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Full-Text Articles in Architecture

Blind Image Quality Assessment For Face Pose Problem, Cerine Tafran, Mohamad El-Abed, Ziad Osman, Islam Elkabani Jun 2020

Blind Image Quality Assessment For Face Pose Problem, Cerine Tafran, Mohamad El-Abed, Ziad Osman, Islam Elkabani

BAU Journal - Science and Technology

No-Reference image quality assessment for face images is of high interest since it can be required for biometric systems such as biometric passport applications to increase system performance. This can be achieved by controlling the quality of biometric sample images during enrollment. This paper proposes a novel no-reference image quality assessment method that extracts several image features and uses data mining techniques for detecting the pose variation problem in facial images. Using subsets from three public 2D face databases PUT, ENSIB, and AR, the experimental results recorded a promising accuracy of 97.06% when using the RandomForest Classifier, which outperforms ...


Studies Of Smba2cu3o7-Δ / Znfe2o4 Superconducting Composites, Hadi Basma, Waleed Abdeen, Ayman El-Tahan, El-Maghraby El-Maghraby, Ahmed Khalaf Jun 2020

Studies Of Smba2cu3o7-Δ / Znfe2o4 Superconducting Composites, Hadi Basma, Waleed Abdeen, Ayman El-Tahan, El-Maghraby El-Maghraby, Ahmed Khalaf

BAU Journal - Science and Technology

SmBa2Cu3O7-δ /(ZnFe2O4)x superconducting composites with 0.00 ≤ x ≤ 0.20 wt% were prepared by the usual solid-state reaction method. The prepared samples were investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) at room temperature and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements in the temperature range (100-295 K). It is found that EPR spectra are dominated by an anisotropic Cu2+ EPR pattern. Moreover, the EPR spectral intensity increases as the temperature decrease from room temperature down to 100 K. The number of spins (N) participating in EPR resonance, the activation energy (Ea), the paramagnetic susceptibility (c) and the effective magnetic moment (µeff) are ...


Potential Male Contraceptive Effect Of Eriobotrya Japonica Leaves Extract, Alaa Al Moubarak, Manal El Joumaa, Jamilah Borjac Jun 2020

Potential Male Contraceptive Effect Of Eriobotrya Japonica Leaves Extract, Alaa Al Moubarak, Manal El Joumaa, Jamilah Borjac

BAU Journal - Science and Technology

Nowadays, the stability of population growth is becoming one of the common global social and health problems that could be solved via contraception. Current research in the field of male contraceptives is focusing on the use of oral herbs. Eriobotrya japonica (Loquat) is a medicinal plant that has been commonly valued for its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, hypocholesteremic, and antitumor properties. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of the oral administration of loquat aqueous leaves extract on the fertility of male Balb/c mice. For this aim, six-eight-weeks old male Balb/c mice (~25g) were orally administered (100 mg ...


Dielectric Properties Of Cu0.5tl0.5ba2ca2cu3o10-Δ Superconductor Added With Nano-Fe2o3, Aly Abou-Aly, Ibrahim Ibrahim, Nayera Mohammed, Mona Rekaby Jun 2020

Dielectric Properties Of Cu0.5tl0.5ba2ca2cu3o10-Δ Superconductor Added With Nano-Fe2o3, Aly Abou-Aly, Ibrahim Ibrahim, Nayera Mohammed, Mona Rekaby

BAU Journal - Science and Technology

A series of high-temperature superconducting samples of type Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2Cu3O10-δ, (Cu0.5Tl0.5)-1223, added with nano-Fe2O3 (0.0- 1.0 wt. %) was prepared by a solid-state reaction technique via short time preparation procedure and under ambient pressure. The prepared samples were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) for phase analysis and microstructure examination. The volume fraction results indicated that nano-Fe2O3 addition was significant in enhancing the formation rate of the (Cu0.5Tl0.5)-1223 phase, especially for x ≤ 0.2 wt. % samples. The electrical resistivity of the prepared samples ...


