Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Digital Commons Network

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Policy

Discipline
Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 361 - 390 of 1188

Full-Text Articles in Entire DC Network

Garbage Everywhere What Refuse In India's Streets Reveals About America's Hidden Trash Problem, Noah M. Sachs Jun 2014

Garbage Everywhere What Refuse In India's Streets Reveals About America's Hidden Trash Problem, Noah M. Sachs

Law Faculty Publications

In early 2014, I arrived in the southern Indian city of Bangalore, which just two years before had been paralyzed by a garbage-worker strike and a severe shortage of landfill space. The municipal government had responded to public anger over uncollected trash with decrees on waste segregation and composting that went unenforced, and by the time I showed up, not much had changed. In the city that bills itself as India’s Silicon Valley, there are still putrid piles of garbage all around town. Bangaloreans accept open dumps in their neighborhoods as a fixture of the landscape, to be seen ...


Clinical Decision-Making Tools: How Effective Are They In Improving The Quality Of Health Care?, Lyndal Trevana, Kirsten Mccaffery, Glenn Salkeld, Paul Glasziou, Chris Del Mar, Jenny A. Doust, Tammy Hoffmann Jun 2014

Clinical Decision-Making Tools: How Effective Are They In Improving The Quality Of Health Care?, Lyndal Trevana, Kirsten Mccaffery, Glenn Salkeld, Paul Glasziou, Chris Del Mar, Jenny A. Doust, Tammy Hoffmann

Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Publications

Exec Summary

Clinical decision-making tools can be considered in two broad categories – those designed to be used by clinicians and those designed to promote shared decision making with the clinician and patient together.

The potential effect of computerised clinical decision support systems (CDSS) on variations in practice is not well understood, and CDSS are currently not a recommended means of improving evidence-based practice, or patient outcomes, since the mechanisms of success and failure are not well defined and the potential impact on workflows and adverse events are poorly evaluated.

Despite numerous randomised controlled trials, there is poor quality evidence for ...


Vaccination Perceptions Of School Employees In A Rural School District, Janelle L. B. Macintosh Jun 2014

Vaccination Perceptions Of School Employees In A Rural School District, Janelle L. B. Macintosh

All Faculty Publications

Background: There continues to be a need for increases in adult vaccination rates, especially among those working in environments which may easily become communicable disease outbreak centers, such as school employees in the school environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate why rural Utah school employees were non-compliant with the influenza and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccines, as well as to identify their view on mandatory vaccination policies.

Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to all school employees in a rural Utah school district. Data analysis included frequencies and measures of central tendency and dispersion for quantitative items ...


Social Challenges And Policy Innovations By Social Workers In Australia, Manohar Pawar Jun 2014

Social Challenges And Policy Innovations By Social Workers In Australia, Manohar Pawar

Center for Social Development Research

By summarizing the social challenges in the contemporary Australian context, this article aims to discuss policy innovations by Australian social workers. Acknowledging that the concept of policy innovation is broad and sometimes ambiguous, it looks at four examples by social workers. Drawing on secondary data analysis, it discusses how social workers played an important role in introducing legislative changes/amendments to protect children in difficult circumstances, resisted a refugee policy that incarcerates innocent children, challenged and changed procedures and policies within an organization, and influenced policymakers to revert budgetary decisions to enhance access to services. These examples show the social ...


I Didn't Consent To That: Secondary Analysis Of Discrimination Against Bdsm Identified Individuals, Larry Iannotti Jun 2014

I Didn't Consent To That: Secondary Analysis Of Discrimination Against Bdsm Identified Individuals, Larry Iannotti

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Sadomasochism (BDSM) sexual behavior is an understudied phenomenon within the social sciences generally, and social work in particular. While BESM sexuality encompasses a wide variety of activities a community of individuals interested in BDSM is identifiable and has coalesced around organized groups, events, political activism, and shared sexual interests. This community has experienced discrimination, violence, and harassment (DVH) as a result of social approbation and stigma associated with BDSM practices. The study examines results of a secondary analysis of data from the Survey of Violence & Discrimination against Sexual Minorities, conducted in 2008. Severity and frequency of various types of DVH ...


