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University of Massachusetts Amherst

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

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Articles 1 - 28 of 28

Full-Text Articles in Architecture

Novel Urban Ecosystems: Concepts, Definitions And A Strategy To Support Urban Sustainability And Resilience, Jack F. Ahern Jan 2016

Novel Urban Ecosystems: Concepts, Definitions And A Strategy To Support Urban Sustainability And Resilience, Jack F. Ahern

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

The 21st century is already known for unprecedented and fundamental changes and new trajectories - think climate change, global economics, migration and population growth. The world is now predominantly urban and will become increasingly so until mid-century when global population is expected to stabilize at around 70% urban. The world has entered a new geological era, the Anthropocene, in which the impacts and artifacts of humans are recognized as a geologic force. In this "Century of the City, - for the world to be sustainable and resilient, cities must be an essential part of the solution - and novel urban ecosystems will play ...


Greening Cities In An Urbanizing Age: The Human Health Bases In The Nineteenth And Early Twenty-First Centuries, Theodore S. Eisenman Jan 2016

Greening Cities In An Urbanizing Age: The Human Health Bases In The Nineteenth And Early Twenty-First Centuries, Theodore S. Eisenman

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

Defined here as the introduction or conservation of outdoor vegetation in cities, urban greening has bloomed during periods of intensive urbanization. This was true in the nineteenth century and it seems to be the case again today, as a range of greening practices is co-arising during a third, and perhaps final, period of global urbanization. Human health has been a recurring theme underlying the enduring aspiration to integrate nature with city. Using change over time as a conceptual frame, this paper offers a comparative assessment of municipal greening in the nineteenth and early twenty-first centuries, focusing on the potential implications ...


Using Systematic Observations To Understand Conditions That Promote Interracial Experiences In Neighbourhood Parks, Amy Hillier, Bing Han, Theodore S. Eisenman, Kelly R. Evenson, Thomas L. Mckenzie, Deborah A. Cohen Jan 2016

Using Systematic Observations To Understand Conditions That Promote Interracial Experiences In Neighbourhood Parks, Amy Hillier, Bing Han, Theodore S. Eisenman, Kelly R. Evenson, Thomas L. Mckenzie, Deborah A. Cohen

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

We analysed observations from 31 neighbourhood parks, with each park mapped into smaller target areas for study, across five US cities generated using the System for Observing Play and Recreation in the Community (SOPARC). In areas where at least two people were observed, less than one-third (31.6%) were populated with at least one white and one non-white person. Park areas that were supervised, had one or more people engaged in vigorous activity, had at least one male and one female present, and had one or more teens present were significantly more likely to involve interracial groups (p < 0.01 for each association). Observations in parks located in interracial neighbourhoods were also more likely to involve interracial groups (p < 0.05). Neighbourhood poverty rate had a significant and negative relationship with the presence of interracial groups, particularly in neighbourhoods that are predominantly non-white. Additional research is needed to confirm the impact of these interactions. Urban planning and public health practitioners should consider the health benefits of interracial contact in the design and programming of neighbourhood parks.


The Office/Industrial Land Dilemma: A Study Of The Blackstone River Corridor In Massachusetts, John Mullin, Zenia Kotval Jul 2006

The Office/Industrial Land Dilemma: A Study Of The Blackstone River Corridor In Massachusetts, John Mullin, Zenia Kotval

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

Local planners have often neglected their industrial resources and are therefore jeopardizing their economic base. There is clearly a mismatch between land zoned for industry and that which is suitable for development. Older areas are constrained by issues of compatibility, access, and environmental and flood plain issues. Greenfield sites are constrained by physical site characteristics, such as wetlands and slope, transportation networks, development pressures from other land uses and public perceptions and concerns surrounding industrial uses. Through this case study, this article analyzes the key factors that are influencing industrial land use decisions and provides recommendations that may be of ...


Land Planning And Development Mitigation For Protecting Water Quality In The Great Lakes System: An Evaluation Of U.S. Approaches, Elizabeth Brabec, Peter Kumble Mar 2005

Land Planning And Development Mitigation For Protecting Water Quality In The Great Lakes System: An Evaluation Of U.S. Approaches, Elizabeth Brabec, Peter Kumble

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

A review of the land use/water quality interface of the Great Lakes system, and the monitoring programs in place. The paper reviews the weakness in the system and suggests opportunities for improvement.