Customer Churn Analysis Using Binary Logistic Regression Model, Mohammad Abiad, Sorin Ionescu Jun 2020

Customer Churn Analysis Using Binary Logistic Regression Model, Mohammad Abiad, Sorin Ionescu

BAU Journal - Science and Technology

These days, the fundamental target of all organizations is to accomplish a reasonable gainfulness. Organizations are looking to decide the elements, which has direct impact on their benefit and attempt to investigate them so as to pick up favorable circumstances on their rivals. With this solid aggressive market, holding customers turns into the fundamental objective of telecom mobile service providers opposed to drawing in new customers, since the expense of holding a customer is viewed as low contrasted with the expense of pulling in another customer as referenced before by numerous researchers. Thus, Customer Churn Analytics is one of the ...


Solvent Effects On The Electronic Absorption Spectra Of Some Analytical Indicators, Mamdouh S. Masoud, Rabah H.A. Mohamed, Hesham M. Kamel, Najat O. M. El-Ziani Jun 2020

Solvent Effects On The Electronic Absorption Spectra Of Some Analytical Indicators, Mamdouh S. Masoud, Rabah H.A. Mohamed, Hesham M. Kamel, Najat O. M. El-Ziani

BAU Journal - Science and Technology

Electronic absorption spectra of selected ligands (Alloxan, Carmine, Naphthol Yellow S, Hematoxylin and Cyanine) were recorded in presence of different solvents (H2O, Ethyl acetate, Ethanol, DMF, Isopropyl alcohol, Amyl alcohol and Butanol) of variable physical properties. The electronic transitions were assigned. The data are analyzed based on the multiple linear regression technique explained from the views of different solvent parameters. Statistical analyses of the effect of solvents on the electronic spectra of the present ligands have been investigated.


Performance Of Concrete Containing Waste Plastic Straw Fibers, Jamal Khatib, Ali Jahami, Oussama Baalbaki, Adel Elkordi, Abed Bakri, Roba Alaina Jun 2020

Performance Of Concrete Containing Waste Plastic Straw Fibers, Jamal Khatib, Ali Jahami, Oussama Baalbaki, Adel Elkordi, Abed Bakri, Roba Alaina

BAU Journal - Science and Technology

Using fibers in concrete applications has become a common practice. This is partly due to improvement in ductility and crack control of concrete. There will be an added advantage if these fibers come from a waste source as it would lead to reduction in environmental pollution and the need for landfill spaces. This paper forms the initial part of a wide range investigation on the use of waste plastic fibers in concrete applications. This study attempts to apply the concept of sustainability and reduces the environmental pollution by producing fibers from waste plastic straws and adding them to plain concrete ...


Effect Of Partial Replacement Of Sand By Mswi-Ba On The Properties Of Mortar, Hassan Ghanem, Jamal Khatib, Adel Elkordi Jun 2020

Effect Of Partial Replacement Of Sand By Mswi-Ba On The Properties Of Mortar, Hassan Ghanem, Jamal Khatib, Adel Elkordi

BAU Journal - Science and Technology

Disposal of municipal solid wastes (MSW) has recently become a major problem in Lebanon as finding appropriate landfill is becoming more challenging than ever. Incineration is a technique currently used to reduce the volume of MSW generated. The output of this treatment is a residue well known as Municipal Solid Waste Incineration bottom and fly ash. This study is focused on the mortar containing Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Bottom Ash (MSWI-BA) as partial replacement of sand. For this purpose, mortar specimens were prepared with 25, 50 and 100% (by weight) MSWI-BA to replace the sand. Specimens were cured in water ...


