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Full-Text Articles in Architecture

Tool For Observing Play Outdoors (Topo): A New Typology For Capturing Children's Play Behaviors In Outdoor Environments, Janet Loebach, Adina Cox Aug 2020

Tool For Observing Play Outdoors (Topo): A New Typology For Capturing Children's Play Behaviors In Outdoor Environments, Janet Loebach, Adina Cox

Landscape Architecture Faculty Publications

Engagement in play has been definitively linked to the healthy development of children across physical, social, cognitive, and emotional domains. The enriched nature of high-quality outdoor play environments can afford a greater diversity of opportunities for play than indoor settings. To more effectively design outdoor play settings, we must better understand how the physical environment supports, or hinders, the different types of play which suit children's needs and interests. However, play typologies or observation tools available to date do not adequately capture the unique characteristics of outdoor play. This paper outlines the development and testing of the Tool for ...


Analyzation Of Sandpit Lakes In Grand Island, Nebraska, Olena Yarmolyuk, Morgan Davis Apr 2020

Analyzation Of Sandpit Lakes In Grand Island, Nebraska, Olena Yarmolyuk, Morgan Davis

Student Creative Activity, Architecture Program

The oxford dictionary defines “dichotomy” as, “noun: a division or contrast between two things that are or are represented as being opposed or entirely different.” In the context of Grand Island, Nebraska, a dichotomy exists in the development of housing. In the 1900s, sand quarrying began along the railroad in Grand Island. When the sand was dredged up from these quarries, the floodplain began to fill in holes over 5 feet deep, creating man-made lakes. As these lakes grew the sand could no longer be quarried, recreation and housing began to develop on their shores. The housing developments, in particular ...


A Proposal For The Implementation Of Stormwater Art At Gvsu, Christa Fernando Apr 2020

A Proposal For The Implementation Of Stormwater Art At Gvsu, Christa Fernando

Honors Projects

Although there are increasing efforts to improve stormwater management on the campuses of Grand Valley State University as an inhabitant of the Great Lakes region, there remains limited visibility and efforts for public awareness and cooperation with ecological restoration initiatives generally. The goal of this project is to describe the opportunity to implement functional art that promotes public awareness of sustainable water management practices. Methods included research into the public art of GVSU and the necessary methodology for future project execution. Various local contacts are also provided as resources for advice, connections, and funding opportunities. In this report, plans and ...


Knitting Together Communities - Designing The Heart Of Six Corners And Old Hill, Samantha Bowman, Ankur Choudhary, Alexandria Connell, Megan Davey, Katina Decoulos, Richard Duhamel, Brooklyn Feng, Ian Finn, Doreen Guan, Sophia Liquori, Connor Moloney, Claudia Namaroff, Emily Noonan, Hunter Proulx, Stephen Rezendes, Maura Robitaille, Vincent Shu, Jaques Skriletz Apr 2020

Knitting Together Communities - Designing The Heart Of Six Corners And Old Hill, Samantha Bowman, Ankur Choudhary, Alexandria Connell, Megan Davey, Katina Decoulos, Richard Duhamel, Brooklyn Feng, Ian Finn, Doreen Guan, Sophia Liquori, Connor Moloney, Claudia Namaroff, Emily Noonan, Hunter Proulx, Stephen Rezendes, Maura Robitaille, Vincent Shu, Jaques Skriletz

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Studio and Student Research and Creative Activity

Knitting together Communities -Designing the Heart of Six Corners and Old Hill

Knitting Together Communities – Designing the Heart of Six Corners and Old Hill provides a framework to knit together assets and opportunities for creating a strong identity and sense of coherence for a transformative urban district in Springfield, MA. The Senior Urban Design Studio 2019 created six proposals that were searching for design opportunities that enhance the aesthetic quality of the neighborhood and increase services for the wellbeing of the residents. The two neighborhoods are characterized by strong neighborhood leadership through committed residents, community centers and active religious organizations ...


