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Full-Text Articles in Architecture

Development Of A Model To Predict The Likelihood Of Complaints Due To Assorted Tone-In-Noise Combinations, Joonhee Lee, Lily M. Wang May 2018

Development Of A Model To Predict The Likelihood Of Complaints Due To Assorted Tone-In-Noise Combinations, Joonhee Lee, Lily M. Wang

Architectural Engineering -- Faculty Publications

This paper develops a model to predict if listeners would be likely to complain due to annoyance when exposed to a certain noise signal with a prominent tone, such as those commonly produced by heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems. Twenty participants completed digit span tasks while exposed in a controlled lab to noise signals with differing levels of tones, ranging from 125 to 1000 Hz, and overall loudness. After completing the digit span tasks under each noise signal, from which task accuracy and speed of completion were captured, subjects were asked to rate level of annoyance and indicate the likelihood ...


Effects Of Noise, Reverberation And Foreign Accent On Native And Non-Native Listeners’ Performance Of English Speech Comprehension, Zhao Ellen Peng, Lily M. Wang May 2016

Effects Of Noise, Reverberation And Foreign Accent On Native And Non-Native Listeners’ Performance Of English Speech Comprehension, Zhao Ellen Peng, Lily M. Wang

Architectural Engineering -- Faculty Publications

A large number of non-native English speakers may be found in American classrooms, both as listeners and talkers. Little is known about how this population comprehends speech in realistic adverse acoustical conditions. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of background noise level (BNL), reverberation time (RT), and talker foreign accent on native and non-native listeners' speech comprehension, while controlling for English language abilities. A total of 115 adult listeners completed comprehension tasks under 15 acoustic conditions: three BNLs (RC-30, RC-40, and RC-50) and five RTs (from 0.4 to 1.2 s). Fifty-six listeners were tested with speech ...


Quantification And Subjective Perception Of Varying Reflection Densities In Measured Room Impulsed Responses, Hyun Hong, Lily M. Wang Jul 2015

Quantification And Subjective Perception Of Varying Reflection Densities In Measured Room Impulsed Responses, Hyun Hong, Lily M. Wang

Architectural Engineering -- Faculty Publications

This project focuses on quantifying and testing the subjective perception of reflection densities, or the number of reflections per second, from different room impulse responses. The widely used room acoustic metric, reverberation time, is linked to the perceived reverberation in a room. Two different rooms having the same reverberation time, though, can have different reflection densities in their room impulse responses, and this difference in reflection density may affect how listeners perceive spatial impression in rooms. To investigate how sensitive humans are to a change of reflection density, this paper first reviews assorted parameters for quantifying reflection density from measured ...


Room Acoustic Effects On Speech Comprehension Of English-As-Second-Language Talkers And Listeners Versus Native-English-Speaking Talkers And Listeners, Lily M. Wang Jul 2015

Room Acoustic Effects On Speech Comprehension Of English-As-Second-Language Talkers And Listeners Versus Native-English-Speaking Talkers And Listeners, Lily M. Wang

Architectural Engineering -- Faculty Publications

Approximately 21% of the children in the United States school system speak a language other than English at home, but are being taught in English at school. English is additionally being used more and more often as a common language in international settings, even though participants at these international events again are not native English speakers. How do adverse room acoustic environments, including higher background noise levels and longer reverberation times, impact English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) talkers and listeners versus native English-speaking talkers and listeners? This presentation focuses on two recent studies at the University of Nebraska that investigate how assorted room ...


Assessment Of Noise-Induced Annoyance By Tones In Noise From Building Mechanical Systems, Joonhee Lee, Lily M. Wang Nov 2014

Assessment Of Noise-Induced Annoyance By Tones In Noise From Building Mechanical Systems, Joonhee Lee, Lily M. Wang

Architectural Engineering -- Faculty Publications

Prominent tones in noise generated by mechanical equipment in buildings can cause complaints from occupants in buildings. The ISO 1996-2 and ANSI S1.13 standards describe methodologies and metrics to quantify tonality perception, but the influence of tones in noise on human annoyance and performance is not fully understood yet. This paper investigates annoyance responses of humans while exposed to background noise with tonal components. Twenty participants completed digit span tasks while exposed to noise signals with differing levels of tones and overall loudness. Subjects were also asked to rate their annoyance after completing tasks under each noise signal. The ...