Behavior Of Reinforced Concrete Beams Containing Lightweight Aggregate In The Tensile Zone, Jamal Khatib, Ali Jahami, Oussama Baalbaki, Adel Elkordi, Hakim Abdelgader Jun 2020

Behavior Of Reinforced Concrete Beams Containing Lightweight Aggregate In The Tensile Zone, Jamal Khatib, Ali Jahami, Oussama Baalbaki, Adel Elkordi, Hakim Abdelgader

BAU Journal - Science and Technology

In reinforced concrete design, the concrete in the tensile zone is assumed to be ineffective and increase the dead load of the structural elements. In order to reduce the self-weight, this paper examines the structural behavior of reinforced concrete beams containing lightweight concrete in the tensile region and normal weight concrete in the rest of the beam. The lightweight concrete was made from waste polystyrene. Four reinforced concrete beams were prepared with different depth of lightweight concrete. The control beam B1 consists of normal concrete. In Beams B2, B3 and B4, the depth of lightweight concrete was 25%, 50% and ...


Fuzzy Logic Velocity Optimization Of Autonomous Vehicles Based On Road Bump Geometry, Yassine Zein, Mohamad Darwiche Jun 2020

Fuzzy Logic Velocity Optimization Of Autonomous Vehicles Based On Road Bump Geometry, Yassine Zein, Mohamad Darwiche

BAU Journal - Science and Technology

In today’s world of fast developing technologies, semi-autonomous vehicles are becoming a common sight and increasing in numbers. Some feature autopilot systems that drive the vehicle without any intervention from the driver in certain situations or warn the driver of dangers ahead. A fully autonomous vehicle is yet to come due to old fashioned road infrastructures that would convey challenging scenarios for it. From speed bumps and traffic lights to road lanes and warning signs, current autopilot systems will have to cope with all. A system that ensures safe crossing of speed bumps when in autopilot mode is discussed ...


Emergency Vehicles Allocation Model For Urban City, Ramzi Fayad, Hadi Abou Chakra Jun 2020

Emergency Vehicles Allocation Model For Urban City, Ramzi Fayad, Hadi Abou Chakra

BAU Journal - Science and Technology

The Emergency Medical Service (EMS) plays a vital role in any community. The accessibility, distribution, and utilization of the emergency health care services have a great impact on the effectiveness and the efficiency of the EMS. In this study, an algorithm has been devised to optimize choosing the appropriate station location, allocating the right number of emergency vehicles to a station, and directing the critical and non-critical patients to the most suitable hospitals. XPRESS-MP solver engine was used in this study to derive a deterministic mathematical model using mixed integer linear programming. This model is customized for Beirut city. The ...


Assessment Of Healthcare Waste Management In Hospitals Of South Lebanon, Mona Tfaily, Salim Moussa Jun 2020

Assessment Of Healthcare Waste Management In Hospitals Of South Lebanon, Mona Tfaily, Salim Moussa

BAU Journal - Health and Wellbeing

Healthcare wastes (HCW) are produced in any healthcare setting during diagnosis, medical care, operation or injection process or during research studies. The management of such wastes is becoming a great issue since they pose many health risks and environmental damage. Hence, this study was carried out to assess the level of healthcare waste management in hospitals of South Lebanon. A cross sectional study was conducted in five hospitals located in South Lebanon (A, B, C, D and E). The Individualized Rapid Assessment Tool (I-RAT) developed in 2009 as part of the UNDP GEF Global Project on Healthcare Waste, was the ...


Hospital-Acquired Infection Role In Unplanned Extubation Of Endotracheal Tubes In Critical Care Units In Lebanon, Ahmad El Tassi Jun 2020

Hospital-Acquired Infection Role In Unplanned Extubation Of Endotracheal Tubes In Critical Care Units In Lebanon, Ahmad El Tassi

BAU Journal - Health and Wellbeing

Controlling Hospital-acquired Infections remains the cornerstone for improving patient safety during hospitalization. It continues one of the most common and costly problems facing critically ill patients in intensive care units. Disrupting mechanical ventilation, commonly performed in the intensive care unit, via unplanned extubation, whether deliberate or accidental, is a nightmare to any critical care practitioner. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Hospital-acquired Infections on unplanned extubation in adult critical care units at a Lebanese university hospital. A Case-control design was implemented. All medical records of patients admitted to critical care units over the last ...


