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Full-Text Articles in Architecture

Framing The Lowcountry: The Evolution Of The Region’S Vernacular Tradition, Brent Russell Fortenberry May 2016

Framing The Lowcountry: The Evolution Of The Region’S Vernacular Tradition, Brent Russell Fortenberry

All Theses

Timber-framing systems are the foundation of Early Modern vernacular architecture traditions. The fabrication, construction, and finish details of such assemblies are indexes of the character-defining features of building practices and the wider socio-cultural context. The Lowcountry of South Carolina is no exception. From the late seventeenth-century onwards builders from Old World traditions came together to erect unrivalled British edifices in the colonial and Early Republic periods. While other scholars have closely scrutinized and interpreted the framing traditions of the Chesapeake and New England, there has yet to be a consideration of the nature and evolution of the Lowcountry’s framing ...


Framing The Lowcountry: The Evolution Of The Region's Vernacular Tradition, Brent Russell Fortenberry May 2016

Framing The Lowcountry: The Evolution Of The Region's Vernacular Tradition, Brent Russell Fortenberry

All Theses

Timber-framing systems are the foundation of Early Modern vernacular architecture traditions. The fabrication, construction, and finish details of such assemblies are indexes of the character-defining features of building practices and the wider socio-cultural context. The Lowcountry of South Carolina is no exception. From the late seventeenth-century onwards builders from Old World traditions came together to erect unrivalled British edifices in the colonial and Early Republic periods. While other scholars have closely scrutinized and interpreted the framing traditions of the Chesapeake and New England, there has yet to be a consideration of the nature and evolution of the Lowcountry’s framing ...


The Structural And Material Evolution Of Molana Abbey, Ballynatray Demesne, County Waterford, Ireland, Site Wa037-011: A Mortar Composition Study, Claire Alice Achtyl May 2015

The Structural And Material Evolution Of Molana Abbey, Ballynatray Demesne, County Waterford, Ireland, Site Wa037-011: A Mortar Composition Study, Claire Alice Achtyl

All Theses

Molana Abbey, a ruin located in Ballynatray Demesne, County Waterford, Ireland, has religious roots in the sixth century but much of the structure dates to the eleventh-century. Molana became an important center of religion and education in southern Ireland. After Henry VIII dissolved Irish monasteries in 1546, the former abbey became a part of the land holdings of Sir Walter Raleigh. The abbey was then converted from a religious to a residential structure occupied briefly by English polymath Thomas Harriot. The structure fell into disrepair until the nineteenth-century when Grice Smyth, a new owner, transformed the ruin into a garden ...


"A Posture Of Defence": A Forensic Brick Analysis Of Charleston's Seventeenth And Eighteenth Century Walled Fortifications, Jacqueline Don May 2015

"A Posture Of Defence": A Forensic Brick Analysis Of Charleston's Seventeenth And Eighteenth Century Walled Fortifications, Jacqueline Don

All Theses

The fortification walls that once protected the bustling colonial port of Charles Town, South Carolina lie buried under a thriving, modern city. After almost a century of rediscovery and neglect, local scholarly expertise in the form of a city task force regularly explore the history and structure of the walls that once played an integral role in the daily operations, survival, and success of the young and isolated British colony. Archaeological excavations and archival research within the last decade have made significant progress in unearthing information previously lost to development and memory. These methods have experienced limitations, however, since access ...


On The Periphery: A Survey Of Nineteenth-Century Asylums In The United States, Lauren Hoopes May 2015

On The Periphery: A Survey Of Nineteenth-Century Asylums In The United States, Lauren Hoopes

All Theses

State and federal government purpose-built asylums constructed in the 'moral treatment' era of mental healthcare, here defined as 1835 to 1900, mark a period of great change in the nation. Establishment of moral treatment asylums occurred between two very different eras. The eighteenth century, in which mental illness was seen as a punishment from God, precedes the moral treatment asylums. Twentieth-century thinking favored a medical view in which mental illness can be treated or controlled with medical drugs. Asylums built in the nineteenth century relied on 'moral' treatments--treatments that utilized no restraints unless absolutely necessary and used the environment and ...