Effects Of Room Acoustics On Comprehension Of Foreign-Accented Speech By Native And Non-Native English-Speaking Listeners, Zhao Peng, Kristin E. Hanna, Brenna N. Boyd, Lily M. Wang Nov 2014

Effects Of Room Acoustics On Comprehension Of Foreign-Accented Speech By Native And Non-Native English-Speaking Listeners, Zhao Peng, Kristin E. Hanna, Brenna N. Boyd, Lily M. Wang

Architectural Engineering -- Faculty Publications

In a previous study by the authors, reverberation time (RT) and background noise level (BNL) were both found to have negative effects on native and non-native English-speaking listeners in comprehending English speech produced by native American-English-speaking talkers. Comprehension scores were adjusted for listeners’ baseline English proficiency levels. In the present study, instead of native English-speaking talkers, two native Mandarin Chinese talkers (one male, one female) with similar English spoken proficiency were recruited to produce the same speech materials used in the previous study. A similar methodology was adopted to conduct speech comprehension tests on three groups of listeners: 1) native ...


The Impact Of Building Acoustics On Speech Comprehension And Student Achievement, Lily M. Wang Nov 2014

The Impact Of Building Acoustics On Speech Comprehension And Student Achievement, Lily M. Wang

Architectural Engineering -- Faculty Publications

The movement for improved classroom acoustics has primarily been grounded on studies that show how building acoustics (i.e. background noise levels and room reverberation) affect speech intelligibility, as determined by speech recognition tests. What about actual student learning, though? If students do not understand each spoken word in the classroom perfectly, can they still manage to achieve high scholastic success? This presentation will review two recent studies conducted at the University of Nebraska – Lincoln, linking classroom acoustic conditions to student learning outcomes and speech comprehension (rather than simply recognition). In the first, acoustic measurements in two public school districts ...


Determining Annoyance Thresholds Of Tones In Noise, Jennifer M. Francis, Joonhee Lee, Lily M. Wang Jul 2014

Determining Annoyance Thresholds Of Tones In Noise, Jennifer M. Francis, Joonhee Lee, Lily M. Wang

Architectural Engineering -- Faculty Publications

Building services equipment often produces noise signatures with significant tones in them that can lead to complaints in the built environment. Previous studies have investigated prominence levels of assorted tonal frequencies, but it is still unclear what prominence of the tones across varying tonal frequencies can lead to human annoyance. This project seeks to apply two different methods towards defining annoyance thresholds of tones in noise at two tonal frequencies: 125 Hz and 500 Hz. In the first, subjects are asked to perform a task, while exposed to ten minutes of a broadband noise spectrum with a specific level of ...


Quantifying The Just Noticeable Difference Of Reverberation Time With Band-Limited Noise Centered Around 1000 Hz Using A Transformed Up-Down Adaptive Method, Matthew G. Blevins, Adam T. Buck, Zhao Peng, Lily M. Wang Jun 2013

Quantifying The Just Noticeable Difference Of Reverberation Time With Band-Limited Noise Centered Around 1000 Hz Using A Transformed Up-Down Adaptive Method, Matthew G. Blevins, Adam T. Buck, Zhao Peng, Lily M. Wang

Architectural Engineering -- Faculty Publications

This study seeks to quantify the just noticeable difference (JND) of reverberation time (RT) using band-limited noise. ISO 3382-1 lists the JND of reverberation metrics at 5% based on work by Seraphim (1958). However, others have found the JND of RT to be higher from 6% to 39%. Many of these studies utilized band-limited stimuli, e.g. speech, music motifs and bandlimited noise. A previous study by the authors conducted on 30 subjects using white noise demonstrated a JND of RT at 22%. To further verify these results and investigate potential upward frequency masking, the present study was conducted following ...