Effectiveness Of A Health Education Intervention About Influenza And Vaccine In Secondary Schools In South Lebanon, Israa Assaf, Salim Moussa Jun 2020

Effectiveness Of A Health Education Intervention About Influenza And Vaccine In Secondary Schools In South Lebanon, Israa Assaf, Salim Moussa

BAU Journal - Health and Wellbeing

Seasonal influenza is an intense respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that circulate all around the world. In Lebanon, there is a lack of national flu awareness campaigns. Schools’ students are truly outstanding and viable sources to spread the awareness and strive for the conduct change in the general population. Hence, this study was carried out to test the effectiveness of a health education intervention in improving the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) toward influenza and its vaccine among secondary schools’ students in South Lebanon. This is a Pre/Post research study conducted in four schools located in South Lebanon ...


Concept Mapping Versus Traditional Teaching Method On Health Sciences’ Students’ Score, Mirna Fawaz, Ayman El Khatib, Germine El Kassas, Said El Shamieh Jun 2020

Concept Mapping Versus Traditional Teaching Method On Health Sciences’ Students’ Score, Mirna Fawaz, Ayman El Khatib, Germine El Kassas, Said El Shamieh

BAU Journal - Health and Wellbeing

In the recent years, health care systems have been dynamically changing which demanded modifications in health care education. Current educational models are becoming more and more obsolete in enhancing the professional level of both teachers and students. Concepts maps are effective tools in processing large amounts of information, comprehending new concepts, as well as in generating information and amplifying creativity levels. The aim of this study is to compare the concept mapping versus traditional teaching method on Health Sciences’ students’ score. A Quasi-experimental design was implemented in the study. The study revealed that there was a significant difference between learning ...


Assessment Of The Occlusal Characteristics Of The Primary Dentition Among Lebanese Pre-School Children: A Base Line Study Cross-Sectional Study, Sherine B.Y. Badr, Sara H.Yahfoufi Jun 2020

Assessment Of The Occlusal Characteristics Of The Primary Dentition Among Lebanese Pre-School Children: A Base Line Study Cross-Sectional Study, Sherine B.Y. Badr, Sara H.Yahfoufi

BAU Journal - Health and Wellbeing

One of the most important goals in pediatric dentistry is to achieve and maintain a normal occlusion throughout the development of the child. Any deviation from the normal dentofacial growth pattern might lead to esthetic and functional problems in the future. These changes can be noticed during regular dental checkups, and actions can be taken to reduce their effect on the developing dentition. The aim of this study is to assess the occlusal characteristics of primary dentition in children under 6 years of age, attending the BAU output dental clinics and a number of private schools. This cross-sectional study was ...


Pain Detection Threshold And Pain Tolerance Threshold In Shisha Smokers In Lebanon - A Health Hazard, Nariman Salem, Sara El Rawas, Rima Abou Chahine, Zouhour Alwan, Rouba Halime, Lara Chehade, Mohammad Abdallah Jun 2020

Pain Detection Threshold And Pain Tolerance Threshold In Shisha Smokers In Lebanon - A Health Hazard, Nariman Salem, Sara El Rawas, Rima Abou Chahine, Zouhour Alwan, Rouba Halime, Lara Chehade, Mohammad Abdallah

BAU Journal - Health and Wellbeing

Shisha smoking is a common method of tobacco smoking in the Mediterranean Region with prevalence ranging between 20% and 70%. Actually, shisha smoking is becoming increasingly popular method of tobacco smoking worldwide. Pain is a subjective experience influenced by genetic, developmental, familial, psychological, social and cultural variables. An increase in pain tolerance threshold (Ptt) ,which is defined as the highest intensity of painful stimulation that a tested subject is able to tolerate, was noticed with cigarette smoking. However, the relation between shisha smoking and pain detection threshold (Pdt), defined as the lowest intensity of a painful stimulus at which the ...


