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Full-Text Articles in Architecture

Sensing The City: Legibility In The Context Of Mediated Spatial Terrains, Sharon Wohl Dec 2018

Sensing The City: Legibility In The Context Of Mediated Spatial Terrains, Sharon Wohl

Architecture Publications

Smartphones, with their “pervasive presence” in contact with our bodies, have come to act as sensory prosthetics that mediate our experience of the city. They activate new possibilities of navigating the urban, such that we can find exactly what we want, rather than what has been placed before us. This article argues that smartphone technologies produce a more fluid engagement with urban space: where space is not so much “given” as “enacted.” In this context, notions of “legibility” take on new algorithmic and virtual forms. Thus, according to Hamilton and colleagues, where “the legible city waited to be read, the ...


A Future Invested In Sustainability: Sustainable Architecture And Education In The Midwest Through The Ethical Philosophy Of Luce Irigaray, Andrea Wheeler Mar 2017

A Future Invested In Sustainability: Sustainable Architecture And Education In The Midwest Through The Ethical Philosophy Of Luce Irigaray, Andrea Wheeler

Architecture Publications

Theories of sustainable architecture that address sexual difference are rare in an architectural context, whether in the United States or Europe, and this paper proposes a critical perspective on architectural design using sustainable schools as an example and adopting the question of sexual difference. Informed by the words of young people, the philosophy of Luce Irigaray, and research carried out as part of a research project, “Iowa’s New Schools: A Future Invested in Sustainability,” this paper examines contemporary approaches to sustainable school architecture. It addresses questions of lifestyle and behavior and architects’ aims to produce energy-efficient and sustainable architecture ...


The Turkish Tea Garden: Exploring A "Third Space" With Cultural Resonances, Sharon Wohl Feb 2017

The Turkish Tea Garden: Exploring A "Third Space" With Cultural Resonances, Sharon Wohl

Architecture Publications

This article examines the history, use, and significance of the Turkish Tea Garden or Cay Bahcesi, positing that these gardens offer unique democratic spaces for public discourse set within the polis. The article unpacks the historical, cultural, and symbolic features of these gardens, and the role these shared spaces play in Turkey’s multivalent civic environment. It employs Ray Oldenburg’s notion of “third space” to consider how these gardens provide inclusive settings for a culturally diverse citizenry. Furthermore, the article considers how these spaces act as repositories of shared memory, mediating conflict that appears in other societal spheres. The ...


Evocations Of Byzantium In Zenitist Avant-Garde Architecture, Jelena Bogdanović Sep 2016

Evocations Of Byzantium In Zenitist Avant-Garde Architecture, Jelena Bogdanović

Architecture Publications

The Byzantine legacy in modern architecture can be divided between a historicist, neo-Byzantine architectural style and an active investigation of the potentials of the Byzantine for a modern, explicitly nontraditional, architecture. References to Byzantium in avantgarde Eastern European architecture of the 1920s employed a modernist interpretation of the Byzantine concept of space that evoked a mode of “medieval” experience and creative practice rather than direct historical quotation. The avant-garde movement of Zenitism, a prominent visionary avant-garde movement in the Balkans, provides a case study in the ways immaterial aspects of Byzantine architecture infiltrated modernism and moved it beyond an academic ...


The Relational Spiritual Geopolitics Of Constantinople, The Capital Of The Byzantine Empire, Jelena Bogdanović Jan 2016

The Relational Spiritual Geopolitics Of Constantinople, The Capital Of The Byzantine Empire, Jelena Bogdanović

Architecture Publications

Strategically located on a peninsula on the European side of the narrow Bosphorus strait that connects the Mediterranean and the Black Seas (by way also of the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles), Constantinople; the capital city of the medieval Roman Empire that we know as the Byzantine Empire (324-1453), was the largest and most thriving urban center in the Old World.1 The city was founded by the first Roman Emperor who embraced Christianity, Constantine I (d. 337), as the eponymous capital outside historically dominant urban centers and as the alternative to the city of Rome. This chapter outlines ...


Book Review: Hendrik W. Dey, The Afterlife Of The Roman City: Architecture And Ceremony In Late Antiquity And The Early Middle Ages, Jelena Bogdanović Aug 2015

Book Review: Hendrik W. Dey, The Afterlife Of The Roman City: Architecture And Ceremony In Late Antiquity And The Early Middle Ages, Jelena Bogdanović

Architecture Publications

The latest book by Hendrik W. Dey examines the afterlife of the Roman city in the territories of the erstwhile Roman Empire until roughly the ninth century. As a scholar with multiple threads of training in classics, Dey writes his book with a strong archaeological research method that emphasizes the perseverance of urban paradigms of the Greco-Roman world beyond literary tropes or oversimplified economical and demographical analyses. The Afterlife of the Roman City looks in particular at monumental architecture and urban topography by highlighting their importance in the definition of the urban space as a place of ceremonial manifestations of ...


