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Full-Text Articles in Architecture

Encasing The American Dream: The Story Of Plastic And Steel, Patton Howell Roark Iii Jan 2014

Encasing The American Dream: The Story Of Plastic And Steel, Patton Howell Roark Iii

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis considers a preservation understanding and treatment for mid twentieth-century building materials that were designed and promoted to appear “brand new” in perpetuity. Based on their significance as pervasive mid-twentieth-century building materials, as well as their broader social, cultural, and technological roles, this study focuses on porcelain enameled steel and high-pressure plastic laminate. In order to comprehend the role and cultural importance of these materials, this study investigates how innovations in the manufacture of enameled steel and plastic laminate, as well as the corporations that developed these products, helped to create an ideal American kitchen, a symbol of postwar ...


Revisiting Gordion's Pebble Mosaic Pavement: Evaluating Re-Backing Techniques And Investigating Alkali-Silica Reaction, Kevin Adam Wohlgemuth Jan 2014

Revisiting Gordion's Pebble Mosaic Pavement: Evaluating Re-Backing Techniques And Investigating Alkali-Silica Reaction, Kevin Adam Wohlgemuth

Theses (Historic Preservation)

The 9th c. B.C.E. Megaron 2 pebble mosaic from Gordion is the oldest known mosaic pavement to date. Discovered in 1956, it was subsequently cut into 33 individual panels, lifted, and stored outdoors for two decades before reinstallation under a sheltered, sub-grade, outdoor exhibit at the Gordion Museum. Recent research into its conservation history and current condition in preparation for re-interpretation and display has revealed the potential for further deterioration through alkali-silica reaction between the siliceous pebbles and the cementitious backing. Moreover, the enigmatic geometric designs are now difficult to read due to the loss of pebbles, misalignment ...


Policy And Preservation In Chinese Urbanization: Urban And Rural Cases Studies In Shanghai And Hongcun, Huachen Shao Jan 2014

Policy And Preservation In Chinese Urbanization: Urban And Rural Cases Studies In Shanghai And Hongcun, Huachen Shao

Theses (Historic Preservation)

The aim of this thesis is to investigate the present land and preservation policies in preservation and rehabilitation in China and to propose new methods of management for the historic urban districts and villages by answering the question “how to balance the benefits of different stakeholders and encourage them in preservation by policy changing and economic tools application”. The author chose Shanghai as the urban level case and Hongcun, Anhui Province as the rural level case to study the issue under the national urbanization and tourism trends.

The thesis first outlines the current urbanization and historic heritage survival under the ...


Why We Demolish: Assessing Heritage Loss In Philadelphia As A Catalyst For Policy Innovation In Historic Preservation, Samantha E. Kuntz Jan 2014

Why We Demolish: Assessing Heritage Loss In Philadelphia As A Catalyst For Policy Innovation In Historic Preservation, Samantha E. Kuntz

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Demolition of listed historic resources through policy provisions such as economic hardship and public interest has, in recent years, led to increased controversy and tension in the preservation community. As approvals to demolish such heritage anchors as the Sidney Hillman Medical Center, the Church of the Assumption, the Levy-Leas Mansion, the Episcopal Cathedral's Parish House, and the Boyd Theater interior continue to place the Philadelphia Historical Commission and developers at odds with preservation advocates, it is important to review the policy documents at the core of the issue. This thesis proposes that it is not the Commission but the ...


Infrared Thermography As An Alternative Method For The Assessment Of Moisture Content Readings In A Porous Brick, Sarah Catherine Cole Jan 2014

Infrared Thermography As An Alternative Method For The Assessment Of Moisture Content Readings In A Porous Brick, Sarah Catherine Cole

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Many pre- to late-nineteenth century brick masonry structures encountered by conservation professionals are constructed with hygroscopic, porous brick that has been attacked by the combination of moisture and salt. The presence of these enabling factors of deterioration accelerates damage to a brick. Professionals need an affordable nondestructive tool that does not require extensive calibrations to highlight dangerous levels of moisture in the presence of soluble salts at a macroscopic scale prior to evident material loss. The infrared camera has been proven to display a visual image of moisture anomalies in a brick wall, but quantification requires spot readings with a ...


A Design Feasibility Study For The Preservation Of The Main Cabin At The Bar Bc Dude Ranch, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, Benjamin Allen Doubledee Jan 2014

A Design Feasibility Study For The Preservation Of The Main Cabin At The Bar Bc Dude Ranch, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, Benjamin Allen Doubledee

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This is the fifth in a series of theses and an independent study engendered from a collaboration between the Bar BC Dude Ranch, Grand Teton National Park, and the University of Pennsylvania, together with another thesis generated from the Park’s collaboration with the University of Oregon. Previous works considered the planning and management of the Ranch’s historical assets, structural integrity of the log cabins, and plausibility of the reimplementation of sod (green) roofs. Following these works, this thesis brings together the aforementioned directives to frame a feasibility study for the reuse of the Bar BC’s Main Cabin ...