Factors Affecting Metformin And Clomiphene’S Reproductive Efficacy In Pcos Women, Rita J. Poushuju, Ahmed I. El-Mallah, Lama T. Soubra, Lina N. Jarrah Jun 2020

Factors Affecting Metformin And Clomiphene’S Reproductive Efficacy In Pcos Women, Rita J. Poushuju, Ahmed I. El-Mallah, Lama T. Soubra, Lina N. Jarrah

BAU Journal - Health and Wellbeing

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous multifactorial disorder in which the ovarian dysfunction is the main cause of an ovulatory infertility. Metformin and Clomiphene Citrate (CC) are two effective drugs to induce ovulation in these patients. The study aimed to ascertain the effect of obesity, serum insulin and free testosterone levels on fertility success with metformin and CC as first line approaches in PCOS. This clinical study was a retrospective multicenter cohort study conducted in nine gynecology and endocrinology clinics. It included (61) PCOS women, aged (18-32) years, having desire to conceive, and free from the study medications for ...


Effect Of Segmental Vibration On Hand And Pinch Grip Strengths In Healthy Subjects, Rami L. Abbas, Ayman El Khatib, Ibtissam M. Saab Jun 2020

Effect Of Segmental Vibration On Hand And Pinch Grip Strengths In Healthy Subjects, Rami L. Abbas, Ayman El Khatib, Ibtissam M. Saab

BAU Journal - Health and Wellbeing

Handgrip and pinch strengths are important markers in many sports as well as in determining health status. Many interventions have been proposed for increasing hand muscle strength. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of segmental hand vibration on hand and pinch grip strengths. Ninety-two healthy university students were randomly assigned into two equal groups. By the end of the study, Group (A) and (B) consisted of 40 and 37 participants, respectively. The measurements consisted of the hand grip and pinch grip strengths using electronic dynamometer, measured in Kg, before, after three weeks, and after six weeks ...


In Vitro Equivalence Study Of Generic Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets Under Biowaiver Conditions, Ruaa H. Al Arwadi, Azza A. K. Gazy, Lama Soubra, Rola D. Ajami Jun 2020

In Vitro Equivalence Study Of Generic Metformin Hydrochloride Tablets Under Biowaiver Conditions, Ruaa H. Al Arwadi, Azza A. K. Gazy, Lama Soubra, Rola D. Ajami

BAU Journal - Health and Wellbeing

Background: Generic drugs are smarter alternative to expensive brands, it is bio- equivalent formula of any branded drug. FDA approved that generic drugs are the safest to consume, the medicines meet the similar manufacturing standards followed while producing an innovator drug, however, the color, shape, taste and packaging of generics is different from the innovator product. In short, a generic drug should be bioequivalent to its brand counterpart. Metformin was initially marketed under the name of Glucophage®, and now the market is loaded by generics of different origin, and price variability. Method: Our study was conducted to determine whether metformin ...


Para(Noia)Metric: Architecture Beyond The Edge Of Rationality, Marwan Halabi Jun 2020

Para(Noia)Metric: Architecture Beyond The Edge Of Rationality, Marwan Halabi

Architecture and Planning Journal (APJ)

Nowadays, efforts are being tremendously put in order to facilitate opportunities for the fourth industrial revolution to play a real role in the destiny of architectural design and construction. Parametric design and digital fabrication are some of the tools that have been contributing in this uprising for the last two decades. The amount of solutions developed so far has, sometimes out of curiosity, been used in alternative ways that occasionally lead to highly appreciated outcomes, and sometimes immersed us in worlds of rationally controlled complexities that might be not so useful. Some of the highly sophisticated computational design processes strengths ...


