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Full-Text Articles in Architecture

Stewarding An Educational Legacy: Historic Preservation At Historically Black Colleges And Universities, Katlyn E. Cotton Jan 2017

Stewarding An Educational Legacy: Historic Preservation At Historically Black Colleges And Universities, Katlyn E. Cotton

Theses (Historic Preservation)

The historic campuses of Historically Black Colleges and Universities inform a story that no other setting can tell. Since before the Civil War, through Reconstruction and the Civil Rights movement, and still today, these institutions have served as the backdrop for this country’s greatest social justice struggles. They have functioned as free spaces and safe havens—places of reprieve from discrimination and inequity—where young African Americans were given the confidence and support to become leaders, innovators, and history-makers. Throughout history, these incredible institutions have nurtured an environment of empowerment, cultural reinforcement, and acceptance that has had immeasurable impacts ...


Testing And Evaluation Of Soil Based Grouts For The Adhesion Of Consolidated And Un-Consolidated Painted Lime Plaster At The Mission San José De Tumacácori, Nicole M. Declet Díaz Jan 2017

Testing And Evaluation Of Soil Based Grouts For The Adhesion Of Consolidated And Un-Consolidated Painted Lime Plaster At The Mission San José De Tumacácori, Nicole M. Declet Díaz

Theses (Historic Preservation)

The interior decorative painting at Mission San Jose de Tumacácori is a rare survival of late 18th century-early 19th century artistic traditions of northern Sonora and the Kino mission churches. Despite earlier attempts to stabilize these finishes, the original painted lime plaster has continued to detach from the adobe substrate. Previous techniques to stabilize the paintings began with research by J. Rutherford Gettens in 1949-1952 and subsequent attempts in 1984 to reattach detached plaster have proven ineffective. The current research evaluates soil-based injection grouting in order to adhere the loose plaster on the nave and sanctuary walls. Earthen grouts were ...


Cultural Landscapes And Adaptation: Identifying The Role Of Civic Engagement And Cultural Heritage In Coastal Adaptation Planning, Madeleine Helmer Jan 2017

Cultural Landscapes And Adaptation: Identifying The Role Of Civic Engagement And Cultural Heritage In Coastal Adaptation Planning, Madeleine Helmer

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Recognizing climate change associated threats to coastal environments, civic leaders and policymakers are developing and implementing local adaptation and resilience strategies. Largely absent from this conversation is, however, the cultural heritage of the coast-- the places of local identity, meaning and history. To address this shortcoming, the following study assesses the role of cultural heritage in coastal adaptation planning. The integration of cultural heritage in adaptation planning leads to more holistic, place-based and effective adaptive efforts, and contributes to long-term resilience. Civic engagement is one mechanism for identifying, evaluating and promoting cultural heritage in the coastal planning process. This thesis ...


Preservation Through Property Tax: The Impacts Of Philadelphia's 10-Year Property Tax Abatement On Historic Preservation, Joel Naiman Jan 2017

Preservation Through Property Tax: The Impacts Of Philadelphia's 10-Year Property Tax Abatement On Historic Preservation, Joel Naiman

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Philadelphia’s 10-year property tax abatement program has proven effective as a transformative force throughout the city by offering a 10-year abatement on the taxable value of any improvements on a structure or land. Originally implemented in a vastly different real estate market than exists today, the abatement has had profound economic impact, yet has been heavily criticized by some of its varied stakeholders as a drain on municipal finances. Regarding historic preservation, the abatement has existed with a dual nature: while it serves as a key factor in rehabilitation financing on large projects throughout the city, it also incentivizes ...


Preservation Frontiers: Adding Urban Homesteading To The Historic Preservation Toolkit, Jessica L. Neubelt Jan 2017

Preservation Frontiers: Adding Urban Homesteading To The Historic Preservation Toolkit, Jessica L. Neubelt

Theses (Historic Preservation)

In the 1970s, cities across the country began implementing urban homesteading programs, in which they transferred surplus vacant housing units to hopeful homeowners for the low cost of $1 and a two-year commitment to rehabilitating and occupying the unit as a primary residence. The goals of these programs were varied, but typically included neighborhood stabilization, affordable housing, and incentivizing the return of wealthier households back to urban neighborhoods. This thesis argues that, while homesteading programs achieved mixed results in regards to these goals, they did achieve historic preservation outcomes.