No Property Left Behind: An Exploration Of Abandoned Property Policies, Margaret Louise Smith Jan 2014

No Property Left Behind: An Exploration Of Abandoned Property Policies, Margaret Louise Smith

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Historic preservationists work on both the micro and the macro level: at the micro level, they handle the site-specific, bricks and mortar issues, and at the macro level, they manage community-oriented plans, such as historic districts. The two levels are important to grasp for placemaking – creating, or retaining, a sense of place. Historic preservation and placemaking are thus interrelated. Consequently, preservationists have equal concerns about abandoned properties as planners and as community advocates. In order to grow and serve the communities, preservationists must appreciate and exercise more than just those tools commonly found in the standard historic preservation lexicon; they ...


Bold Adaptation In The Cause Of Preservation: A Reuse Strategy For The Mission 66 Visitor Center At Far View, Nathaniel Thomas Schlundt Jan 2014

Bold Adaptation In The Cause Of Preservation: A Reuse Strategy For The Mission 66 Visitor Center At Far View, Nathaniel Thomas Schlundt

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Mission 66, a program that was intended to modernize, expand, and reinvent National Park System from 1956-1966, was the largest improvement initiative by the National Park Service and one of the most ambitious federal projects of the twentieth-century. To celebrate the 50th anniversary of the National Park System, the decade-long program saw the expenditure of around $1 billion for the acquisition of land, the hiring and training of new staff, and the construction of thousands of miles of roads and trails. While these projects helped to transform the image of the Park Service and announce their entry into the modern ...


Responsible Recording Of Historic Sites And Buildings Based On Skills, Training And Sound Judgment, Matthew Robert Morgan Jan 2014

Responsible Recording Of Historic Sites And Buildings Based On Skills, Training And Sound Judgment, Matthew Robert Morgan

Theses (Historic Preservation)

It has always been important for the field of Preservation to collect data as a means for understanding the past or present of a particular site, and to comprehend how that data will be used as a mechanism for future understanding and interpretation of the site. There is a place for technology and preservation recording to work together, however the field must take steps to properly educate its graduates and professionals in understanding the benefits and limitations of each, and allowing them to answer the question that preservationists must ask: Is the selected technique for recording justifiable? Are the people ...


Performance Evaluation Of Clay Grout Formulations For Structural Cracking In Historic Earthen (Mud Brick) Buildings, Nityaa Lakshmi Iyer Jan 2014

Performance Evaluation Of Clay Grout Formulations For Structural Cracking In Historic Earthen (Mud Brick) Buildings, Nityaa Lakshmi Iyer

Theses (Historic Preservation)

There are many culturally significant mud brick buildings that are under severe threat in seismic areas worldwide. Wall cracking is a common failure mode that is observed in such structures. This leads to the loss of the monolithic character of the wall and leads to an assemblage of broken blocks that act as individual elements.

Structural grouting is one of the many repair techniques that can be introduced in some of these situations in order to reinforce structural stability into the cracked earthen structure with minimal disruption. The method of structurally grouting seismic cracks would mechanically repair the wall, achieve ...


An Economic Impact Study Of Historic Germantown On The Surrounding Neighborhood, Lee Angeli Riccetti Jan 2014

An Economic Impact Study Of Historic Germantown On The Surrounding Neighborhood, Lee Angeli Riccetti

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Historic Germantown, a non-profit umbrella organization of sixteen historic sites in the Germantown neighborhood of Philadelphia, adjusted its focus in 2008 to focus on community engagement due to leadership which emerged that took the consortium of historic sites from a preservation-only mission to engage the surrounding community. This adjustment was a departure from its previous focus on solely preserving the colonial sites and relics of Germantown. An Economic Impact study of the organization on the surrounding neighborhood attempts to capture the economic benefits of this leadership change. The study attempts to quantify this shift, following qualitative assessments that the economic ...


Raised Or Razed: The Challenge Of Climate Adaptation And Social Equity In Historic Coastal Communities, Rachel B. Isacoff Jan 2014

Raised Or Razed: The Challenge Of Climate Adaptation And Social Equity In Historic Coastal Communities, Rachel B. Isacoff

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Climate change threatens historic coastal communities, and reducing vulnerability through adaptation will not be easy – but it is necessary. Differing values of government agencies and local communities – contingent on attitudes to risk and cultural restrictions on action – may limit the options for adaptation. This thesis analyzes policy constraints for implementing the preventive strategies of constructing levees, elevating buildings and relocating towns in historic districts in the mid-Atlantic coastal region and makes recommendations for proactive, community-based decision-making processes.