Optimum Windbreaker To Reduce Wind Tunnel Effect On Occupant Comfort At Pedestrian Level (A Case Study Of Bau Building In Tripoli), Dima Khoder Merhy, Nabil Mohareb, Mostafa R. A. Khalifa Jun 2020

Optimum Windbreaker To Reduce Wind Tunnel Effect On Occupant Comfort At Pedestrian Level (A Case Study Of Bau Building In Tripoli), Dima Khoder Merhy, Nabil Mohareb, Mostafa R. A. Khalifa

Architecture and Planning Journal (APJ)

Shape, size, building orientation and its interaction with the surrounding buildings can cause wind tunnel that affect the pedestrian comfort. This paper aims to select the optimum windbreaker height and thickness for reducing the effect of wind tunnels on pedestrian comfort, by selecting the building of Beirut Arab University (BAU)-Tripoli campus as a case study. Different alternative designs have been simulated and compared with the comfort criteria of pedestrians to conclude the optimum solution that can be adapted on the selected building and on any other cases that have similar characteristics.


Enhancing Pedestrian Flow In Public Space Through User Segregation, Ali Sedki, Farah Iaali Jun 2020

Enhancing Pedestrian Flow In Public Space Through User Segregation, Ali Sedki, Farah Iaali

Architecture and Planning Journal (APJ)

This paper attempts to improve the pedestrian flow in the public space of Yaacoub El-Labban Square in El-Mina district, Triopoli, North Lebanon. The new understanding of urban planning aimed to promoting pedestrian movement while restricting the unnecessary use of vehicles. It is presumed that the presence or absence of vehicular activity can affect the motion and mobility of pedestrians in a certain zone. Consequently, this study, first, run a Space Syntax interpretation using DepthMap analyses for the chosen case study in order to understand how pedestrian movement can be promoted and increased through user segregation, and, additionally, restrictive use of ...


Employing Sustainable Development Concepts To Revitalize The Historic Urban Quarter Of Al-Muizz Street, Cairo, Egypt, Baher Ismail Farahat Jun 2020

Employing Sustainable Development Concepts To Revitalize The Historic Urban Quarter Of Al-Muizz Street, Cairo, Egypt, Baher Ismail Farahat

Architecture and Planning Journal (APJ)

Historical preservation helps keep communities beautiful, vibrant and livable, and gives people a stake in their surroundings, for the fact that such historical and valuable places provide a sense of stability and a tangible link with the past (historichawaii.org Feb.2020). Historical places constitute a valuable front for cities with a well-known identity that lasted for centuries. Focusing on developing these places to ensure their sustainability and preserving their history constitutes a mission that has impact not only on the urban environment but also on people using it. Fundamentally, cities bring creative and productive people together helping them to ...


Saving The Memories In The Framework Of Social Heritage Conservation In Egyptian Villages, Dalia Shebl Said Jun 2020

Saving The Memories In The Framework Of Social Heritage Conservation In Egyptian Villages, Dalia Shebl Said

Architecture and Planning Journal (APJ)

Social memories is a part of our heritage. One of the complex challenges which facing our intangible heritage is how to deal to various forms of social meaning, special memories that form a distinguished culture in our community. Social heritage is heavily related to three factors; time, place and human. The research takes a case study Al-Shakluba village that focuses on the non-materialistic aspects of social and culture heritage that increases recognition with intangible values and plays an important role that how people interact with social and cultural environments and the importance of these values that impact on the ways ...


Techno-Economic Analysis Of Using Pv Curtain Walls In Hot Arid Environmentcase Study; Mixed-Use Building, Jeddah, Ksa, Abdelaziz Farouk A. Mohamed, Ahmed T. Elfakgarany Jun 2020

Techno-Economic Analysis Of Using Pv Curtain Walls In Hot Arid Environmentcase Study; Mixed-Use Building, Jeddah, Ksa, Abdelaziz Farouk A. Mohamed, Ahmed T. Elfakgarany

Architecture and Planning Journal (APJ)

Nowadays the world no longer has a choice to reduce the dependency of non-renewable energy resources, especially in buildings. This type of energy like fossil fuel is responsible for global warming and the climate change phenomenon. The construction industry has to depend on renewable energy to improve environmental impacts while operating the buildings. The most promising technologies for buildings are photovoltaic panels system which converts solar radiation into electricity without harming the environment. PV system is not only used as top-roof panels but also it can play an important role in the exterior building cladding and in curtain wall system ...