In order to support this proposition, this thesis examines the history ...


An Examination And Condition Assessment Of Robert Winthrop Chanler's Pool Grotto Ceiling Mural At Vizcaya, Miami, Lucy Midelfort Jan 2017

An Examination And Condition Assessment Of Robert Winthrop Chanler's Pool Grotto Ceiling Mural At Vizcaya, Miami, Lucy Midelfort

Theses (Historic Preservation)

The following thesis addresses the state of conservation of the exterior ceiling mural by Robert Chanler at Vizcaya, the 1916 winter home of James Deering in Miami, Florida. The fantastical depiction of shimmering fish and delicately glazed high relief seashells painted on the ceiling of the pool grotto has deteriorated greatly over time, so much that only ~10% of the original surfaces remain visible today. No comprehensive documentation of the conditions of the ceiling exists, yet the ceiling is a rare example of the artist’s mural work and after having undergone a variety of under-documented interventions, it still impresses ...


Conservation Assessment And Experimental Mechanical Pinning Treatment Of Petrified Sequoia Affinis Stumps At Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument, Colorado, Evan Oxland Jan 2017

Conservation Assessment And Experimental Mechanical Pinning Treatment Of Petrified Sequoia Affinis Stumps At Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument, Colorado, Evan Oxland

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This research assesses the structural decay of nine silicified fossil stumps on the Petrified Forest Loop at Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument in central Colorado, and evaluates the use of mechanical pinning as a remedial conservation treatment. Condition assessment was established through an integrated review of archival documents related to the site’s excavation and display history, field examination, and petrographic analysis, among other laboratory characterizations. The story of this fossil forest begins with the violent burial of a Sequoia affinis paleo-forest from a volcanic mudflow (lahar) and subsequent cycles of lacustrine submerging and desiccation which likely caused organic materials ...


Creating Home: Reuse Of Vacant Philadelphia Schools For Permanent Supportive Housing, Peter Hiller Jan 2017

Creating Home: Reuse Of Vacant Philadelphia Schools For Permanent Supportive Housing, Peter Hiller

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Since 2000, many of Philadelphia’s failing, mid-century, public housing towers have been demolished and replaced with low-rise, mixed-income developments that successfully integrate low-income—and potentially homeless—families and individuals into the community. Many Philadelphians, however, are still without a home, are in need, and are out of place. Furthermore, in the last decade, over thirty of Philadelphia’s historic schools have been shut down and vacated due to cuts to the school district budget, declining enrollment, and district politics; some of these entities, however, have consolidated or moved to new state-of-the-art buildings that serve them better, leaving the old ...


Using Agriculture As An Interpretive Management Strategy At Grant Kohrs National Historic Site To Tie Together Historical Significance And Natural Resource Conservation, Garrett Richardson Jan 2017

Using Agriculture As An Interpretive Management Strategy At Grant Kohrs National Historic Site To Tie Together Historical Significance And Natural Resource Conservation, Garrett Richardson

Theses (Historic Preservation)

The core question being investigated within the scope of this thesis is how does Grant Kohrs Ranch National Historic Site tie use an interpretive management involving agriculture to tie together historic significance and natural resource conservation? In order to establish a firm knowledge of the site, a visit to the ranch that included site documentation, investigation, and interviewing of staff members was conducted in October 2016. The type of interpretation conveyed to visitors at GRKO is unique, but what makes GRKO really special is that visitors have unrestricted access to the entire site. This allows for the purest form of ...


A Performance Evaluation And Assessment Of Mineral Silicate Coatings For The Restoration Of The Exterior Concrete At Jackson Lake Lodge, Araba Prah Jan 2017

A Performance Evaluation And Assessment Of Mineral Silicate Coatings For The Restoration Of The Exterior Concrete At Jackson Lake Lodge, Araba Prah

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis focuses on the evaluation of the durability of potassium silicate coating on concrete surfaces, in particular the exterior concrete walls at Jackson Lake Lodge located in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. The main building on the site, the Central Lodge, is a large 61 year old structure that is in need of a new architectural coating to prolong its service. This structure, once dubbed the ugliest building in America, is now cherished and appreciated for its significance in ushering in a new era of Modernist-style buildings constructed within National Parks. Because the pH of the concrete walls has ...