Rating Low Levels Of Ambient Noise In Performing Arts Facilities, Lily M. Wang, Brent A. Kraay Jun 2013

Rating Low Levels Of Ambient Noise In Performing Arts Facilities, Lily M. Wang, Brent A. Kraay

Architectural Engineering -- Faculty Publications

Previous studies have indicated that common indoor noise rating metrics, such as Noise Criteria NC and Room Criteria RC, do not best correlate to human perceptions of annoyance and distraction in typical office environments. Based on investigations conducted at the University of Nebraska using noise levels between 30 – 60 dBA, the author has proposed that an effective indoor noise rating method should begin with a rating of level (either dBA or sones), then an assessment of spectral quality, tones, and fluctuations. How well would such a system work at very low levels of ambient noise, though, as found in performing ...


Effects Of Background Noise Alternating Between Two Levels At Varying Time Intervals On Human Perception And Performance, Andrew Hathaway, Lily M. Wang Jun 2013

Effects Of Background Noise Alternating Between Two Levels At Varying Time Intervals On Human Perception And Performance, Andrew Hathaway, Lily M. Wang

Architectural Engineering -- Faculty Publications

This research experiment aims to better quantify human perception and performance under increased background noise levels of varying intervals. Twenty-seven participants were tested over five 30 minute sessions where they were subjected to RC-29(H) and RC-47(RV) conditions created by broadband noise fluctuating on different time intervals. These intervals varied from two minutes to ten minutes, simulating the conditions of a noisy HVAC system turning on and off. The performance results of an arithmetic test dealing with short-term memory and a subjective questionnaire will be presented and compared to a similar test using broadband noise bursts and correlated to ...


Effects Of Reverberation And Noise On Speech Comprehension By Native And Non-Native English-Speaking Listeners, Zhao Peng, Lily M. Wang, Siu Kit Lau, Adam M. Steinbach Jun 2013

Effects Of Reverberation And Noise On Speech Comprehension By Native And Non-Native English-Speaking Listeners, Zhao Peng, Lily M. Wang, Siu Kit Lau, Adam M. Steinbach

Architectural Engineering -- Faculty Publications

Previous studies have demonstrated the negative impact of adverse signal-to-noise-ratios on non-native English-speaking listeners' performance on speech recognition using recall tasks, as well as implied that comprehension skills were more impaired than recognition skills under reverberation and noise. The authors have themselves previously conducted a pilot study on three native and three non-native Englishspeaking listeners to examine the effects of reverberation and noise using speech comprehension tasks. Those results suggested that speech comprehension performance is worse under longer reverberation times (RT), and that a longer RT is more detrimental to speech comprehension by non-native listeners than native listeners. This paper ...


Relationships Between Unoccupied Classroom Acoustical Conditions And Elementary Student Achievement Measured In Eastern Nebraska, Lauren M. Ronsse, Lily M. Wang Mar 2013

Relationships Between Unoccupied Classroom Acoustical Conditions And Elementary Student Achievement Measured In Eastern Nebraska, Lauren M. Ronsse, Lily M. Wang

Architectural Engineering -- Faculty Publications

Building standards recommend maximum background noise levels (BNL) and reverberation times (RT) for unoccupied classrooms. However, existing research does not show a consistent correlation between these parameters and student achievement. Through in situ testing, this research seeks to determine what acoustical conditions should be attained in elementary schools for students to meet educational goals. Acoustical measurements were conducted in a Nebraska public school system and correlated to achievement scores from students in the surveyed classrooms. Unoccupied BNLs and RTs were gathered in 34 third and 33 fifth-grade classrooms. Additionally, binaural room impulse response measurements were gathered in a subset of ...