The Challenge Of Balance: A Study Of The Recent History Of The Board Of Architecture Review And Its Design Standards On The Calhoun Street Corridor In Charleston, South Carolina, Taylor Johnston May 2015

The Challenge Of Balance: A Study Of The Recent History Of The Board Of Architecture Review And Its Design Standards On The Calhoun Street Corridor In Charleston, South Carolina, Taylor Johnston

All Theses

Applauded as the United States’ first city to create a historic preservation ordinance, Charleston, South Carolina boasts a strong tradition in architectural protection. Presiding over this process of design review and its connected provisions, the Board of Architectural Review (BAR) evaluates any new construction, additions, and changes to any property visible in the public-right-of-way that falls within the historic district. According to the zoning ordinance, this governing body protects and preserves “the old historic or architecturally worthy structures and quaint neighborhoods which impart a distinct aspect of the city and which serve as visible reminders of the historical and cultural ...


Building Information Modeling (Bim): The Untapped Potential For Preservation Documentation And Management, Laura Lee Worrell May 2015

Building Information Modeling (Bim): The Untapped Potential For Preservation Documentation And Management, Laura Lee Worrell

All Theses

The preservation field has few software programs specifically created to store historic and management documentation. Some programs and techniques are utilized in combination to aid in the management and documentation process of historic resources that include, laser scanning, AutoDesk AutoCAD programs, Rhino 3D, photogrammetry, geographic information system, and even Microsoft Excel. This thesis examines the applicability of the Architectural, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry's Building Information Modeling (BIM) to create a three dimensional user interface for tracking and storing historic and management documentation. The case study performed for this thesis employs the Nathaniel Russell House owned by the Historic ...


The Analysis Of A Secondary Space: Bathrooms At Frank Lloyd Wright's Fallingwater, Amber Marie Anderson May 2015

The Analysis Of A Secondary Space: Bathrooms At Frank Lloyd Wright's Fallingwater, Amber Marie Anderson

All Theses

When observing Frank Lloyd Wright’s masterwork, Fallingwater, few people contemplate the significance of the property’s six finished bathrooms. However, similar themes which underscore the importance and wonder of the overall house itself, such as the use of technological innovation and careful attention to detail, were also employed throughout the bathrooms despite their designation as secondary spaces. This thesis examines these themes via the original process of design and the post-construction treatment of these spaces. In order to do this, architectural drawings, correspondence, family papers, visual observation, oral interviews, related project documents and both Preservation and Maintenance department manuals ...


Fifty Shades Of Beige: Comparative Paint Analysis Of Three Charleston Parlors, Alison Page Dunleavy May 2015

Fifty Shades Of Beige: Comparative Paint Analysis Of Three Charleston Parlors, Alison Page Dunleavy

All Theses

This research diachronically examines color in three parlors in Charleston, South Carolina: 35 Legare Street (ca. 1790); 18 Bull Street (ca.1800); and 61-63 Smith Street (ca. 1823-24) in order to determine the impact of wealth on pigment and binder selection. Cross-sectional analysis of interior finishes reveals the layers of paint on architectural elements, which identifies the evolution of color in an interior space. With additional types of analysis such as fluorochrome staining and scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), the samples also provide insight into the evolution of pigments and binders. Interpretation of the findings results in ...


Commemoration And Controversy: The Memorialization Of Denmark Vesey In Charleston, South Carolina, Sarah Katherine Dykens May 2015

Commemoration And Controversy: The Memorialization Of Denmark Vesey In Charleston, South Carolina, Sarah Katherine Dykens

All Theses

The commemoration of contested historical figures is a topic that is increasingly addressed by preservationists, historians, and those in local government. One such figure is Denmark Vesey, whose failed slave insurrection plot in 1822 forever altered the social and physical fabric of the United States. The ways in which this polarizing figure has been memorialized in Charleston, South Carolina, speak to the multivalent nature of Vesey himself as well as the shifting and complex racial politics in Charleston. In studying the four major commemorative efforts for Vesey that exist in Charleston, this thesis sheds light on the ways in which ...