Experiential Learning Based Biophilic Design, Marwa Charkas Jun 2020

Experiential Learning Based Biophilic Design, Marwa Charkas

Architecture and Planning Journal (APJ)

Capturing nature-related values is the cornerstone in postmodern theories of architecture. Approaches like, sustainable, ecological, environmental, green …. etc, are labeling most of architectural interventions now. However, ‘Biophilic Architecture’ stands as one of these concepts that reflects a new perspective for linking the nature to architecture. The applications of this concept are accelerating among different building types and it has profound impacts on articulating the vocabulary of the used architecture. Schools are among building types that witness profound changes in architectural expressions due to radical developments in pedagogical theories. Experiential learning is one of the emerging approaches for preschoolers. It exploits ...


Investigating The Relationship Between User's Densities And Functions Distribution On Mediterranean Waterfronts: Statistical Analysis Approach, Sima El-Cheikh, Mary Felix, Nabil Mohareb, Ibtihal Y. El-Bastawissi Jun 2020

Investigating The Relationship Between User's Densities And Functions Distribution On Mediterranean Waterfronts: Statistical Analysis Approach, Sima El-Cheikh, Mary Felix, Nabil Mohareb, Ibtihal Y. El-Bastawissi

Architecture and Planning Journal (APJ)

The type of buildings and activities along the waterfronts have to stimulate the interactivity between public spaces and their users to reach the desired comfort, enjoyment and appropriate densities. This study is part of a continuing research and it aims to highlight the spatial relationship between the type of buildings and the densities on cities waterfronts of the Mediterranean Sea. It undertakes three case studies with different economic and touristic levels. It is a top-bottom approach that analyzes the existing population densities on waterfronts and the surrounding building functions. This paper uses quantitative analysis based on spatial statistics along each ...


The Efficiency Of Rainwater Harvesting Systems In The Lebanese Coastal Zone, Kareem Galal Jun 2020

The Efficiency Of Rainwater Harvesting Systems In The Lebanese Coastal Zone, Kareem Galal

Architecture and Planning Journal (APJ)

Water conservation is one of the most important trends within sustainable applications in the world today. The global fresh water demand has increased by 1% per year since the 1980s, and it is estimated that it will continue increasing at this rate until 2050. Therefore, utilizing the available rain water has become a vital parameter for most of the world's countries that lie within the water demand red-zone. Lebanon is moving toward the water demand red-zone rapidly, which has prompted the consideration of rain water harvesting (RWH) systems in the last ten years. The variety in precipitation in the ...


Enhancing Undergraduate Architectural Education (Scale 1 To 1 Design - Build Method), Mostafa Khalifa, Mostafa El Hefnawi Jun 2020

Enhancing Undergraduate Architectural Education (Scale 1 To 1 Design - Build Method), Mostafa Khalifa, Mostafa El Hefnawi

Architecture and Planning Journal (APJ)

On 1997, the board of RIBA – Royal Institute of Britch Architects – highly recommended “experimental learning” or “learning by doing” methods in design studio teaching in architecture as a “practicum”. (Wallis, 2005) Although practicum is the task of learning architecture as practice, most of practicum teaching applications in architectural education are either in postgraduate level or in extra curriculum activities. Based on international studies on Design-Build educations, teaching experience and observation of fresh graduates and junior architects, there is still a shortage between design and execution in undergraduate education level, students faces many problems during project implementation phase in reality due ...