The Grand Bazaar In Istanbul: The Emergent Unfolding Of A Complex Adaptive System, Sharon Wohl Jan 2015

The Grand Bazaar In Istanbul: The Emergent Unfolding Of A Complex Adaptive System, Sharon Wohl

Architecture Publications

The Grand Bazaar in Istanbul offers an example of a physical environment containing specific districts that have emerged over time. This paper theorizes that the Grand Bazaar exhibits the characteristics of a Complex Adaptive System. Then, it considers specific urban elements found in the Bazaar, in light of complexity theory, to see how these facilitate processes that lead to the emergence of contiguous districts. This study repurposes Kevin Lynch’s categorization of urban elements to provide a useful framework for discussing complexity theory. This research is further informed by economic analysis derived from Evolutionary Economic Geography, which examines the emergence ...


Book Reviews: Designing Tito's Capital: Urban Planning, Modernism, And Socialism In Belgrade, Kimberly E. Zarecor Jan 2015

Book Reviews: Designing Tito's Capital: Urban Planning, Modernism, And Socialism In Belgrade, Kimberly E. Zarecor

Architecture Publications

In this history of New Belgrade, historian Brigitte Le Normand writes one of the first comprehensive municipal-level case studies of a postwar socialist urban planning project. The book chronicles the development of a new urban district within the capital city of Belgrade from the first modernist plans for the area just after World War II through several stages of stop-and-go development that finally accelerated in the late 1960s with the construction of both official housing blocks and informal settlements. The text highlights the difficulties encountered by urban planners, residents, and the local government to agree on the project's goals ...


Book Review: Katherine Marsengill, Portraits And Icons: Between Reality And Spirituality In Byzantine Art. Byzantios, 5. Turnhout, Bropols 2013., Jelena Bogdanović Jul 2014

Book Review: Katherine Marsengill, Portraits And Icons: Between Reality And Spirituality In Byzantine Art. Byzantios, 5. Turnhout, Bropols 2013., Jelena Bogdanović

Architecture Publications

In this thought-provoking and controversial book, which develops from her prize-winning doctoral dissertation from Princeton University (2010), art historian Katherine Marsengill examines multiple and complex relations between portraits and holy icons in Byzantine art.


Architecture In Eastern Europe And The Former Soviet Union, Kimberly E. Zarecor Jan 2014

Architecture In Eastern Europe And The Former Soviet Union, Kimberly E. Zarecor

Architecture Publications

Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union are often associated with grey, anonymous, and poorly constructed post-war buildings. Despite this reputation, the regional architectural developments that produced these buildings are critical to understanding global paradigm shifts in architectural theory and practice in the last 50 years. The vast territory of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union covers about one-sixth of the world’s landmass and currently contains all or part of 30 countries.[i] Since 1960 other national boundaries have existed in this space, including East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and the Soviet Union. Given the region’s large size ...


Solidarita Housing Estate In Its European Context, Kimberly E. Zarecor Jan 2014

Solidarita Housing Estate In Its European Context, Kimberly E. Zarecor

Architecture Publications

Europe just after World War II was a damaged environment. Many of its cities had been devastated and people suffered tremendously across the continent. Millions were dead, millions displaced or sick, and millions more were being forcibly relocated to new territories during waves of expulsions. According to United Nations figures, more than 8.8 million housing units had been destroyed in eighteen European countries during the war; at least another 5.6 million units were uninhabitable. This represented one out of every nine units extant in 1939.2 By 1947, the Cold War was underway as the United States and ...


Book Review: Unfinished Modernisations: Between Utopia And Pragmatism, Edited By Maroje Mrduljaš And Vladimir Kulić, Jelena Bogdanović Jan 2014

Book Review: Unfinished Modernisations: Between Utopia And Pragmatism, Edited By Maroje Mrduljaš And Vladimir Kulić, Jelena Bogdanović

Architecture Publications

Vladimir Kulić and Maroje Mrduljaš co-edited two invaluable books in 2012: Unfinished Modernisations: Between Utopia and Pragmatism and Modernism In-Between. The Mediatory Architectures of Socialist Yugoslavia. These complementary books deal with modernism in architecture and urbanism in the territories of former Yugoslavia from its post-WWII period until its phased dissolution in the 1990s. The authors are trained as architects with distinctive background in the field. Kulić and Mrduljaš obtained their professional degrees in architecture in the former Yugoslavia, at the University of Belgrade and the University of Zagreb, respectively. Kulić further specialized in modernism in 1950s and 1960s socialist Yugoslavia ...