"Nine Mahogany Table…Two Marble Slabbs And Stands…And A Cow": The First Generation Furniture Of Drayton Hall, Shannon Marie Devlin May 2015

"Nine Mahogany Table…Two Marble Slabbs And Stands…And A Cow": The First Generation Furniture Of Drayton Hall, Shannon Marie Devlin

All Theses

When the National Trust for Historic Preservation purchased Drayton Hall in 1974, they made a groundbreaking decision. The Trust took a conservation approach to the house, preserving Drayton Hall as found and presenting it to the public unfurnished. The decision proved to have significant ramifications and as a direct result, interpreting the material culture at the site slid to the side. Drayton Hall has over a million objects in its collections ranging from archaeological sherds to pieces of furniture, yet the collections play little to no role in site interpretation to the public. The first generation furniture (ca. 1738-1779), at ...


The Forgotten Stone: A History And Analysis Of Bermuda Stone In Charleston, South Carolina, Justin M. Schwebler May 2015

The Forgotten Stone: A History And Analysis Of Bermuda Stone In Charleston, South Carolina, Justin M. Schwebler

All Theses

Throughout the historic streets of Charleston, South Carolina there is a forgotten and overlooked stone. It is in the narrow gaps between houses, along carriageway walls, underfoot on garden paths, and in foundations of many historic buildings. The forgotten stone of Charleston is Bermuda stone. This thesis provides the history of Bermuda stone in Charleston, South Carolina. This history was written answering the following research questions. How and why was Bermuda stone imported to Charleston? Who were the people bringing Bermuda stone to Charleston and who were the people using it as a building material? When was the period of ...


One Land, Two American Dreams: Rediscovering The Secondary Dupont Narrative At James Madison's Montpelier, Sarah A. Sanders May 2015

One Land, Two American Dreams: Rediscovering The Secondary Dupont Narrative At James Madison's Montpelier, Sarah A. Sanders

All Theses

Secondary narratives are most easily defined as narratives deemed non-essential to the primary interpretation goals of a historic site. Given the established significance criteria in the United States, secondary narratives are currently undervalued and are challenging to address. James Madison's Montpelier in Orange County, Virginia serves as an ideal lens through which to explore this challenge, given that the estate clearly embodies more than one period of significance.

In 1901 William duPont Sr. of the illustrious Delaware duPont family purchased a large area of land just outside of the small rural town of Orange ,Virginia. Located over two hundred ...


Lowcountry Ghost Signs: A Study And Preservation Of Historic Signage In The South Carolina Lowcountry, James Wilson Smith May 2015

Lowcountry Ghost Signs: A Study And Preservation Of Historic Signage In The South Carolina Lowcountry, James Wilson Smith

All Theses

Outdoor advertisements have enlivened America's commercial landscape since the seventeenth century. Hand-painted advertisements applied to the sides of buildings, from barns in rural settings to stores in the nation's towns and cities, were once ubiquitous but have, as both message and medium have evolved, generally fallen out of everyday use. Once common, hand-painted wall signs have faded from America's commercial landscape and have become objects of nostalgia more than a method of merchandising.


The Leconte Lodge: A Lens For The Evolution And Development Of The Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Lindsay D. Lanois May 2014

The Leconte Lodge: A Lens For The Evolution And Development Of The Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Lindsay D. Lanois

All Theses

Officially established in 1934, the Great Smoky Mountains National Park originated as part of a widespread cultural trend towards outdoor recreation, national tourism, and the federal government's assumption of responsibility for land conservation. However, the area of Tennessee and North Carolina selected by the federal government for the national park was not a purely unsettled landscape. Not only did the land serve as home to approximately ten permanent agricultural communities, but it also featured several hotels and lodges inspired by the burgeoning twentieth-century tourism industry. Beginning as a rudimentary hiking cabin constructed in 1925 and evolving throughout the 1930s ...