A Policy And Infrastructure Analysis Of Bicycle Friendly Campuses: An Examination Of Three Atlanta-Area Universities, Virginia Kincaid May 2014

A Policy And Infrastructure Analysis Of Bicycle Friendly Campuses: An Examination Of Three Atlanta-Area Universities, Virginia Kincaid

Public Health Theses

According to the American College Health Association, less than half of college student populations participate in regular physical activity. With continued emphasis on the importance of exercise, creating opportunities for active transportation around college campuses is becoming critical. Attributes of the community design around us play a vital role in either promoting or hindering physical activity. Additionally, because of a growing interest in sustainability, university officials are finding it necessary to prioritize the environmental impact of decisions made at college campuses.

While some campuses have seen an organic growth in bicycling, proper planning and implementation of bicycle-friendly policies yields a ...


Interpreting, Stephanie Jo Kent May 2014

Interpreting, Stephanie Jo Kent

Doctoral Dissertations

What do community interpreting for the Deaf in western societies, conference interpreting for the European Parliament, and language brokering in international management have in common? Academic research and professional training have historically emphasized the linguistic and cognitive challenges of interpreting, neglecting or ignoring the social aspects that structure communication. All forms of interpreting are inherently social; they involve relationships among at least three people and two languages. The contexts explored here, American Sign Language/English interpreting and spoken language interpreting within the European Parliament, show that simultaneous interpreting involves attitudes, norms and values about intercultural communication that overemphasize information and ...


The Occurrence, Fate, Environmental Impact, And Management Implications Of Pharmaceutical And Personal Care Products In Wastewater And The Environment, Benjamin Donald Blair May 2014

The Occurrence, Fate, Environmental Impact, And Management Implications Of Pharmaceutical And Personal Care Products In Wastewater And The Environment, Benjamin Donald Blair

Theses and Dissertations

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are a critical part of modern life. However, there is growing evidence that the levels of PPCPs detected in wastewater effluent and in the environment have the potential to cause damage to aquatic organisms. These pollutants enter the aquatic environment primarily through human use, disposal in the drain or toilet, land application of biosolids, and veterinary sources. Numerous questions remain regarding the occurrence, fate, and impacts of PPCPs in wastewater, along with limited feasible management recommendations that would adequately mitigate the risk from these pollutants. This dissertation will present three advances in the field ...


Experiences Of Lgsws In Working With Sex Workers, Megan A. Week May 2014

Experiences Of Lgsws In Working With Sex Workers, Megan A. Week

Master of Social Work Clinical Research Papers

There are various factors that influence the lives of sex workers, especially as they are trying to exit sex work. Frequently these factors lead these women to interact with social workers. The purpose of this project was to examine the experiences and preparedness/comfort level of LGSWs in working with sex workers. It also examined the perceived barriers to exiting sex work. Using a mixed methods survey, 61 LGSWs in Minnesota were surveyed about their preparedness to work with this population and their beliefs about the barriers to exiting. Data were analyzed using both descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. The ...


Adapting To A Changing Climate: Local Drivers For Policy Response, Andrew J. Bilich May 2014

Adapting To A Changing Climate: Local Drivers For Policy Response, Andrew J. Bilich

Honors Scholar Theses

Responding to the present and looming effects of global climate change presents a challenging task for policymakers at all levels of governance. The outcomes of climate change do present serious adaptation problems for global policy makers, but the implications of climate change are more immediately experienced by local communities and policy makers. Historical policymaking models suggest that economic well-being is an influential driver in local policy adoption. This particular analysis explores the relationship between economic variables and the development of climate adaptation policies by Connecticut municipalities. To test the degree of interaction present, adaptation policy data in the form of ...


A Multi-Site Process Evaluation Of Three Federal Reentry Courts In A Southern District Of Federal Probation, Patricia Ann Southerland May 2014

A Multi-Site Process Evaluation Of Three Federal Reentry Courts In A Southern District Of Federal Probation, Patricia Ann Southerland

Master's Theses

Over the years, prison populations have varied extensively. For the first time in over 30 years, national prison populations began to decrease in 2010. While there are a number of factors influencing this trend, part of such decrease has been the result of changing parole practices. In attempts to respond to the growing parole population and reduce recidivism among parolees, the U.S. court system has begun implementing reentry courts. The current study sought to evaluate the implementation well as pro-active application of evidence-based practices among three reentry court program sites. Three federal reentry courts in a southern district of ...