The Rhetoric Of Architecture In The Byzantine Context: The Case Study Of The Holy Sepulchre / Реторика Архитектуре У Византијском Контексту: Пример Цркве Светог Гроба, Jelena Bogdanović Jan 2014

The Rhetoric Of Architecture In The Byzantine Context: The Case Study Of The Holy Sepulchre / Реторика Архитектуре У Византијском Контексту: Пример Цркве Светог Гроба, Jelena Bogdanović

Architecture Publications

This paper examines the rhetorical capacity of architecture, and in particular, “the rhetoric of architecture” rather than the usually examined “rhetoric about architecture.” In this work, the rhetoric of architecture is understood as codified visual and architectural conventions as a series of transpositions that frame specific meanings other than and beyond visible and spatial. Here the proposed “rhetoric of architecture” is also more about its capacity as a “mnemonic tool” and about the “craft of composition” rather than about persuading others or about representation based on exact likeness. This concept is particularly significant in the creation of the sacred. By ...


Infrastructural Thinking: Urban Housing In Former Czechoslovakia From The Stalin Era To Eu Accession, Kimberly E. Zarecor Nov 2013

Infrastructural Thinking: Urban Housing In Former Czechoslovakia From The Stalin Era To Eu Accession, Kimberly E. Zarecor

Architecture Publications

In contemporary conversations about urban housing, the cities of the former Eastern Bloc rarely come to mind as potential models for future development. Images persist of vast, grey, treeless expanses of space occupied by repetitive apartment blocks that dwarf their human inhabitants. This view does capture something about the experience of living in what came to be known as the “socialist city,” yet the cities had many other kinds of spaces—older urban fabric, small apartment blocks, green spaces, village remnants, and neighborhood shopping corridors. Often the existing and the new were integrated into a synthetic whole. The ambitious master ...


Art And Architecture, Jelena Bogdanović Jan 2013

Art And Architecture, Jelena Bogdanović

Architecture Publications

The world knows Egypt best for its rich artistic legacy. People identify Egypt through its great pyramids, ancient funerary art, and mysterious concepts of death, afterlife, and eternity. The original contexts of funerary objects and rituals show that Egyptian art is, however, primarily about life and the continuation oflife in the hereafter. The artistic accomplishments of Egypt are made according to long-established pictorial and architectural conventions, which convey highly abstract concepts. The art of Egypt tangibly and subtly reveals various cultural and personal identities from the prehistoric times up to the present. Simultaneously, the ways in which people perceive Egyptian ...


Book Review—Maria Cristina Carile, The Vision Of The Palace Of The Byzantine Emperors As A Heavenly Jerusalem, Jelena Bogdanović Jan 2013

Book Review—Maria Cristina Carile, The Vision Of The Palace Of The Byzantine Emperors As A Heavenly Jerusalem, Jelena Bogdanović

Architecture Publications

In this inspiring book, The Vision of the Palace of the Byzantine Emperors as a Heavenly Jerusalem, which is based on her doctoral dissertation (joint doctorate Università degli Studi di Bologna and the University of Birmingham, 2007), art historian Maria Cristina Carile provides an interdisciplinary study about the relationship between the Imperial Palace and the Heavenly Jerusalem.


What Good Is Bad Photography?, Daniel J. Naegele Jan 2013

What Good Is Bad Photography?, Daniel J. Naegele

Architecture Publications

In 1957, for the small picture book Ronchamp, in a handwritten note that itself serves as illustration, Le Corbusier called attention to the book’s photographic text, instructing the reader to "observe the play of shadows. Play the game...Try looking at the images upside-down or sideways. You'll discover the game!"


Earth, Visual Arts, Jelena Bogdanović Jan 2013

Earth, Visual Arts, Jelena Bogdanović

Architecture Publications

Earth is mentioned in the opening verses of the first book of the HB/OT in reference to creation (Gen 1 : 1), thus attaining great significance for both cosmological and theological discussions. One can also

find numerous references to earth in the books of Genesis, Exodus, Kings, Job, Psalms, Isaiah, the Gospels, the Apocrypha, and related religious texts of liturgical poetry, such as Christmas hymns and carols. References to earth may be related to the earthly realm and place of “God made manifest,” as in the NT narrative of the nativity in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. Earth also ...


