Story, Allen Estes, Thomas A. Lenox, Richard O. Anderson P.E. Jun 2015

New Civil Engineering Program Criteria: The Rest Of The Story, Allen Estes, Thomas A. Lenox, Richard O. Anderson P.E.

Architectural Engineering

The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) organized the Civil Engineering Program Criteria Task Committee in October 2012 whose charge is to determine if the current ABET Civil Engineering Program Criteria (CEPC) should be changed to reflect one or more of the 24 outcomes of the second edition of the Civil Engineering Body of Knowledge published in 2008. After two years of work, a proposed CEPC has been approved by the relevant ASCE committees and forwarded to ABET for approval and incorporation into accreditation criteria. A paper chronicling the committee’s efforts through a review of the literature, the committee ...


Crack Control Measures For Tilt-Up Concrete Panels, John Lawson Jan 2015

Crack Control Measures For Tilt-Up Concrete Panels, John Lawson

Architectural Engineering

No abstract provided.


Evaluating Existing And Proposing New Seismic Design Provisions For Rigid Wall - Flexible Diaphragm Buildings, John Lawson, Dominic Kelly, Maria Koliou, Andre Filiatrault Sep 2014

Evaluating Existing And Proposing New Seismic Design Provisions For Rigid Wall - Flexible Diaphragm Buildings, John Lawson, Dominic Kelly, Maria Koliou, Andre Filiatrault

Architectural Engineering

Buildings with heavy concrete on masonry walls supported by flexible wood or steel deck roof diaphragms are ubiquitour across the United States and the rest of North America. The current seismic design approach is based on the equivalent lateral force (ELF) method whose underlying assumptions significantly differ from the actual dynamic response of these buildings. The seismic behavior of rigid wall-flexible rood diaphragm (RWFD) Buildings is dominated by the diaphragm's response instead of the wall' in-plane response. Furthermore, the diaphragm's ductility and overstrength capacity is unique to its own construction. Yet the current design methodology employed by practitioners ...


Distribution Of Chord Forces In Large Panelized Wood Roof Diaphragms, Weichang Pang, Chun Ni, John Lawson, Sami Pant Aug 2014

Distribution Of Chord Forces In Large Panelized Wood Roof Diaphragms, Weichang Pang, Chun Ni, John Lawson, Sami Pant

Architectural Engineering

Flexible wood roof diaphragms are very common in the United States, both for residential buildings and large-scale commercial buildings. Due to its simplicity, the traditional diaphragm design method is commonly used in diaphragm design, in particular for the design of diaphragms with relatively small dimensions. The traditional diaphragm design method assumes the axial chord forces developed in framing members under in-plane loading are carried only by the perimeter elements. This method has always been thought to be a conservative design method, especially when applied to large diaphragms. In recent years, the engineering community began to question the applicability of the ...


Examining The Applicability Of Design Methods For Large Panelized All-Wood Roof Diaphragms Under Seismic Loading, W. Pang, S. Pant, C. Ni, John W. Lawson Jul 2014

Examining The Applicability Of Design Methods For Large Panelized All-Wood Roof Diaphragms Under Seismic Loading, W. Pang, S. Pant, C. Ni, John W. Lawson

Architectural Engineering

The use of flexible roof diaphragms is very common in the United States, both for residential buildings and large-scale commercial buildings. Due to its simplicity, the traditional diaphragm design method is commonly used in diaphragm design, in particular for the design of diaphragms with relatively small dimensions. The traditional diaphragm design method assumes the axial chord forces developed in framing members under in-plane loading are carried only by the perimeter elements. The traditional diaphragm design method has always been thought to be a conservative design method, especially when applied to large diaphragms. In recent years, the engineering community began to ...


Development Of Seismic Design Methodologies For Rigid Wall-Flexible Diaphragm Structures, John W. Lawson, D. J. Kelly, M. Koliou, A. Filiatrault Jul 2014

Development Of Seismic Design Methodologies For Rigid Wall-Flexible Diaphragm Structures, John W. Lawson, D. J. Kelly, M. Koliou, A. Filiatrault

Architectural Engineering

Evidence indicates that the dynamic behavior of Rigid Wall – Flexible Diaphragm (RWFD) structures is dominated by the diaphragm’s response instead of the walls’ response, and this is a significant departure from the underlying assumptions of the widely used equivalent lateral force method in current building codes. RWFD buildings are common in North America and other parts of the world, and incorporate rigid in-plane concrete or masonry walls and flexible in-plane wood or steel roof diaphragms. With the use of a numerical computer modeling framework developed specifically for this type of building, this study sets out to investigate the seismic ...


Numerical Framework For Seismic Collapse Assessment Of Rigid Wall-Flexible Diaphragm Structures, M. Koliou, A. Filiatrault, D.J. Kelly, John W. Lawson Jul 2014

Numerical Framework For Seismic Collapse Assessment Of Rigid Wall-Flexible Diaphragm Structures, M. Koliou, A. Filiatrault, D.J. Kelly, John W. Lawson

Architectural Engineering

This study focuses on the development of a two dimensional (2D) simplified numerical framework of rigid wall-flexible diaphragm (RWFD) structures that can be used to validate seismic design approaches. This type of low-rise industrial buildings, which is widely used in North America, incorporates rigid in-plane concrete or masonry walls and flexible in-plane wood, steel or “hybrid” roof diaphragms. The numerical modeling is detailed enough to capture the nonlinear seismic response of RWFD buildings, but simplified enough to efficiently conduct a large number of nonlinear time-history dynamic analyses. The 2D numerical modeling framework is based on a three step sub-structuring approach ...