Iran’S Earthen Architectural Heritage As Reflected In The Terra Congress Proceedings And Iran Journal, Shaghayegh Torkzaban Jan 2017

Iran’S Earthen Architectural Heritage As Reflected In The Terra Congress Proceedings And Iran Journal, Shaghayegh Torkzaban

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Iran is an important place for architectural and archaeological studies, especially for its wealth of earthen architecture. International scholarly studies in Iran began in the late nineteen and early twentieth centuries. However much of this research was not published until the end of the 1950s. In the 1960s, many scholarly conferences and publications on the conservation of earthen architecture began. Two major events occurred regarding Iran’s architectural heritage. The first was the founding of an international academic journal, Iran Journal, in 1963 by the British Institute of Persian Studies. The other was the formation of the first international congress ...


"Forever Wild": Wilderness Values And Historic Preservation In The Catskill Forest Preserve, Carolyn Zemanian Jan 2017

"Forever Wild": Wilderness Values And Historic Preservation In The Catskill Forest Preserve, Carolyn Zemanian

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Article XIV of the New York State Constitution (1894) declares that the Adirondack and Catskill Forest Preserves will be “forever kept as wild forest lands.” The State of New York has interpreted this “forever wild” clause to mean that most structures are inherently incompatible with the wilderness values of the preserves. As a result, the State has sought to enhance wilderness by removing structures it deems “non-conforming” with the forest preserves’ natural qualities.

Approaching the Catskill Forest Preserve as a cultural landscape, this thesis describes and analyzes the current and past enabling (or disabling) environment of historic preservation in the ...


Evaluation Of Preservation And Adaptive Reuse Of Historic Villages In Scenic Area Of China: A Case Study Of Amanfayun In Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Di Fan Jan 2017

Evaluation Of Preservation And Adaptive Reuse Of Historic Villages In Scenic Area Of China: A Case Study Of Amanfayun In Hangzhou, Zhejiang, Di Fan

Theses (Historic Preservation)

The recent economic development of the 1990’s in China, including increased foreign trade and investment, has brought about an upheaval change of physical, cultural and social conditions in rural China. And the large amount of demolition and reconstruction of historic villages put a severe challenge in preserving traditional rural heritages of China. The historic villages in scenic areas, especially due to their unique cultural and natural resources, typically became the first targets of modern transformation and bedrock for economic development. By focusing on several restoration and adaptive reuse cases of historic villages, especially the case of Amanfayun within the ...


The City Of Sisterly Love: A Preservation Assessment And Urban Landscape Re-Interpretation Of Philadelphia’S Sites Of Women’S History, Mikayla E. Raymond Jan 2017

The City Of Sisterly Love: A Preservation Assessment And Urban Landscape Re-Interpretation Of Philadelphia’S Sites Of Women’S History, Mikayla E. Raymond

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Women’s history has long been omitted by a narrow understanding of history, which has been limited, often at the hands of preservationists, to a white, patriarchal point of view. Due to a conceptual misunderstanding of women’s place in history as niche or subversive, the preservation of places associated with women has not been adequately prioritized. Philadelphia, a city rich with historical resources and preservation-minded agents, offers a productive testing ground for ideas of re-interpretation. By assessing how well national efforts, including the National Historic Landmark theme study on women’s history; state efforts, including the Pennsylvania Historical Marker ...


Redesigning Historic Districts: A Study Of Preservation Plans For Historic Districts Of Jingzhou Ancient City In Hubei, China, Chuhan Zheng Jan 2017

Redesigning Historic Districts: A Study Of Preservation Plans For Historic Districts Of Jingzhou Ancient City In Hubei, China, Chuhan Zheng

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Designation of historic districts is becoming a more commonly seen strategy for protecting larger environment and historic urban fabrics in China. Jingzhou, which is one of the first 24 “Historic Cultural Cities” in China, designated three historic districts in 2014. However, there are many issues with the existing preservation plans. Before the completed implementation of the plans, this thesis hopes to provide better solutions for creating more equitable and resilient historic districts through criticizing the existing plans, researching on case studies, as well as re-programming and redesigning the historic districts. The criticisms mainly focus on lacking sufficient considerations of large-scale ...