Healthy Placemaking - Revitalizing Springfield's Medical District, Allyson Fairweather, Michael Gagnon, Tianyi Guan, James Mealey, Gwendolyn Stoll, Peter Wackernagel Apr 2020

Healthy Placemaking - Revitalizing Springfield's Medical District, Allyson Fairweather, Michael Gagnon, Tianyi Guan, James Mealey, Gwendolyn Stoll, Peter Wackernagel

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Studio and Student Research and Creative Activity

Healthy Placemaking - Revitalizing Springfield’s Medical District

Healthy Placemaking for the North End Medical District was a community engagement urban design studio for Springfield, MA to propose a new vision for the Medical District as an exemplary model of healthy place-making. WHAT IS HEALTHY PLACE-MAKING? Healthy place-making is a creative process that generates an interconnected mixture of amenities that activate the public realm, creating a livelihood that builds upon sense of place. Urban design strategies consider the ecological relationship between people and the environment in order to provide design interventions that improve the mental, physical, social, and economic wellbeing of ...


The Just Green City: A Vision Of The South Holyoke Neighborhood, Michael Gagnon Apr 2020

The Just Green City: A Vision Of The South Holyoke Neighborhood, Michael Gagnon

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Masters Projects

Landscape Architects need to take their place as formative roles in the planning and design of our cities in the era of climate change. Not only do we have to be a part of the collaborative efforts, but we also have to bring it to the communities who need it most to create long-lasting impacts. Climate change is an equity issue and without tackling our social problems, we cannot tackle climate change. Our role is to not reinforce the status quo but to change it. The Just Green City takes place in Holyoke Massachusetts. This legacy city was once the ...


A Design Framework For Rural Community Prosperity, Austin Arens Mar 2020

A Design Framework For Rural Community Prosperity, Austin Arens

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

In rural America, particularly the rural Midwest, the salad days of the distant past seem to be turning from realities into memories. Shrinking populations, ailing infrastructure, and a general decline in quality of life over the past 50 years have left many small communities thinking critically about their future. These social and economic pressures have acted as a call to arms for a few rural communities across the Midwest, especially in the state of Nebraska. The community of Valentine, Nebraska, situated at the crossroads of two highways that span the continent, a regional hub for every household within a 2 ...


A Pedagogical Retrospective: Gamifying The Konza Prairie Through An Interdisciplinary Studio, Howard Hahn, Brent C. Chamberlain Jan 2020

A Pedagogical Retrospective: Gamifying The Konza Prairie Through An Interdisciplinary Studio, Howard Hahn, Brent C. Chamberlain

Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning Faculty Publications

Recently we embarked on developing an interdisciplinary pedagogical approach that integrates concepts of virtual reality and gaming design to leverage these technologies’ potential to influence how we interpret, visualize, design and analyze environments. The approach was developed as part of an advanced studio at Kansas State University led by two professors and represented by students across three different disciplines: landscape architecture, education and computer science. The entire project consisted of a core studio, buttressed by a seminar and technical module. We refer to the courses and project as “Studio Konza.” This retrospective paper highlights why this effort was undertaken, what ...


Visualization Tools For Visual Impact Assessments: A Study Of Existing Technologies, Anthony J. Depriest, Tim D. Keane, Brent C. Chamberlain, Mark Lindquist Jan 2020

Visualization Tools For Visual Impact Assessments: A Study Of Existing Technologies, Anthony J. Depriest, Tim D. Keane, Brent C. Chamberlain, Mark Lindquist

Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning Faculty Publications

In the last few decades, digital technology has dramatically altered how visual resource management and visual impact assessments (VIAs) are conducted. The recent emergence of low-cost immersive technology offers a suite of tools that could facilitate the VIA process. However, to date there is limited empirical evidence evaluating how these emerging technologies could influence VIA. The research presented here begins to fill this gap by comparing immersive virtual environments to existing 2D photo-based methods for assessing the visual impacts of development. 23 participants familiar with VIAs rated the visual qualities of different scenes presented as 360° images, Google Earth and ...


Empty Parks: An Observational And Correlational Study Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Uavs), Keunhyun Park, Sungmin Lee, Dong-Ah Choi Jan 2020

Empty Parks: An Observational And Correlational Study Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Uavs), Keunhyun Park, Sungmin Lee, Dong-Ah Choi

Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning Faculty Publications

If a neighbourhood park fails to meet the needs of its residents usage may decrease, which potentially makes the park vulnerable to crime and social disorder. Despite the popularity of studying park visitation or park-based physical activity, there is a lack of studies on factors associated with empty parks. This study explores factors related to the underutilisation of neighbourhood parks in Salt Lake County, Utah, USA, using a novel data collection approach – unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The findings from exploratory video analysis and inferential statistical modelling show that park programs and neighbourhood environments, as well as temporal aspects, are associated ...