The Mills Bill: An Economic Impact Study Of The North Carolina State Historic Mill Rehabilitation Tax Credit, Erin Elizabeth Morton May 2014

The Mills Bill: An Economic Impact Study Of The North Carolina State Historic Mill Rehabilitation Tax Credit, Erin Elizabeth Morton

All Theses

The textile, tobacco, and furniture industries in North Carolina suffered a significant loss of revenue and jobs in the 1990s. As production migrated to cheaper locations overseas, communities throughout the state faced the collateral challenge of finding new uses for hundreds of large, empty mill buildings. To encourage redevelopment of the state's vacant mills, North Carolina's legislature created a tax credit program that targeted mills and other similar industrial properties. This thesis quantifies the economic successes of the state's mill rehabilitation tax credit. Building on equations and assumptions from Becky Holton's 2008 IMPLAN software model, this ...


Spectrum Of The Spirit: Interpreting The Material Connotations Of Ecclesiastical Stained Glass In Charleston, South Carolina, Valerie J. Mccluskey May 2014

Spectrum Of The Spirit: Interpreting The Material Connotations Of Ecclesiastical Stained Glass In Charleston, South Carolina, Valerie J. Mccluskey

All Theses

The City of Charleston is known colloquially as 'The Holy City,' and many of its holy structures display stained glass windows. Long admired for their aesthetic qualities, these stained glass windows are under-examined examples of the city's material culture. A careful reading of these windows has uncovered information about the artifacts themselves and the cultural, religious, and geographic identities of the societies who created and commissioned these windows. This thesis examines how ethnography, religion, and geography influenced the artistic styles and iconography of the stained glass windows of Charleston's ecclesiastical structures and mausoleums. The stained glass windows of ...


The Crosstown: Physical Effects Of The Expansion Of Highway 17 Across The Charleston Peninsula, Melissa Mann Roach May 2014

The Crosstown: Physical Effects Of The Expansion Of Highway 17 Across The Charleston Peninsula, Melissa Mann Roach

All Theses

Completed in 1967, the Septima P. Clark Parkway is a prominent thoroughfare of peninsular Charleston, South Carolina. Locally known as the Crosstown, the road is officially part of Highway 17 and was conceived in the late 1950s to connect the state highway with Interstate 26. The roadway's route sliced through the middle of working class Charleston neighborhoods . City Council journals and minutes and South Carolina Department of Transportation (SCDOT) survey photographs reveal the character of the neighborhoods adjacent to the Crosstown. These micro-communities and their architectural fabric, disrupted by the acquisition of the right-of way and subsequent road construction ...


The Evolution Of The Kentucky Main Street Program; Its Beginning, Expansion And Renaissance, E Megan Funk May 2014

The Evolution Of The Kentucky Main Street Program; Its Beginning, Expansion And Renaissance, E Megan Funk

All Theses

This study examines the organizational structure of the Kentucky Main Street Program (KYMS), the Nation's first statewide Main Street program, and its impact on Kentucky's Main Street communities. Since its inception, KYMS has modified its program in response to changes in Kentucky's economic situation and communities' needs. These changes include expanding the program to smaller communities, adjusting the provision of technical services, and offering grants for manager's salaries and projects. KYMS and National Main Street Center (NMSC) evaluations have focused on performance during one- or two-year program cycles. Changes in structure and availability of services, however ...


Detroit's Theaters: A Study Of Significance And Reuse, Leigh Schoberth May 2014

Detroit's Theaters: A Study Of Significance And Reuse, Leigh Schoberth

All Theses

Detroit is frequently a case study for contemporary urban and economic issues. A specific component of Detroit's built fabric that requires preservation attention in light of the city's struggles is the undervalued theater district. Several of the theaters in the central district of Detroit are now threatened by demolition after years of neglect. The history and significance of the theaters, as well as careful consideration of the range of acceptable preservation treatment options, stand to inform a preservation plan for these and other cities' theaters. One of the options is the reuse of the theaters. While the large ...