Landscape Change: The Influence Of External Cultural Forces, Elizabeth Brabec Jun 2004

Landscape Change: The Influence Of External Cultural Forces, Elizabeth Brabec

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

In the cultural ‘melting pot’ of a world economy, traditional, culturally-defined landscapes are being modified under a myriad of international influences. In this context, it is often difficult to identify the landscape and design forms that are key to maintaining local identity and a sense of place. Identifying these forms is critical in the planning process, as local planners and decision-makers attempt to integrate new, globally-influenced development patterns in local communities and at the same time create spaces and places that will not destroy local values and associations. The landscapes, their vectors, and the changes they engendered, will be used ...


Planning For Retail Activities In Small Downtowns: Towards A Pragmatic Approach, John Mullin, Zenia Kotval Apr 2004

Planning For Retail Activities In Small Downtowns: Towards A Pragmatic Approach, John Mullin, Zenia Kotval

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

Over the past twenty years there has been an enormous shift in terms of retail activity in our downtowns. The changes that have occurred have influenced where and how we shop, where we live and how we define the centers of our communities. As these have evolved, planners have constantly attempted to react and adapt. At times, they have been quite sucessful while, more often, they have been frustrated. What is most perplexing is that the shifts show no signs of abating. It is an exciting time to be undertaking downtown planning!


The University As A Contributor To The Local Economy: Key Thoughts For Local Planners, John Mullin, Zenia Kotval Apr 2004

The University As A Contributor To The Local Economy: Key Thoughts For Local Planners, John Mullin, Zenia Kotval

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

As we move into the twenty-first century, economic development officials are increasingly attempting to find new ways to "jump start" their local economies. Traditionally, this has involved, among others, finding appropriate land, ensuring there is adequate infrastructure, helping to train the local workforce, bringing financial institutions on board and assisting local entrepreneurs to bring their ideas to the market place. More recently, it has been also oriented toward ensuring that human capital is being invested into the community such that the local schools, recreation facilities, cultural attractions and public safety systems are all first rate. What has been too frequently ...


Measuring The Effectiveness Of Downtown Revitalization Strategies, John Mullin, Zenia Kotval Jun 2003

Measuring The Effectiveness Of Downtown Revitalization Strategies, John Mullin, Zenia Kotval

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

Downtowns, the traditional business centers of our communities, have survived many changes throughout the last century. Once thriving retail and civic centers, they were adversely affected by changes in mobility, retail patterns and shopping habits. Since the 1960's downtowns have seen serious competition from suburban shopping centers, malls, strip commercial areas, major discount centers and on-line and catalogue sales. Despite these changes, downtowns still play a central role in our cities today. They are the centers of our urbanized areas and still reflect the economic core and image of our cities. A healthy downtown is often synonymous with a ...


Meridian Hill Park: The Making Of An American Neoclassical Landscape, Elizabeth Brabec Oct 2002

Meridian Hill Park: The Making Of An American Neoclassical Landscape, Elizabeth Brabec

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

The neoclassical design was the dominant design movement in landscape architecture at the turn of the last century, dictating the form and design of public parks for most of the first half of the twentieth century. Meridian Hill Park, located just north of the White ouse in Washington, DC, is considered the most ambitious neoclassical park ever conceived in the United States. The paper provides an overview of the design development of the park, illustrating how classical design precedents were used to create a contemporary neo-classical park.


The Changing Character Of Economic Development, John R. Mullin Jul 2002

The Changing Character Of Economic Development, John R. Mullin

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

This article lays out several key trends concerning industrial development that I have noted over the past ten years in my consulting practice and academic research. They are not exhaustive nor will they be reflected in all parts of the country. They do, however, point out that we need to continually adapt to the market place; we need to become more pro-active in controlling how and where we stimulate development; we need to insure that we provide the opportunity for industry to succeed; and, finally, we must be reflective of world events and the speed of change.