Historic Preservation In Legacy Cities: Preservation And Revitalization In Camden, New Jersey, Di Gao Jan 2014

Historic Preservation In Legacy Cities: Preservation And Revitalization In Camden, New Jersey, Di Gao

Theses (Historic Preservation)

The post-industrial cities of America are rife with significant cultural heritage that contribute to the national historic narrative. Many of these cities have experienced issues associated with disinvestment and population loss stemming from changing globalizing economic forces beginning in the latter half of the 20th century, jeopardizing their urban cultural heritage as these cities face decisions concerning vital redevelopment and revitalization plans in their efforts to regain relevancy in the contemporary global economic climate. Increasingly, cities facing these issues have turned towards local values and preservation based approaches to revitalization. This research examines the potential impact of historic preservation as ...


Preserving Ambiguity: Reconstructing The Floating Church Of The Redeemer, Ruth Marie Embry Jan 2014

Preserving Ambiguity: Reconstructing The Floating Church Of The Redeemer, Ruth Marie Embry

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Reconstructions are architectural undertakings; they are dependent on the establishment of a feasible construct through the design and interpretation of available information by an architect, yet they are discussed and evaluated based on the educational, social, and political motives and intents of the projects. Architecture, in both its technical and theoretical manifestations, is central to the success of any reconstruction and has the strongest impact on the effect the new construct will have on future interpretation. Preservation professionals and critics focus their writings on the educational and cultural heritage implications of the new building and assess its successes and failures ...


Standardization In The Lumber Industry: Trade Journals, Builder's Guides And The American Home, Winston Wallace Clement Jan 2014

Standardization In The Lumber Industry: Trade Journals, Builder's Guides And The American Home, Winston Wallace Clement

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis provides a comprehensive analysis of the technical and structural changes that occurred within the American lumber industry in the half century after the Civil War. The format of this thesis is as follows: a review of relevant literature pertaining to all aspects of American wood-frame residential construction; a description and analysis of the lumber industry in America, focusing on how and why it reacted slowly to changes in demand for building supplies and was hesitant to adapt and incorporate new materials and technologies; an overview of the changes that occurred to residential wood-frame construction, e.g. the transition ...


Evaluating The National Underground Railroad Network To Freedom Program Of The National Park Service, Lauren Elizabeth Burton Jan 2014

Evaluating The National Underground Railroad Network To Freedom Program Of The National Park Service, Lauren Elizabeth Burton

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Following the end of the Civil War, Americans used the legend of the Underground Railroad as evidence of the country’s morality before the abolishment of slavery. Using oral history, historians substantiated the common narrative of white abolitionists aiding fugitive slaves into the mid-twentieth century. With the Civil Rights Movement and the growth of social history, this narrative was re-evaluated. In 1995, a Special Resource Study for the National Park Service determined that the Underground Railroad was not being recognized or preserved adequately. Following the recommendations of the study, the National Underground Railroad Network to Freedom Act of 1998 was ...


Considering The Use Of Epoxies In The Repair Of Historic Structural Timber, Ryan Cleary Jan 2014

Considering The Use Of Epoxies In The Repair Of Historic Structural Timber, Ryan Cleary

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Wood is one of the earliest and most common building materials on the planet. However wood also quickly decays under normal service conditions, and thus the repair of historic structural elements pose a difficult challenge to preservation professionals who aim to also preserve the authenticity of the element. Since the 1970s, numerous studies have looked at the use of epoxy with respect to historic timber repair. Epoxy, for the purposes of structural repair, serves as a substitution type repair for deteriorated wood. In this study focuses on the compatibility of historic structural timber members and epoxy repairs by the means ...


Bombing, Tagging, Writing: An Analysis Of The Significance Of Graffiti And Street Art, Lindsay Bates Jan 2014

Bombing, Tagging, Writing: An Analysis Of The Significance Of Graffiti And Street Art, Lindsay Bates

Theses (Historic Preservation)

A first look upon a well-contrived piece of graffiti or street art may inspire feelings of surprise, delight, and amusement, but the connection between graffiti and cultural heritage might be more difficult to perceive. Conventionally, graffiti was synonymous with vandalism, associated with a subculture that needed to be extinguished immediately. However, with the works of such artists as Basquiat, Keith Haring, Banksy, Steve Powers, and the like, graffiti began to be recognized as something more than crime – something with far more value, something that could reach beyond the walls of a gallery. Indeed, this subculture has since proliferated exponentially, and ...