Imaging Place: Interpreting Place Identity Through Consumer Marketing Techniques For Non-Profit, Community Development And Business Improvement Organizations, Audrey Rose Von Ahrens Jan 2016

Imaging Place: Interpreting Place Identity Through Consumer Marketing Techniques For Non-Profit, Community Development And Business Improvement Organizations, Audrey Rose Von Ahrens

Theses (Historic Preservation)

There is significant potential to further capitalize on the use of graphic images to elicit memory, fortify sense of place and communicate preservation values as a tool for neighborhood revitalization and economic development. This thesis paper researches how designed branding strategies and visual communications have been used by place-based, community and business development organization as a consumer marketing tool. By compiling graphic examples from the current brand campaigns of these organizations, a descriptive analysis informs trends and identifies the current preservation theories and values being followed. Interviews allow this thesis to study the thought-process behind the branding strategies and why ...


Evaluation Of The Effects Of Bottom-Up Management In Preserving Values Of Historic Hutong Neighborhood In Beijing: A Case Study Of Community-Based Organization (Cbo) - Shijia Hutong Historic Preservation Society, Haoyu Wang Jan 2016

Evaluation Of The Effects Of Bottom-Up Management In Preserving Values Of Historic Hutong Neighborhood In Beijing: A Case Study Of Community-Based Organization (Cbo) - Shijia Hutong Historic Preservation Society, Haoyu Wang

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Preservation of traditional urban neighborhoods in China has long been a government-oriented process. In particular, since the “Old and Dilapidated Housing Renewal Program” implementation in the late 1990s, the Beijing Hutong neighborhood renewal has become an important trigger for the municipal governments to engage with the real estate market. Yet over the years, the official forces have been facing increasing challenges in the development of politics, socio-culture, and economy. As a complement to the current top-down management, the bottom-up approach could improve the recognition of a holistic spectrum of site values in the fast changing environments. However, the lack of ...


Policy Evaluation And Recommendation For Preserving Residential Compounds In Beijing: A Process-Oriented Approach, Yimei Zhang Jan 2016

Policy Evaluation And Recommendation For Preserving Residential Compounds In Beijing: A Process-Oriented Approach, Yimei Zhang

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Between 1949 and 1958, a large number of residential compounds were built in Beijing to house the growing population in the capital city of the newly founded People’s Republic. They were planned as self-sufficient residential components of “work-units”, and usually consisted of groupings of three to five-story buildings with various amenities and institutions. The construction of these neighborhoods profoundly shaped the city’s landscape. Since the reform of the "work-unit" system and the opening of the housing market in the late 1990s, residential compounds gradually declined and are now threatened of demolition under the city's redevelopment projects.

The ...


From Philadelphia Country House To City Recreation Center: Uncovering The Architectural History Of The Building Known Successively As Blockley Retreat, Kirkbride Mansion, And Lee Cultural Center Through Building Archaeology, Joseph C. Mester Jan 2016

From Philadelphia Country House To City Recreation Center: Uncovering The Architectural History Of The Building Known Successively As Blockley Retreat, Kirkbride Mansion, And Lee Cultural Center Through Building Archaeology, Joseph C. Mester

Theses (Historic Preservation)

In this thesis, I analyze the Federal style country house, initiated in 1794, that stands today near the corner of 44th Street and Haverford Avenue in West Philadelphia. As it aged, the owners and occupants slowly transformed the country house from a private “country seat” to a public recreation center in the midst of a dense urban neighborhood. I examine the house and its additions, known collectively today as the Lee Cultural Center, through both documentary and material evidence. This building-archaeological approach studies building materials, finishes, and construction technology in order to date and interpret the construction, alteration, use, and ...