Binaural Room Impulse Response Database Acquired From A Variable Acoustics Classroom, Zhao Peng, Siu Kit Lau, Lily M. Wang, Sean Browne, Kenneth P. Roy Jan 2013

Binaural Room Impulse Response Database Acquired From A Variable Acoustics Classroom, Zhao Peng, Siu Kit Lau, Lily M. Wang, Sean Browne, Kenneth P. Roy

Architectural Engineering -- Faculty Publications

Room measurements were conducted in a variable acoustics classroom mockup space (epod) at Armstrong World Industries in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, USA. Binaural room impulse responses were measured in the epod using a head and torso simulator. Five reverberation time (RT) scenarios were achieved with various combinations of absorptive wall panels and acoustical ceiling tile. These provided a range of mid-frequency RTs from 0.4 to 1.1 seconds. Three of the five RT scenarios were achieved using two different material configurations to also consider material location effects. For each of the eight material configurations, two student-teacher orientations were tested. One orientation ...


Effects Of Acoustic Environments On Speech Comprehension By Native-English-Speaking Listeners, Zhao Peng, Lily M. Wang, Siu Kit Lau Aug 2012

Effects Of Acoustic Environments On Speech Comprehension By Native-English-Speaking Listeners, Zhao Peng, Lily M. Wang, Siu Kit Lau

Architectural Engineering -- Faculty Publications

This study investigates the effects of acoustic conditions on speech comprehension, rather than speech intelligibility as often reported in existing literature. Sets of 15-minute-long listening comprehension tests were developed based on the format of the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC). Each test set includes four types of tasks: matching aural phrases to photographs, selecting appropriate responses to aural questions, and answering questions after listening to conversations (between two talkers) and talks (single talker). Within the Nebraska acoustics test chamber, native-English-speaking participants are asked to perform these tests under 15 acoustic conditions, from combinations of three background noise levels ...


Lv-11-C031: Measured Levels Of Hospital Noise Before, During, And After Renovation Of A Hospital Wing, And A Survey Of Resulting Patient Perception, Cassandra H. Wiese, Lily M. Wang Jan 2011

Lv-11-C031: Measured Levels Of Hospital Noise Before, During, And After Renovation Of A Hospital Wing, And A Survey Of Resulting Patient Perception, Cassandra H. Wiese, Lily M. Wang

Architectural Engineering -- Faculty Publications

Acoustic conditions in hospitals can negatively influence a patient’s physical and psychological health. This paperreports on noise levels measured before, during, and after renovation of a hospital wing in an Omaha, Nebraska, facility thatregularly receives unsatisfactory noise scores on patient satisfaction surveys. Sound pressure levels were logged every 10seconds over four-day periods in three different locations: at the nurses' station, in the hallway, and in a nearby patient’sroom. The resulting data have been analyzed in terms of A-weighted equivalent sound levels (LAeq) as well as variousexceedance levels (Ln). Results indicate that sound levels did not change much due ...


Ab-10-017: Combined Effects Of Noise And Temperature On Human Comfort And Performance (1128-Rp), Dale Tiller, Lily M. Wang, Amy Musser, Matthew Radik Jan 2010

Ab-10-017: Combined Effects Of Noise And Temperature On Human Comfort And Performance (1128-Rp), Dale Tiller, Lily M. Wang, Amy Musser, Matthew Radik

Architectural Engineering -- Faculty Publications

This paper summarizes results from an experiment designed to investigate the combined effects of noise and temperature on human thermal comfort and task performance. Thirty subjects (16 females, 14 males) were exposed to all combinations of five thermal conditions (PMV +1 [79.6°F:26.4°C], PMV +0.5 [75.8°F:24.3°C], PMV 0 [72.1°F:22.3°C], PMV -0.5 [68.3°F:20.2°C], and PMV -1 [64.6°F:18.1°C]), three RC noise levels (RC-30, RC-40, and RC-50), and two sound qualities (neutral and rumbly): all sounds mimicked ...


Ab-10-019: Human Performance And Perception-Based Evaluations Of Indoor Noise Criteria For Rating Mechanical System Noise With Time-Varying Fluctuations (1322-Rp), Lily M. Wang, Cathleen C. Novak Jan 2010

Ab-10-019: Human Performance And Perception-Based Evaluations Of Indoor Noise Criteria For Rating Mechanical System Noise With Time-Varying Fluctuations (1322-Rp), Lily M. Wang, Cathleen C. Novak

Architectural Engineering -- Faculty Publications

The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of noise from building mechanical systems with time-varying fluctuations on human task performance and perception, and to determine how well current indoor noise rating methods account for this performance and perception. Six different noise conditions with varying degrees of time-varying fluctuations, many focused in the low frequency rumble region, were reproduced in an office-like setting. Thirty participants were asked to complete typing, grammatical reasoning, and math tasks plus subjective questionnaires, while being exposed for approximately one hour to each noise condition. Results show that the noise conditions with higher sound ...