Benchmarking: Measurable Indicators Of Economic Success, John Mullin, Zenia Kotval, Edward Murray Apr 2002

Benchmarking: Measurable Indicators Of Economic Success, John Mullin, Zenia Kotval, Edward Murray

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

All our communities are striving for economic success. Political platforms are built on promises of economic prosperity. However, we rarely thoroughly measure this success. Across the country people are increasingly interested in ensuring that government expenditures are well spent. We can note this interest at all levels of government ranging from local to national scales. As well, accountability, in all of its manifestations, is a critical element of the "quality movement" that is becoming acculturated in both the private and public sectors. This article focuses on how local economic development officials can measure and evaluate their professional activities in a ...


Defining The Pattern Of The Sustainable Urban Region, Elizabeth Brabec, Geoffrey Mcd. Lewis Jan 2002

Defining The Pattern Of The Sustainable Urban Region, Elizabeth Brabec, Geoffrey Mcd. Lewis

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

No abstract provided.


Middleburg Plantation: A Cultural And Historical Investigation Into The Formal Gardens, Elizabeth Brabec, Mike Appel, Katie Davidson, Sarah Faiks, Bonnie Ion, Jarrett Kest, Geoff Lewis, Mimi Mather, Dave Pollock, Clea Rome Jan 2001

Middleburg Plantation: A Cultural And Historical Investigation Into The Formal Gardens, Elizabeth Brabec, Mike Appel, Katie Davidson, Sarah Faiks, Bonnie Ion, Jarrett Kest, Geoff Lewis, Mimi Mather, Dave Pollock, Clea Rome

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

This report details the remaining remnanats of the formal garden at Middleburg Plantation, one of the oldest intact plantation sites in the lowcountry of South Carolina. In private hands, the plantation house grounds are well preserved. The report presents both the historical documents and references as well as the existing conditions and makes recommendations for stabilization of the historic landscape remnants.

This report was the result of a field studies class held at the University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources and the Environment, in Landscape Architecture. Led by Professor Brabec, the class travelled to the site for the week ...


The Potential For Planning An Industrial Cluster In Barre, Vermont: A Case Of 'Hard-Rock' Resistance In The Granite Industry, John R. Mullin, Zenia Kotval Jan 1998

The Potential For Planning An Industrial Cluster In Barre, Vermont: A Case Of 'Hard-Rock' Resistance In The Granite Industry, John R. Mullin, Zenia Kotval

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

Throughout the world, there has been considerable interest among economic planners concerning the creation of industrial clusters. Efforts to stimulate, nurture and reinforce such clusters can be found in virtually all of the European nations, as well as in Japan, Korea, China and others. These efforts range from reinforcing the strengths of promising areas to stimulating the creation of totally new technologies. The identification of such clustering opportunities has become a critical element of national, state, regional and local planning activities. While there are many researchers who have focused on this topic, the Harvard Business School's Michael Porter has ...


Assessing The Future Of The New England Mill Town: What Are The Key Factors That Lead To Successful Revitalization?, John Mullin, Zenia Kotval Apr 1997

Assessing The Future Of The New England Mill Town: What Are The Key Factors That Lead To Successful Revitalization?, John Mullin, Zenia Kotval

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

Over the past twenty years, we have been involved in economic revitalization projects in more than 50 mill towns across the state of Massachusetts. We begin these projects with a quiet visit to each community.

Moving off a state or interstate road, we meander down through a highly dense village of multiunit tenements. Built close to the road, they are always a decided mix of well-kept and decaying structures. They are rarely one or the other entirely. It is as if the residents and owners are undecided about reinvestment or commitment to the community.


Brief On The Bicycle-Pedestrian Pathway Dedication By The Rails-To-Trails Conservancy, The League Of American Bicyclists, The Bicycle Federation Of Oregon, National Wildlife Federation, And The American Society Of Landscape Architects As Amici Curiae In Support Of Respondent. Florence Dolan V. City Of Tigard, In The Supreme Court Of The United States, Andrea Ferster, Elizabeth A. Brabec, Glenn P. Sugamelli, Daniel L. Rabinowitz Oct 1993

Brief On The Bicycle-Pedestrian Pathway Dedication By The Rails-To-Trails Conservancy, The League Of American Bicyclists, The Bicycle Federation Of Oregon, National Wildlife Federation, And The American Society Of Landscape Architects As Amici Curiae In Support Of Respondent. Florence Dolan V. City Of Tigard, In The Supreme Court Of The United States, Andrea Ferster, Elizabeth A. Brabec, Glenn P. Sugamelli, Daniel L. Rabinowitz

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

No abstract provided.