Flying High: A Case Study Of The Integration Of Drones Into A Landscape Architecture Curriculum, Benjamin H. George, Keunhyun Park Jan 2020

Flying High: A Case Study Of The Integration Of Drones Into A Landscape Architecture Curriculum, Benjamin H. George, Keunhyun Park

Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning Faculty Publications

The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), or drones, is becoming increasingly important to the field of landscape architecture, and universities need to adapt their teaching practices to prepare students to use this technology in practice. This article describes the creation of a Department-wide drone program to train students on the operation of UAVs and the other components that compose an unmanned aerial system (UAS). This program led to impacts in faculty decisions regarding projects, as well as broader curricular changes. While the program has been demonstrated to be both successful and sustainable, several hurdles have had to be addressed ...


Arising: Hurricane (Superstorm) Sandy’S Impact On Design/Planning Professionals, Maxinne R. Leighton Jan 2020

Arising: Hurricane (Superstorm) Sandy’S Impact On Design/Planning Professionals, Maxinne R. Leighton

Dissertations & Theses

Standing by my bedroom window, looking out at the ocean, a huge wave comes and swallows up my building. Everything around me is gone, including me. I wake up. I am 13 years old and living in the Coney Island Houses on Surf Avenue, Brooklyn, New York. With ongoing anthropogenic changes to the natural environment such as sea level rise and intensifying storms, coastal communities, especially ones segregated by class and culture, are particularly vulnerable in this context that challenges a way of life, and in some instances, threatens that life's survival. This dissertation focuses specifically on what one ...


Measuring And Mapping Scenic Quality Using The Community Preferences Method, Andrew Lothian Oct 2019

Measuring And Mapping Scenic Quality Using The Community Preferences Method, Andrew Lothian

Visual Resource Stewardship Conference

For centuries, philosophers of aesthetics believed that beauty lay in the object, a physical entity. It was not until the 18th century, that British and German philosophers realized that beauty lay in the eyes of the beholder, in our mind rather than in the object. Contemporary theories of landscape aesthetics derive from an evolutionary perspective, what humans prefer is survival enhancing. The rapidity of aesthetic judgments, and the similarity of judgments across different individuals, reinforces its innate basis. Yet early attempts to measure scenic quality relied on measuring the characteristics of the landscape in the belief that somehow its scenic ...


Virginia Scenic Viewshed Assessment Project: Literature Review And Assessment Methodology, Patrick A. Miller, Jisoo Sim, Leighton Powell, Lynn Crump Oct 2019

Virginia Scenic Viewshed Assessment Project: Literature Review And Assessment Methodology, Patrick A. Miller, Jisoo Sim, Leighton Powell, Lynn Crump

Visual Resource Stewardship Conference

Scenic Virginia strives to identify and highlight Virginia’s 'scenery' and Virginia has a ‘scenic’ component in their new Conserve Virginia land conservation effort. As such the development of a universal assessment tool that can be used by citizens and professionals to identify and rate the value of scenic viewsheds is needed in Virginia. The goal of this presentation is to discuss how, using scientifically supported research, a protocol based on grassroots input can identify significant scenic resources in Virginia. The presentation will introduce scientific studies, based on an extensive literature review, that were used to develop an assessment tool ...


Using Sections To Assess Sequential Experience Along The Baltimore-Washington Parkway, Kelsch Paul, Alex Schiavoni,, Amanda Cortez, Jake Fettig Oct 2019

Using Sections To Assess Sequential Experience Along The Baltimore-Washington Parkway, Kelsch Paul, Alex Schiavoni,, Amanda Cortez, Jake Fettig

Visual Resource Stewardship Conference

This paper presents a study of the spatial experience of the Baltimore-Washington Parkway through the use of repetitive and systematic cross-sections as an analytic tool. The sectional study is part of a cultural landscape report for the parkway, and it complements map-based and plan analyses that examined regional contexts,forest character, planted vegetation, structures, and small-scale features.