Ab-10-C037: Effects Of Noise From Building Mechanical Systems On Elementary School Student Achievement, Lauren M. Ronsse, Lily M. Wang Jan 2010

Ab-10-C037: Effects Of Noise From Building Mechanical Systems On Elementary School Student Achievement, Lauren M. Ronsse, Lily M. Wang

Architectural Engineering -- Faculty Publications

This project seeks to determine what relationship, if any, exists betweenbackground noise levels in elementary classrooms due to the building mechanicalsystems and student performance on achievement tests. Previous research inclassroom acoustics has clearly identified that lower background noise levelsresult in higher speech intelligibility which is crucial for the learning process;however, there is a lack of data correlating lower noise levels to improved studentachievement scores. For this study, background noise level measurements were madein 14 elementary schools in a public school system in Council Bluffs, Iowa, USA.The measurements were made in unoccupied classrooms with the central buildingmechanical systems activated ...


Ab-10-018: The Effects Of Noise From Building Mechanical Systems With Tonal Components On Human Performance And Perception (1322-Rp), Erica E. Ryherd, Lily M. Wang Jan 2010

Ab-10-018: The Effects Of Noise From Building Mechanical Systems With Tonal Components On Human Performance And Perception (1322-Rp), Erica E. Ryherd, Lily M. Wang

Architectural Engineering -- Faculty Publications

This study investigated the effects of noise from building mechanical systems with tonal components on human task performance and perception. Six different noise conditions based on in-situ measurements were reproduced in an office-like setting; all were set to approximately the same sound level (47 dBA) but could have one particular tonal frequency (120 Hz, 235 Hz, or 595 Hz) at one of two tonal prominence ratios (5 or 9). Thirty participants were asked to complete typing, grammatical reasoning, and math tasks plus subjective questionnaires, while being exposed for approximately 1 hour to each noise condition. Results show that the noise ...


Or-05-6-4: Relating Human Productivity And Annoyance To Indoor Noise Criteria Systems: A Low Frequency Analysis, Erica Eileen Bowden, Lily M. Wang Jan 2005

Or-05-6-4: Relating Human Productivity And Annoyance To Indoor Noise Criteria Systems: A Low Frequency Analysis, Erica Eileen Bowden, Lily M. Wang

Architectural Engineering -- Faculty Publications

A number of indoor noise criteria systems are used to quantify the background noise in a built environment, including Noise Criteria (NC), Balanced Noise Criteria (NCB), Room Criteria (RC), Room Criteria Mark II (RC Mark II), A-weighted Equivalent Sound Pressure Level (LAeq), and others. An on-going debate exists in the acoustical community over which criterion is the most appropriate to use in the variety of ambient noise situations encountered. In an effort to quantitatively support the use of individual criterion, this project subjectively correlates these various criteria with human task performance and perception. Eleven subjects participated in a pilot ...


Comparison Of Radiated Power From Structurally Different Violins, Lily M. Wang, Courtney B. Burroughs Nov 2002

Comparison Of Radiated Power From Structurally Different Violins, Lily M. Wang, Courtney B. Burroughs

Architectural Engineering -- Faculty Publications

The acoustic power has been determined from intensity measurements on three structurally different violins: a Scherl and Roth student violin, Hutchins' SUS29S, and Hutchins' mezzo violin SUS 100. While each violin was bowed with an open-frame mechanical bowing machine, the intensity measurements were made by scanning each side of the bowing machine with an intensity probe. One-third octave band sound power levels of the acoustic radiation from each of the three instruments as each of the four open strings is bowed show that the structurally different mezzo violin produces greater power at low frequencies when the lowest (G) string is ...