A Forgotten Castle: Archer And Anna Huntington's Winter Residence Atalaya In Murrells Inlet, South Carolina, Kelly Morgan Herrick May 2014

A Forgotten Castle: Archer And Anna Huntington's Winter Residence Atalaya In Murrells Inlet, South Carolina, Kelly Morgan Herrick

All Theses

This thesis examines Atalaya, the winter residence Archer and Anna Huntington, New York artists and philanthropists, built at Murrells Inlet, South Carolina in 1934. Atalaya is an architecturally unique Spanish Revival residence that resists categorization. However, scholarly writing about the Huntingtons overlooks Atalaya and considers it a mere backdrop for the couple's lives and accomplishments. By compiling an accurate account of Atalaya's construction, this thesis investigates whether Atalaya's significance comes from its design or from Anna Hyatt Huntington's prominence as a sculptor. This thesis makes use of newspapers, Anna Huntington's personal diaries, and papers from ...


Three Hoes In The Kitchen: The Conceptualization Of Peachtree Plantation, St. James Santee Parish, South Carolina, Kendanne M. Altizer May 2014

Three Hoes In The Kitchen: The Conceptualization Of Peachtree Plantation, St. James Santee Parish, South Carolina, Kendanne M. Altizer

All Theses

Historical background research, precedent case studies, and archaeology are used to determine architectural antecedents, floor plan, and room uses of Peachtree Plantation. Peachtree is the ruin of a two-story dwelling once owned by the Lynch family, prominent Lowcountry rice planters and politicians. Thomas Lynch, Jr. was a signer of the Declaration of Independence. The house was built between 1760 and 1762 on the South Santee River in St. James Santee Parish, South Carolina. It burned in 1840 and was never reconstructed; what remains today is a ruin of partial walls and rubble.

This thesis uses a multi-disciplinary approach to explore ...


The Colonist's Concrete: A Preservation Plan For The Seventeenth-Century Tabby Floor Found At The Miller Archaeological Site, Lindsay A. Lee May 2014

The Colonist's Concrete: A Preservation Plan For The Seventeenth-Century Tabby Floor Found At The Miller Archaeological Site, Lindsay A. Lee

All Theses

In 2009, a seventeenth-century floor was discovered at the Miller Archaeological Site at Charles Towne Landing. Unearthed but covered with plastic sheeting since then, the floor is a remnant of Charleston’s first English settlement. Labeled on site as tabby, the material is typically comprised of oyster shells, sand, lime, and water. The lack of whole shell in the floor’s material suggests a role in the broader pattern of augmented earthen flooring deriving from the Caribbean, and in turn, Africa and Europe. Deteriorating at an unknown rate since its discovery, it is the hope of South Carolina State Parks ...


Creating Tradition: Change Ringing And The Myth Of The 'Holy City', Charlotte Hewitt Causey Dec 2013

Creating Tradition: Change Ringing And The Myth Of The 'Holy City', Charlotte Hewitt Causey

All Theses

This thesis analyzes the recent creation of tradition surrounding church bells and bell towers in Charleston, South Carolina. Church bells have been a significant feature of Charleston’s aural landscape since the mid-eighteenth century when St. Michael’s hung a ring of bells in the tower that still dominates the intersection of Meeting and Broad Streets. The histories of four churches, St. Michael’s (1751), the Cathedral of St. Luke and St. Paul (1811), St, Matthew’s Lutheran (1867), and Grace Episcopal (1846) affirms the important role that bells played for these congregations. The bells installed in these churches and ...


A Study Of The Aiken-Rhett Stew Stove, Julia Anne Tew Dec 2013

A Study Of The Aiken-Rhett Stew Stove, Julia Anne Tew

All Theses

The stew stove found in the kitchen of the Aiken-Rhett House in Charleston, South Carolina is a rare and well-preserved example of antebellum stew stove technology. This masonry stove was installed in the main kitchen of Governor William Aiken in 1858 and contains six cast iron stew holes and a set kettle. Masonry cook stoves appeared in the United States as early as the mid-eighteenth century. Stoves like this were not an American invention. A French device known as the potager is the predecessor and inspiration for such devices. This potager eased the cook's labors in preparing meals and ...