The Greenfield Versus Brownfield Debate: A Balanced Approach To Industrial Planning, John R. Mullin, Zenia Kotval, Maureen Moriarty Jul 1993

The Greenfield Versus Brownfield Debate: A Balanced Approach To Industrial Planning, John R. Mullin, Zenia Kotval, Maureen Moriarty

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

Across the United States, mill towns and industrial communities, the "brownfields", have been experiencing rapid disinvestment as manufacturing and service firms increasingly move to suburban industrial parks, the "greenfields". This locational trend has been intensified over the years by our policies and regulations for industrial development. Is this shifting balance a desired result of our policies? The authors believe this trend has had negative effects on both the center cities left behind, as well as on the communities which are being developed. Analysis of the "Greenfield-Brownfield" debate can assist economic development planners in promoting balanced industrial growth. This article analyzes ...


When The Mall Comes To A Small Town: How To Shape Development With Carrots And Sticks, John Mullin, Zenia Kotval Oct 1992

When The Mall Comes To A Small Town: How To Shape Development With Carrots And Sticks, John Mullin, Zenia Kotval

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

Across the United States there is a continuous expansion of population away from our traditional urban center cities. As people have occupied housing in these former open spaces, industrial parks and commercial centers have soon followed. While local planning boards have been able, in most cases, to handle residential and industrial growth, they are rarely able to handle extensive retail growth. Indeed, when a mall developer - complete with a multitalented staff and reams of plans - comes before a small town planning board, there is inevitable shock and a great deal of fear. In our experience, few small towns are ever ...


The Mall Comes To Town: Planning For Its Development, John Mullin, Zenia Kotval, Edward Murray Jul 1991

The Mall Comes To Town: Planning For Its Development, John Mullin, Zenia Kotval, Edward Murray

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

This article analyzes the impacts of malls on the character and economic base of a community. Based on both applied planning and academic research, it is clear that malls stimulate major changes in the community fabric. It is also apparent that community leaders who have a clear perception that their cities and towns have the potential to attract malls, and prepare for them, will be able to gain far more from their development than those that simply wait and see. The theme of this article, in short, is that a community either plans for a mall or it is planned ...


Financial Performance Guarantees: The State Of Practice, Wayne Feiden, Raymond Burby, Edward Kaiser Jan 1989

Financial Performance Guarantees: The State Of Practice, Wayne Feiden, Raymond Burby, Edward Kaiser

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

Financial performance guarantees are tools for ensuring that funds needed to pay for improvements called for by development permits and approvals are available in the event a developer defaults on permit requirements. Once limited to surety bonds and cash escrows, new types of guarantees have been developed and are coming into common use. Standby letters of credit, in particular, are being used more widely and have a number of advantages. To use guarantees successfully, municipal governments must make careful decisions about a number of administrative matters. Evidence from 309 municipalities reported in this article can help local planners make the ...


Mature Industrial Communities: The Realities Of Reindustrialization, John R. Mullin, Jeanne H. Armstrong Jan 1987

Mature Industrial Communities: The Realities Of Reindustrialization, John R. Mullin, Jeanne H. Armstrong

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

This article analyzes the reindustrialization problems facing mature-industry communities in Massachusetts. The findings are based upon our planning consulting work and research projects involving forty cities and towns. The range of these communities includes those which have recovered, are on their way to recovery, and are stable; those which are declining; and those whose status is indeterminate. A variety of factors are reviewed, including unionization; work-force characteristics; the relationship between small and large plants; the characteristics of local companies; location; financing; the availability of land; and the role of local planning. Finally, we present recommendations concerning local action and possible ...


Infrastructure Planning In Rural Massachusetts, John R. Mullin, Jeanne H. Armstrong, Meir Gross, Robert D. Yaro Jan 1986

Infrastructure Planning In Rural Massachusetts, John R. Mullin, Jeanne H. Armstrong, Meir Gross, Robert D. Yaro

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

This paper describes the importance of understanding and dealing with the problems of infrastructure planning and maintenance in rural communities. Infrastructure is defined to include roads, bridges, water and wastewater collection and treatment systems, and public buildings and capital equipment. The authors base their findings primarily on the experience of communities in Massachusetts, but these findings are readily applied to the situation of rural communities elsewhere in the U.S.A. and other developed countries. Three major conclusions are presented in the paper: the need for rural communities to develop long-range plans for infrastructure maintenance and finance; the need to ...