The Baltimore-Washington Parkway was constructed in the early 1950s and is considered a transitional parkway, a hybrid of earlier scenic parkways and later modern highways. It is historically significant for its role in the preservation of significant tracts of forest and because it ...


Conference Proceedings, Robert Sullivan, Robin Hoffman, Richard Smardon Oct 2019

Conference Proceedings, Robert Sullivan, Robin Hoffman, Richard Smardon

Visual Resource Stewardship Conference

Contains 15 papers 17 visual case studies and seven abstracts from the Visual Resource Stewardship Conference: Seeking 20/20 Vision for Landscape futures held at Argonne National Laboratory in Lemont, Illinois on October 27-30, 2019. The material covers topical themes related to federal and state agency programs and policies, theories and concepts, visual quality assessment, visual impact and mitigation, as well as visual resource management tools and technology.


Representing The Intertwined Visual And Heritage Implications Of Sea-Level Rise, Brian Orland, Meredith Welch-Devine, Stephen Berry, Micah Taylor, Jingxian Li, Gretchen Bailey Oct 2019

Representing The Intertwined Visual And Heritage Implications Of Sea-Level Rise, Brian Orland, Meredith Welch-Devine, Stephen Berry, Micah Taylor, Jingxian Li, Gretchen Bailey

Visual Resource Stewardship Conference

Visualizing the impacts of urban development, energy infrastructure and forest harvest practices has become a key element in the discussion and approval or rejection of development plans. Great efforts are expended to achieve accuracy and repeatability in representation to ensure that decision-making is well-informed. Professional ethics on the part of those creating the visualizations generally require fact-based representations that minimize appeal to the emotions. “Sense of place”, an aesthetic or culturally-driven response, is implicitly active in determining the appropriateness, or not, of a landscape intervention but has not lent itself to systematic scientific study. Perceived sense of place may, however ...


Visual Resource Analysis And Management Pedagogy Evaluation, Nikolas Smilovsky, Allyce Hargrove, Justin Azevedo, Kenneth Brooks Oct 2019

Visual Resource Analysis And Management Pedagogy Evaluation, Nikolas Smilovsky, Allyce Hargrove, Justin Azevedo, Kenneth Brooks

Visual Resource Stewardship Conference

The inventory, evaluation, and planning for the management of visual resources is within the domain of professional knowledge, skills, and abilities required of professional landscape architects. The characterization and treatment of scenery has been a core skill from the early eras of the profession( Bloom et al 1956, McHrg 1969) Significant advancements in the theory, practice, and policies related to Visual Resource Management (VRM) were stimulated by the environmental movement of the late 1960s culminating with the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in 1970. Although views and scenery were considered important and visual resource management became a ...


An Empirical Assessment Of The Arcpro Visual Magnitude Viewshed Plugin, Brent C. Chamberlain, Foster Cook Oct 2019

An Empirical Assessment Of The Arcpro Visual Magnitude Viewshed Plugin, Brent C. Chamberlain, Foster Cook

Visual Resource Stewardship Conference

Numerous viewshed analyses have been developed over the past few decades, but the uptake of these within industry has largely remained stagnant. This project involves ground-truthing one of the more recent viewshed analysis variants (Chamberlain and Meitner 2012, 2015) to assess reliability and application. This viewshed analysis was developed as a plug-in for the ESRI ArcGIS Pro software, making it readily accessible by anyone with an ArcGIS license. The validation of this software was recently conducted using an empirical approach to measure the accuracy of the analysis in the GIS versus real- world. Results demonstrate extremely high validity in controlled ...


Visual Resource Stewardship – An International Perspective, Andrew Lothian Oct 2019

Visual Resource Stewardship – An International Perspective, Andrew Lothian

Visual Resource Stewardship Conference

An international perspective to visual resource stewardship is presented in this paper. It examines the history of Great Britain’s love affair with its landscapes, then summarizes the more recent development of the European Landscape Convention, which has been embraced across much of Europe. The recognition of outstanding landscapes under the World Heritage Convention is then covered and the international Protected Areas program, which includes landscapes, is briefly summarized. Programs in several countries are reviewed. As the United States is very adequately covered in this and the 2017 conference, this paper mainly addresses other countries.