Noiseless, Automatic Service: The History Of Domestic Servant Call Bell Systems In Charleston, South Carolina, 1740-1900, Wendy Danielle Madill May 2013

Noiseless, Automatic Service: The History Of Domestic Servant Call Bell Systems In Charleston, South Carolina, 1740-1900, Wendy Danielle Madill

All Theses

Shortly before Europe's industrial revolution, tradesmen discovered an ingenious way to rig bells in houses to mechanize communication between homeowners and their servants. Mechanical bell systems, now known as house bells or servant call bells, were prevalent in Britain and America from the late 1700s to the early twentieth century. These technological ancestors of today's telephone were operated by the simple pull of a knob or a tug of a tassel mounted on an interior wall. Bell-pulls increased privacy for both servants and their employers by separating both parties by the length of a bell wire, but they ...


The United Order Of Tents And 73 Cannon Street: A Study Of Identity And Place, Mary Margaret Schley May 2013

The United Order Of Tents And 73 Cannon Street: A Study Of Identity And Place, Mary Margaret Schley

All Theses

One hundred years ago, a group of African-American women assembled in Charleston, South Carolina under the name of the United Order of Tents of J.R. Giddings and Jollifee Union. The only organization of its kind, the United Order of Tents is a secret society comprised and operated solely by African-American women. The Order traces its roots back to the operations of the Underground Railroad in Norfolk, Virginia. The founder of the organization, Annetta M. Lane, assisted slaves during their escape from the South through their journey on the Railroad. After emancipation, Annetta Lane and United Order of Tents co-founder ...


The Charleston Trussed Roof: A Study Of The Development And Implementation Of A Structural Solution From 1740-1820, Pamela Marotta Kendrick May 2013

The Charleston Trussed Roof: A Study Of The Development And Implementation Of A Structural Solution From 1740-1820, Pamela Marotta Kendrick

All Theses

Charleston, South Carolina is renowned for the impressive churches, civic buildings, and mansions which line its historic streets. Although scholars have studied many of these famous structures in depth, the roof framing methods used to construct these large buildings has rarely been studied or documented. Where documentation exists it is rudimentary at best, often only identifying the overall form of the roof or the material used for the roof covering. The truss roof system was designed to accommodate buildings with a spans greater than twenty five feet wide. The implementation of these truss roof designs enabled the construction of Charleston ...


The Stonecutters And Tomb Builders Of Lafayette Cemetery No.1, New Orleans, Louisiana, Emily Anne Ford May 2013

The Stonecutters And Tomb Builders Of Lafayette Cemetery No.1, New Orleans, Louisiana, Emily Anne Ford

All Theses

This thesis explores the building history of Lafayette Cemetery No. 1, established 1833. The historic cemetery, located in what is now the Garden District of New Orleans, Louisiana, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1972, but has continued to experience preservation issues concerning its traditional above-ground tombs and other landscape features.
By investigating the building methods and background of the historic craftsmen who helped develop Lafayette No. 1, the cemetery will be better understood and, thus, better preserved. A combination of structural surveys and archival research, this thesis constructs a dimensional portrait not only of specific ...


The Best Brick House In All The Country: Documenting The Structural Evolution Of Medway, Mount Holly, South Carolina, Neale Canter Nickels May 2013

The Best Brick House In All The Country: Documenting The Structural Evolution Of Medway, Mount Holly, South Carolina, Neale Canter Nickels

All Theses

This thesis represents the assembly of physical architectural analysis, archival investigation, and the study of the work of previous historians on the subject of the main house at Medway Plantation. Medway is a property whose origins can be traced back to the seventeenth century. Since then, it has changed form many times. A great amount of research has been conducted on Medway by historians, both amateur and professional. Few, however, if any have ever been able to study Medway with the stucco removed from the exterior and walls and floors exposed on the inside.
This was the impetus for researching ...