Socialist Neighborhoods After Socialism The Past, Present, And Future Of Postwar Housing In The Czech Republic, Kimberly Elman Zarecor Aug 2012

Socialist Neighborhoods After Socialism The Past, Present, And Future Of Postwar Housing In The Czech Republic, Kimberly Elman Zarecor

Architecture Publications

The Czech Republic’s socialist-era neighborhoods are largely intact twenty years after the end of Communist Party rule. These buildings will be rehabilitated, but not replaced, because of financial and logistical constraints. In the context of the country’s accession to the European Union in 2004 and the recent global economic crisis, this essay questions what can and should be done in an effort to make these neighborhoods better places to live in the present and the future. It starts with a brief history of postwar housing construction and socialist-era design methodologies, exploring postwar architectural practice and innovations in construction ...


Czech Paneláks Are Disappearing, But The Housing Estates Remain / České Paneláky Miznú, Ale Sídliská Zostávajú, Kimberly Elman Zarecor, Eva Špačková Jan 2012

Czech Paneláks Are Disappearing, But The Housing Estates Remain / České Paneláky Miznú, Ale Sídliská Zostávajú, Kimberly Elman Zarecor, Eva Špačková

Architecture Publications

A common lament about the legacy of communism in Europe is the damage that it did to the built environment. Particular ire is directed at the concrete prefabricated housing blocks, known in Czech and Slovak as paneláks (structural panel buildings), groups of which were arranged in housing estates (sídliště in Czech and sídlisko in Slovak) to create the region’s characteristic postwar districts. Paneláks were not only signs of the increased production of new housing, but also indicated the acceleration of urbanization in the region as residents moved from rural areas to towns and cities for work. According to United ...


Life In A Late Byzantine Tower: Examples From Northern Greece, Jelena Bogdanović Jan 2012

Life In A Late Byzantine Tower: Examples From Northern Greece, Jelena Bogdanović

Architecture Publications

Medieval masonry towers are a prominent and ubiquitous feature of the Mediterranean Basin and the Balkan Peninsula. Many are in ruins and most have yet to be studied. We surmise that they were built for protection, so that they are typically associated with the architecture of an "age of insecurity." Professor Slobodan Ćurčić, who dedicated his career to the study of medieval architecture, has nourished a special interest in these buildings. Honoring Professor Ćurčić, I offer this chapter surveying a discrete group of seven Late Byzantine (fourteenth to sixteenth centuries) freestanding towers in northern Greece.


Spatial Erasure: Reconstruction Projects In Beirut, Marwan Ghandour, Mona Fawaz Apr 2010

Spatial Erasure: Reconstruction Projects In Beirut, Marwan Ghandour, Mona Fawaz

Architecture Publications

Often associated with processes of healing, postwar re-construction projects may be less related to the pre-destruction phase than to the actual act of destruction. This, at least, is what the Lebanese case suggests. In this essay, we argue that the spatial erasure initiated by war destruction is consolidated during postwar reconstruction. We developed this argument by analyzing two of the main postwar reconstruction projects that have marked Beirut’s urbanization since the end of its civil war in 1990. The first project, the reconstruction of Beirut’s downtown, was undertaken starting 1994 by a private real-estate company, Solidere [1], extends ...


The Local History Of An International Type: The Structural Panel Building In Czechoslovakia, Kimberly Elman Zarecor Jan 2010

The Local History Of An International Type: The Structural Panel Building In Czechoslovakia, Kimberly Elman Zarecor

Architecture Publications

Focusing on the state-run system of architectural offices as a mediator between politics and practice, this article considers how the 1948 Communist Party takeover of Czechoslovakia affected architectural practice and the establishment of housing types in the early 1950s. The legacy of a strong local construction industry before 1948 was critical to these developments. At the new Institute of Prefabricated Buildings, created in 1952, architects and engineers continued earlier research on prefabricated construction technologies. Through this work, the Czechoslovak government and its architectural administration soon concluded that its best long-term option for solving the country's housing crisis was the ...


On Cities And Designers: A Baalbeck Story, Marwan Ghandour Mar 2006

On Cities And Designers: A Baalbeck Story, Marwan Ghandour

Architecture Publications

Twentieth-century masterplans of Baalbeck tourism and fantasies of modernism and classical antiquity are privileged over the present everyday. How can an alternative be envisioned?