The key message the paper ...


Managing The National Landscape: Opportunities And Challenges, Martin J. Pasqualetti Oct 2019

Managing The National Landscape: Opportunities And Challenges, Martin J. Pasqualetti

Visual Resource Stewardship Conference

This plenary presentation summarized the principal landscape challenges and opportunities that accompany the human need for energy. Drawing from 50 years’ examining what I call “energy landscapes,” this presentation focused on land use conflicts resulting during the development of four types of renewable energy (solar, wind, geothermal, hydro), fossil fuels (mainly coal), and nuclear power (particularly siting of waste repositories and the decommissioning of generating stations). Many of the challenges derive from inherent resource characteristics, some from differences to cultural mores and histories, varying public perceptions of risk and fairness, demographic patterns, as well as jurisdictional and political differences. Many ...


Visual Impact Assessment: New Guidance From Fhwa, Craig Churchward Oct 2019

Visual Impact Assessment: New Guidance From Fhwa, Craig Churchward

Visual Resource Stewardship Conference

In 2015, in response to a study conducted by the National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), the FHWA adopted new guidance on how to conduct an assessment of the visual impacts caused by highway projects. The new guidance replaced the agency’s original VIA process published in 1981. The older guidance was premised on the concept that scenic beauty was an attribute inherent in the landscape. It assumed that the less a landscape had been modified by human intervention—that is, the more natural it was—the greater its scenic quality. Although the 1981 FHWA VIA process recognized that people ...


Uk Landscape Policy, Landscape Character Assessment And Landscape Impact Assessment – Intensions Vs Practical Application, Andrew Linfoot Jacobs Oct 2019

Uk Landscape Policy, Landscape Character Assessment And Landscape Impact Assessment – Intensions Vs Practical Application, Andrew Linfoot Jacobs

Visual Resource Stewardship Conference

The European Landscape Convention (ELC) is the treaty devoted to all aspects of European landscape. It provides the legislative context where landscape is encouraged to be considered as a valuable asset in its own right. It sets out requirements for the generation of landscape policy, quality objectives, protection, management and landscape planning.

Landscape Character Assessment (LCA) is the process of identifying the character of the landscape, with the landscape as the environmental resource. It seeks to identify, describe and explain the unique combination of elements and features that make landscapes distinctive. The aim is that by establishing a robustly developed ...


A Visual Impact Assessment Methodology For The National Park Service, Mark E. Meyer, Robert Sullivan, James F. Palmer, Melanie V. Peters, Ksienya A. Taylor Oct 2019

A Visual Impact Assessment Methodology For The National Park Service, Mark E. Meyer, Robert Sullivan, James F. Palmer, Melanie V. Peters, Ksienya A. Taylor

Visual Resource Stewardship Conference

As the National Park Service (NPS) set out to create a visual resource management program, the first major component was the development of a robust visual resource inventory (VRI) process to identify, locate, and assess high value views, both within and near NPS units, based on both scenic quality and the importance of the view to the visitor experience. The next component in the program has been the development of a visual impact assessment (VIA) process to understand how changes in the landscape— whether inside the park or beyond its boundaries—could impact the scenic quality of valued views and ...


Technologies And Practices To Reduce Impacts Of Artificial Light At Night On Nightime Scenery, Cynthia J. Lapp, Randall S. Larson Oct 2019

Technologies And Practices To Reduce Impacts Of Artificial Light At Night On Nightime Scenery, Cynthia J. Lapp, Randall S. Larson

Visual Resource Stewardship Conference

Artificial light at night (ALAN) adversely impacts nighttime scenery values. Current standards for LED lighting have led to brighter nighttime lighting, using color temperatures that are more harmful to human and ecological health, and which create an exponentially larger landscape impact than historical ALAN technologies. Less-harmful LED lighting and other existing technologies can be used to control artificial light at night, creating safe and pleasing perceptual nighttime experiences while minimizing ecological impacts. Minimizing the impact of artificial light at night requires understanding new lighting technologies, and management practices that extend beyond current lighting standards. This is crucial in order to ...