A Voice For Public Memory: A Comparison Between The Memorial Practices In India And The United States Of America To Propose A Suitable Response To The 26/11 Attacks In Mumbai, Sanjana Sanjay Muthe Jan 2016

A Voice For Public Memory: A Comparison Between The Memorial Practices In India And The United States Of America To Propose A Suitable Response To The 26/11 Attacks In Mumbai, Sanjana Sanjay Muthe

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis compares the memorial culture and practices in India and the United States. Based on the observation that memorial construction is not a popular culture in India, the thesis first studies the memorial history of India to establish that the country has had a rich tradition of memorialization. Through the research of the subjects of memorialization, their commissioners and the role of memorials in Indian communities, the thesis draws inferences on why memorialization is not currently popular culture in India. The thesis further compares these inferences to the history and current culture of memorials in America to conclude on ...


Alternative Histories: A Temporal Approach To Public Housing, Dana Rice Jan 2016

Alternative Histories: A Temporal Approach To Public Housing, Dana Rice

Theses (Historic Preservation)

One of the most profound changes in the built environment is that of urban renewal projects from the mid twentieth century. In that name of progress many existing low income areas of cities were labeled “blighted” giving policy makers license to wipe clean and start anew. Many public housing projects were erected in this manner. This tabula rasa mentality is a-temporal and neglects the histories and people that existed there before, undermining the ongoing processes of building and rebuilding between people and place. In the case of the new transformation plan for the Sharswood neighborhood of North Philly, the Philadelphia ...


Certifying Preservation: How Preservation Can Introduce Social Sustainability To Building Certification Programs, Andrea Kathryn Haley Jan 2016

Certifying Preservation: How Preservation Can Introduce Social Sustainability To Building Certification Programs, Andrea Kathryn Haley

Theses (Historic Preservation)

When sustainability is discussed in the built environment it is often limited to environmental sustainability, however, there are many other values that should be considered. The field of historic preservation offers ways to incorporate social and cultural sustainability into the built fabric of cities and communities, but is often misrepresented or viewed as a niche field. This thesis explored how historic preservation can learn from the ‘green building’ movement which has risen to prominence to become a large part of the building culture in a relatively short period of time.

One of the most well-known tools is the USGBC’s ...


Lots Of Potential: Strengthening The Philadelphia Land Bank With Preservation, Mary Amelia Lambert Jan 2016

Lots Of Potential: Strengthening The Philadelphia Land Bank With Preservation, Mary Amelia Lambert

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Prolific vacancy in Philadelphia’s built environment is a major challenge as the city enjoys a resurgence in population and development. The creation of the Philadelphia Land Bank is widely seen as a necessary and useful tool to address the productive reuse of vacant properties. Preservation, however, is not a component of the land bank’s policies and procedures. This thesis asserts that the goals of the land bank are actually well aligned with those of preservation. It is an assertion that the inclusion of a preservation ethos along with specific policy measures would strengthen the activities of the Philadelphia ...


Recapturing The Breeze: Computational Simulation Of Natural Ventilation In A Raised Creole Cottage, Evan Oskierko-Jeznacki Jan 2016

Recapturing The Breeze: Computational Simulation Of Natural Ventilation In A Raised Creole Cottage, Evan Oskierko-Jeznacki

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This research investigates the environmental behavior of naturally ventilated historic, vernacular architecture in hot-humid climates using a computational simulation and analysis methodology to better understand the role of historic adaptive comfort strategies within the contemporary context of sustainable and energy efficient preservation design. The Pitot House, a raised Creole cottage, located in New Orleans, LA that has been heavily modified from its original environmental configuration will be studied in depth to highlight the importance of this approach in its ability to recreate historic configurations, visualize past levels of human thermal comfort, and use this information to make informed, sustainable decisions ...


Heritage Adrift: Designing For North Brother Island In The Face Of Climate Change, Angelina R. Jones Jan 2016

Heritage Adrift: Designing For North Brother Island In The Face Of Climate Change, Angelina R. Jones

Theses (Historic Preservation)

The smaller islands of the archipelago of New York City (NYC) have built heritage that reflects the history of quarantining undesirable and vulnerable populations in institutions such as hospitals, asylums, and prisons. North Brother Island (NBI) in the East River is one such place, home to Riverside Hospital and other institutions from 1885-1963. The NYC archipelago is vulnerable to multiple effects of climate change including sea-level rise, shoreline erosion, increased flooding, and storm surge. In order to confront the dangers that climate change presents to the built heritage on NBI, a hybrid approach of preservation interventions and landscape architecture strategies ...