No Admixture, Sustainable, Self-Consolidating Grout, Craig Baltimore, James P. Mwangi, Eric W. Bateman Jul 2014

No Admixture, Sustainable, Self-Consolidating Grout, Craig Baltimore, James P. Mwangi, Eric W. Bateman

Architectural Engineering

The consolidation of grout in concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls is labor-intensive. Also, the grout’s Portland cement content has a high embodied energy demand – a non-sustainable characteristic. For the labor-intensive issue, chemical admixture self-consolidating grouts have been used in walls 12.67 ft. (3.86 m) tall, however the chemical additive can impose new limitations on the grout (non-robust characteristics). No admixture self-consolidating grout with high percentage Portland cement replacement have potential for robust and sustainable application. This paper reports on the consolidation of no admixture self-consolidating grout made by substituting high percentages of Portland cement with Type-F fly ...


Using K’Nex To Teach Large Scale Structures To Architects And Constructionstudents, Allen C. Estes, Craig Baltimore Jun 2014

Using K’Nex To Teach Large Scale Structures To Architects And Constructionstudents, Allen C. Estes, Craig Baltimore

Architectural Engineering

The College of Architecture and Environmental Design at California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo (Cal Poly SLO) is the only college in the nation that includes architecture (ARCH), architectural engineering (ARCE) and construction management (CM) programs in the same college. Given the unique mix of disciplines and the emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration, the ARCH and CM students take a five-course structural engineering sequence from the ARCE department. A challenge of these courses is to maintain some degree of computational rigor while offering a broader perspective that will benefit the ARCH and CM students. This paper reports on one ...


New Civil Engineering Program Criteria: How The Sausage Is Being Made, Allen Estes, Thomas A. Lenox Jun 2014

New Civil Engineering Program Criteria: How The Sausage Is Being Made, Allen Estes, Thomas A. Lenox

Architectural Engineering

The American Society of Civil Engineers organized the Civil Engineering Program Criteria Task Committee in October 2012 whose charge is to determine if the current ABET Civil Engineering Program Criteria (CEPC) should be changed to reflect one or more of the 24 outcomes of the second edition of the Civil Engineering Body of Knowledge published in 2008. After over a year of conference calls and face to face meetings, the committee has drafted and disseminated a proposed CEPC. This paper chronicles the development of the proposed criteria by sharing a review of the literature, the committee’s methodology and process ...


Empirically Derived Effective Stiffness Expressions For Concrete Walls, Andrew Mock, Anahid A. Behrouzi, Laura Lowes, Dawn Lehman, Daniel Kuchma Jan 2014

Empirically Derived Effective Stiffness Expressions For Concrete Walls, Andrew Mock, Anahid A. Behrouzi, Laura Lowes, Dawn Lehman, Daniel Kuchma

Architectural Engineering

In most cases, analysis to determine component demands for seismic design of concrete buildings employs linear elastic models in which reduced, effective component stiffnesses are used. This document i) reviews the recommendations for defining the effective flexural, shear and axial stiffness of concrete walls that are included in current design codes, standards and guidelines and ii) compares these recommendations with stiffness expressions derived directly from experimental data by the authors and others. Section 2 reviews existing empirically derived and code‐, standard‐, and guideline‐based expressions for the effective stiffness of concrete walls. Section 3 presents the process used by the ...


Summary Of Large-Scale C-Shaped Reinforced Concrete Wall Tests, Anahid A. Behrouzi, Andrew Mock, Laura Lowes, Dawn Lehman, Daniel Kuchma Jan 2014

Summary Of Large-Scale C-Shaped Reinforced Concrete Wall Tests, Anahid A. Behrouzi, Andrew Mock, Laura Lowes, Dawn Lehman, Daniel Kuchma

Architectural Engineering

Flexural concrete walls (i.e., walls the yield in flexural prior to failure) are used commonly as the lateral load resisting system for mid‐ and high‐rise buildings on the West Coast. They are relatively stiff under service‐level loading, can take on various configurations to accommodate architectural constraints, and are generally assumed to exhibit ductile response under severe earthquake loading. Despite heavy reliance on concrete walls, relatively little research has been done to investigate the earthquake performance of walls with modern design details. Few data exist characterizing the performance of modern walls under variable levels of earthquake loading or ...


Summary Of Large-Scale Nonplanar Reinforced Concrete Wall Tests, Anahid A. Behrouzi, Andrew Mock, Laura Lowes, Dawn Lehman, Daniel Kuchma Jan 2014

Summary Of Large-Scale Nonplanar Reinforced Concrete Wall Tests, Anahid A. Behrouzi, Andrew Mock, Laura Lowes, Dawn Lehman, Daniel Kuchma

Architectural Engineering

Nonplanar wall configurations are prevalent in engineering practice, yet relatively little research has addressed nonplanar walls and the earthquake response of these components remains poorly understood. A recent experimental test program conducted by the authors investigated the earthquake response of modern, ACI Code compliant C‐shaped walls subjected to unidirectional and bidirectional lateral loading. To compare the results of this study with previous experimental investigations conducted by others, this document examines laboratory tests of slender nonplanar walls available in the literature. Response histories, damage patterns, drift capacity and failure mechanisms are used to characterize the behavior of each nonplanar wall ...