A Survey And Analysis Of Bronze Mausoleum Doors At Woodlawn Cemetery In The Bronx, Ny, Monique Christie Colas Jan 2014

A Survey And Analysis Of Bronze Mausoleum Doors At Woodlawn Cemetery In The Bronx, Ny, Monique Christie Colas

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Today, cemeteries face a widespread need for maintenance and upkeep of their memorial structures, particularly of their mausolea. As a major focal point of a mausoleum, the door is one that serves both an aesthetic and functional purpose, putting it at a high priority for maintenance. To create a means for facilitating and prioritizing future maintenance programs of both doors and mausolea, Woodlawn Cemetery in the Bronx, NY was chosen as a case study. As a part of this process, existing conditions were recorded and supplemented with archival research and scientific analysis. In order to create a system of recording ...


An Assessment And Evaluation Of Acidic Cleaning Methods On Unglazed Terracotta Using Accelerated Weathering Test Protocols, Irene Matteini Jan 2014

An Assessment And Evaluation Of Acidic Cleaning Methods On Unglazed Terracotta Using Accelerated Weathering Test Protocols, Irene Matteini

Theses (Historic Preservation)

According to the published literature, there has been very little quantitative evaluation of the short or long-term effects of cleaning terra cotta, other than visual assessment where success is pronounced by the degree of soiling removed.

Very little work (only 3% of our literature review) has attempted to measure the effects on terra cotta of various cleaning methods.

Nevertheless, today, still 80% of terracotta cleaning relies on chemical products, the majority acid-based.

This research evaluates the effects of acidic cleaners on unglazed terracotta to verify the potential for damage by accelerated weathering testing. This investigation continues previous studies (Matero et ...


The Politics Of Public Ownership: Preservation Advocacy For Modern Municipal Resources, Kimber Lea Vansant Jan 2014

The Politics Of Public Ownership: Preservation Advocacy For Modern Municipal Resources, Kimber Lea Vansant

Theses (Historic Preservation)

Advocacy is central to the work of preservationists, yet the particular set of issues that must be addressed when advocating for the preservation of Modern municipal buildings is a topic that has not been previously explored. In addition to the challenges commonly confronted when advocating for the preservation of postwar resources, monumental Modern municipal buildings face substantive obstacles that emanate exclusively from their municipal ownership. Challenges encountered firsthand in advocating for the preservation of the Philadelphia Police Administration Building (the Roundhouse) serve as the primary motivation for this study which investigates the determining factors that lead to the successful preservation ...


The New Visitor Center At Shofuso: Expanding Site Interpretation Through New Construction, Parima Sukosi Jan 2014

The New Visitor Center At Shofuso: Expanding Site Interpretation Through New Construction, Parima Sukosi

Theses (Historic Preservation)

The design and master plan of the new Shofuso Visitor Center address the topic of new construction in historic settings beyond the existing academic focus on contextualism and style. Considering the low rate of visitation and organizational growth that has put many house museums in a vulnerable state, I believe scholars should extend their judgment pass physical attributes and also assess how new constructions can reinforce the vitality of these sites. By letting both management concerns and place values guide the design, the new building will make the site more meaningful as well as ensure sustainable expansion.

Based on the ...


Evaluation Of Cementitious Injection Grouts For The Stabilization Of Holly Tower Support Rock, Hovenweep National Monument, Naima A. Sweeting Jan 2014

Evaluation Of Cementitious Injection Grouts For The Stabilization Of Holly Tower Support Rock, Hovenweep National Monument, Naima A. Sweeting

Theses (Historic Preservation)

This thesis addresses the testing and evaluation of the use of a cementitious injection grout for the reattachment of detached slabbing on the sandstone support rock of Holly Tower at Hovenweep National Monument. This research follows on a previous condition assessment and diagnosis of the deterioration of the sandstone support rock and the effects of consolidation on the rock as the first step in a multi-phase conservation program.

The extreme instability of the slabbing on the west side of the support rock requires remedial intervention that will retain and reattach the slab to the parent rock. Injection grouting was identified ...


Victorian Splendor: Analysis Of The Late 19Th Century Decorative Ceiling At Ebenezer Maxwell Mansion In Germantown, Pennsylvania, Johanna Sztokman Jan 2014

Victorian Splendor: Analysis Of The Late 19Th Century Decorative Ceiling At Ebenezer Maxwell Mansion In Germantown, Pennsylvania, Johanna Sztokman

Theses (Historic Preservation)

The decorative ceiling in the Stevenson Bedroom of the Ebenezer Maxwell Mansion in Philadelphia is one of the most outstanding examples of post-Centennial ornamental designs. The exotic, stylized, geometric pattern of the ceiling illustrates ideals set forth during the Centennial International Exhibition, held in Philadelphia in 1876, and emphasizes Victorians’ predisposition to live à la mode. However, as a result of harsh treatment conducted in the 1970’s and ‘80s and damaging environmental conditions, the ceiling design only partially remains today. This thesis considers an approach for interpreting decorative paintings where the original fabric is altered or missing. It argues ...