Ever Since The Fire Went Out: A Long View Of The Deterioration Of The Coplay Kilns At Saylor Park, Preston Stanley Hull Jan 2016

Ever Since The Fire Went Out: A Long View Of The Deterioration Of The Coplay Kilns At Saylor Park, Preston Stanley Hull

Theses (Historic Preservation)

The Coplay Cement Company Kilns are monuments to the Lehigh Valley’s role as the birthplace of the U.S. cement industry. Coplay Cement was founded by David O. Saylor, the man who first proved that modern, “portland” cement could be successfully manufactured in the United States instead of imported from Europe. The nine kilns, now standing in the middle of a community park, were once part of an entire complex of cement plants along the Lehigh River. Today, the kiln complex—an important symbol to the tiny borough of Coplay—is deteriorating dramatically. In particular, several large brick “blowouts ...


The Schoolhouse Problem: New Solutions For Preserving Historic And Obsolete Buildings In Rural New Hampshire, Andrew Cushing Jan 2016

The Schoolhouse Problem: New Solutions For Preserving Historic And Obsolete Buildings In Rural New Hampshire, Andrew Cushing

Theses (Historic Preservation)

What options exist for public or nonprofit stewards of historic buildings in rural New Hampshire to re-use their properties for purposes other than museums? Over 200 historical societies exist in the Granite State, and of those, more than 40 own or manage multiple properties. These buildings – often schoolhouses, Grange halls, churches, etc. – are seldom open to the public and can be burdensome for volunteer-based organizations like historical societies that operate on small budgets. This thesis examined alternative solutions in rural communities, solutions that return a building to usefulness without compromising character-defining features. Case studies derived from conversations with various rural ...


Performance Evaluation Of Uv Inhibiting Acrylic Resin Coated Glass With Modern And Historic Glazing Systems, Janelle Elyse Sahutski Jan 2016

Performance Evaluation Of Uv Inhibiting Acrylic Resin Coated Glass With Modern And Historic Glazing Systems, Janelle Elyse Sahutski

Theses (Historic Preservation)

UV radiation is the single largest contributing factor in fading of interiors including fabric, carpets and other furnishings, and accounts for approximately 40% of all fading damage. Thus, photodegradation must be arrested to maintain the integrity of historic materials and finishes. The n-butyl acrylate methyl methacrylate copolymer emulsion with hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS) and ultraviolet light absorber (UVA), GOLDEN MSA, which is tested here is marketed as an art varnish compatible with various types of paint. Brush and spray applied to modern and historic glass, the coating was weathered in a controlled lab setting on mock-up windows in a ...


Performance Evaluation Of Commercial Nanolime As A Consolidant For Friable Lime Based Plaster, Jean Jang Jan 2016

Performance Evaluation Of Commercial Nanolime As A Consolidant For Friable Lime Based Plaster, Jean Jang

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis focuses on the performance evaluation of commercial nanolime as a consolidant for friable historic lime based plaster such as found at Mission San Jose de Tumacácori, a Spanish Colonial mission site near Tucson, Arizona. The church’s façade was originally finished with a polychromatic painted on fired brick and adobe. Though generally stable over time, the exterior plaster at Tumacácori became friable and detached after repeated weathering cycles of high diurnal temperature swings and precipitation concentration during monsoon season in the summer. As friable stucco is vulnerable to loss, consolidation should be considered a first priority in the ...


Recreating Acid Stains On Historic Concrete, Alice Louise Gilmore Jan 2016

Recreating Acid Stains On Historic Concrete, Alice Louise Gilmore

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis examines the feasibility of retreating the concrete at Jackson Lake Lodge with acid-based stains. The surface treatment at Jackson Lake Lodge is an unusual form of board finished or “fair-face” concrete. The building was cast with sand-blasted, plywood-formwork, which imprinted the concrete with a very pronounced wood-grain texture. The concrete was then finished with three different colors of acid stain – tan, brown and black, which created a translucent, variegated finish that closely resembled redwood. The first phase of testing, which is the focus of this thesis aims to analyze and characterize the original acid stains, to accurately recreate ...