From Mill Town To Mill Town: The Transition Of A New England Town From A Textile To A High-Technology Economy, John Mullin, Jeanne Armstrong, Jean Kavanagh Jan 1986

From Mill Town To Mill Town: The Transition Of A New England Town From A Textile To A High-Technology Economy, John Mullin, Jeanne Armstrong, Jean Kavanagh

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

This article describes and analyzes the economic transformation of Maynard, Massachusetts. Located twenty-six miles west of Boston, Maynard was the home of the world's largest woolen mill. In 1950 the mill closed and 1,200 jobs were lost. During the next ten years, the town gradually recovered as the mill became the home of several innovative companies. Ultimately, the mill became the headquarters for the world's largest manufacturer of minicomputers. The circle is now complete: the mill is full and houses a company that claims a "world's largest" designation. The article analyses the rise and fall of ...


Henry Ford And Field And Factory: An Analysis Of The Ford Sponsored Village Industries - Experiment In Michigan, 1918-1941, John R. Mullin Oct 1982

Henry Ford And Field And Factory: An Analysis Of The Ford Sponsored Village Industries - Experiment In Michigan, 1918-1941, John R. Mullin

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

Between 1916 and 1941, Henry Ford embarked on an effort to decentralize the production facilities of the Ford Motor Company. One component of this effort was an experiment in which he located seventeen small factories, called Village Industries, in rural areas throughout southeastern Michigan. These factories were designed to utilize water power in the production of sub-assembly parts for Ford's main assembly plants and were intended to provide jobs for rural residents. Ford endeavored to develop a sense of "field and factory" in these plants by training rural workers in the latest technological advances, allowing them release time to ...


Assessing Economic Impacts Of Urban Recreation Development: Lowell National Historical Park, John Mullin, Meir Gross, James Palmer Jun 1981

Assessing Economic Impacts Of Urban Recreation Development: Lowell National Historical Park, John Mullin, Meir Gross, James Palmer

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

This article describes a pragmatic approach to assessing the economic impact of major urban recreation development. It is based on an assessment of the impact of the Lowell National Historical Park (LNHP) on the metropolitan area of Lowell, Massachusetts. This study was conducted by the authors in response to the National Park Services' (NPS) need to anticipate impacts resulting from the creation of a new National Park in Lowell. More specifically, the NPS requested an analysis of the likely impact that the LNHP would have on economic development, employment, land use patterns, and local citizens. The assessment was prepared under ...


The Impact Of National Socialist Policies Upon Local City Planning In Pre-War Germany (1933-1939): The Rhetoric And The Reality, John Mullin Jan 1981

The Impact Of National Socialist Policies Upon Local City Planning In Pre-War Germany (1933-1939): The Rhetoric And The Reality, John Mullin

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

This paper is a review and analysis of the influence of the national government upon local city planning during the pre-war years of National Socialism (1933-1939). The paper begins with a brief overview of the critical aspects of city planning during both the Wilhelmian years (1871-1918) and the Weimar era (1918-1932). These aspects are reviewed in the context of their contributions to the city planning profession in general and to the German experience in particular. The paper then reviews the influence of ideology on city planning activities and follows with an explanation of the "state of the city" at the ...


American Perceptions Of German City Planning At The Turn Of The Century, John Mullin Jan 1976

American Perceptions Of German City Planning At The Turn Of The Century, John Mullin

Landscape Architecture & Regional Planning Faculty Publication Series

The German city in the late 1800's was a victim of many of the malaises that had struck earlier in the century in Britain and the United States. Rapid industrialization, improved transportation networks, and massive urbanization contributed to the creation of overcrowded, slum-like, disease-ridden cities throughout the nation. The long-admired medieval centers were increasingly prone to epidemics and destruction by fire. In a cultural-political sense, they were perceived by the ruling authorities as being corrupt, anti-volklich and centers of the much feared socialist movement. For the greater part of the century, the city had been neglected by both the ...