Measuring Visual Pollution Threshold Along Kuala Lumpur Historic Shopping District Streets Using Cumulative Area Analysis, Shamsul A. Bakar, Ammar Al-Sharaa, Suhardi Maulan, Riyadh Munther Oct 2019

Measuring Visual Pollution Threshold Along Kuala Lumpur Historic Shopping District Streets Using Cumulative Area Analysis, Shamsul A. Bakar, Ammar Al-Sharaa, Suhardi Maulan, Riyadh Munther

Visual Resource Stewardship Conference

Visual pollution significantly affects public appreciation of the urban environment. Sources of visual pollution such as wastes, energy infrastructures, and advertising boards can cause discomfort towards one's ability to enjoy a scene or view. Although visual pollution is prevalent in the urban environment, less is known regarding public acceptance and tolerance towards different levels of pollution. Therefore, from our point of view, determining the threshold level of visual pollution is essential in achieving visual quality in the urban environment. In this research, we have chosen a popular urban street in Kuala Lumpur as a case study to help us ...


Getting Beyond Visual Impact: Designing Renewable Energy As A Positive Landscape Addition, Hanna K. Szumilas-Kowalczyk, Nicholas Pevzner Oct 2019

Getting Beyond Visual Impact: Designing Renewable Energy As A Positive Landscape Addition, Hanna K. Szumilas-Kowalczyk, Nicholas Pevzner

Visual Resource Stewardship Conference

The critical necessity of scaling up renewable energy to meet the challenge of climate change implicates vast swaths of American landscape. Renewable energy infrastructure has long concerned itself with minimizing its visual impact, in order to decrease opposition from local landowners and users of the landscape. As energy facilities proliferate across the landscape, their visual impact can be expected to grow as well—both in terms of the scale of installations, as well as the amount of territory affected.

On public lands, renewable energy infrastructure has had to compete with alternate public uses of the land, including scenic and recreational ...


The Application Of Lidar Data For Determining The Area Of Potential Effect Associated With Offshore Wind Projects On The Outer Continental Shelf, Gordon W. Perkins Oct 2019

The Application Of Lidar Data For Determining The Area Of Potential Effect Associated With Offshore Wind Projects On The Outer Continental Shelf, Gordon W. Perkins

Visual Resource Stewardship Conference

One of the first steps in any visual impact assessment is to determine the preliminary area of potential effect (APE). To determine the APE, we must understand the geographic range of potential visibility, which typically requires a zone of visual influence (ZVI), or viewshed analysis. A viewshed analysis is a geographic information systems (GIS) analysis that uses topographic data to determine the availability of a clear line of sight from a viewer’s position and height, to a specific project’s position and height.

Generally, this basic calculation is still the foundation for all viewshed analyses completed today. However, the ...


Digitally-Mediated Practices Of Geospatial Archaeological Data: Transformation, Integration, & Interpretation, Heather Richards-Rissetto, Kristin Landau Aug 2019

Digitally-Mediated Practices Of Geospatial Archaeological Data: Transformation, Integration, & Interpretation, Heather Richards-Rissetto, Kristin Landau

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Digitally-mediated practices of archaeological data require reflexive thinking about where archaeology stands as a discipline in regard to the ‘digital,’ and where we want to go. To move toward this goal, we advocate a historical approach that emphasizes contextual source-side criticism and data intimacy—scrutinizing maps and 3D data as we do artifacts by analyzing position, form, material and context of analog and digital sources. Applying this approach, we reflect on what we have learned from processes of digitally-mediated data. We ask: What can we learn as we convert analog data to digital data? And, how does digital data transformation ...


Nature, Health, And Wellbeing: Insights From 2019 Cihf Roundtable, Sherrie Negrea Aug 2019

Nature, Health, And Wellbeing: Insights From 2019 Cihf Roundtable, Sherrie Negrea

CIHF Collection

[Excerpt] Taking a walk in the woods or even viewing nature through a window can improve our health and wellbeing in countless ways. It can reduce stress in our daily lives, help us recover from surgery, lower our blood pressure, and boost our memory. As the benefits of spending time in nature have been increasingly recognized, green spaces now play a critical role in how many communities are designed, how schools are structured, and how patients are treated at healthcare facilities.

The Cornell Institute for Healthy Futures (CIHF) sponsored a roundtable on April 26 that explored the impact nature can ...