Navigating Pacific Fisheries: Legal And Policy Trends In The Implementation Of International Fisheries Instruments In The Western And Central Pacific Region, Quentin Hanich, Ben M. Tsamenyi Apr 2014

Navigating Pacific Fisheries: Legal And Policy Trends In The Implementation Of International Fisheries Instruments In The Western And Central Pacific Region, Quentin Hanich, Ben M. Tsamenyi

Quentin Hanich

Navigating Pacific Fisheries analyses the legal and policy context for the conservation, management and exploitation of tuna fisheries in the Western and Central Pacific region.


Research Summary: Testing Universal College Savings Accounts At Birth: Early Research From Seed For Oklahoma Kids, Sondra G. Beverly Apr 2014

Research Summary: Testing Universal College Savings Accounts At Birth: Early Research From Seed For Oklahoma Kids, Sondra G. Beverly

Center for Social Development Research

SEED for Oklahoma Kids is a large-scale policy test of automatic and progressive Child Development Accounts (CDAs), and it is the first truly universal model in the United States. The SEED OK CDA is universal in that it opens an Oklahoma 529 College Savings Plan (OK 529) account on behalf of every infant in the treatment group. This report summarizes key findings and conclusions from SEED for Oklahoma Kids research. Even at this early stage, SEED OK research is informing policy and the design of college savings plans at the state level. Amore recent summary of SEED OK research is ...


The Vital Role Of Ideas In Industrial Policy Changes In Ireland During The 1980s, John Hogan, Brendan O'Rourke Apr 2014

The Vital Role Of Ideas In Industrial Policy Changes In Ireland During The 1980s, John Hogan, Brendan O'Rourke

Conference papers

Employing a discursive institutionalist approach in the form of the critical juncture theory (CJT), this paper examines the nature of the changes to Irish industrial policy in the mid 1980s, a time when the country went through one of its worst economic crises. Did these policy changes, ushered in by the Telesis Report of 1982, constitute a transformation in industrial policy, or a continuation of a previously established policy pathway, and if so why? To answer this question the paper explores the roles played by various change agents, and their ideas, in altering the industrial policy that had been established ...


Global Care Of Orphaned And Vulnerable Children, Rachel M. Kuiken, Lauren Gamberdella, Meredith Wood Apr 2014

Global Care Of Orphaned And Vulnerable Children, Rachel M. Kuiken, Lauren Gamberdella, Meredith Wood

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Care for orphaned and vulnerable children living in poverty is a widespread concern affecting millions worldwide. This presentation will focus on the current literature surrounding physical, emotional and environmental care in the following countries: Mozambique, the USA and the Philippines. There is a correlation among these three countries involving the lack of food, health care and education. There will be an emphasis on the national policies implemented within each country that seek to ensure sustainability and quality in care. This presentation will also focus on the positive change that is being fulfilled by both government and non-government organizations passionate about ...


The Vital Role Of Ideas In Industrial Policy Changes In Ireland During The 1980s, John Hogan Dr, Brendan K. O'Rourke Dr Apr 2014

The Vital Role Of Ideas In Industrial Policy Changes In Ireland During The 1980s, John Hogan Dr, Brendan K. O'Rourke Dr

John Hogan

Employing a discursive institutionalist approach in the form of the critical juncture theory (CJT), this paper examines the nature of the changes to Irish industrial policy in the mid 1980s, a time when the country went through one of its worst economic crises. Did these policy changes, ushered in by the Telesis Report of 1982, constitute a transformation in industrial policy, or a continuation of a previously established policy pathway, and if so why? To answer this question the paper explores the roles played by various change agents, and their ideas, in altering the industrial policy that had been established ...


Elecronic Tax System In Tanzania: Appraisal Of The Legal Basis, Desderius M. Hekwe Apr 2014

Elecronic Tax System In Tanzania: Appraisal Of The Legal Basis, Desderius M. Hekwe

DESDERIUS M, Hekwe

With the development of Information Technology in the world many aspects of life has been affected, this, for instance, has influenced countries to come up with policies and measures for adopting these changes. This discussion is therefore focused on looking at the frameworks for the introduced electronic tax system in Tanzania, mainly on the legal basis of it. The main area looked at is the tax collection system, to include electronic filling of returns, electronic registration and licensing of tax payers, rights and liabilities of tax payers and efficiency of the system. The discussion also gives an overview and discussion ...


What To Do About Data: An Overview Of Guidelines And Policies For Dataset Collection Development, Sarah Young Apr 2014

What To Do About Data: An Overview Of Guidelines And Policies For Dataset Collection Development, Sarah Young

University of Massachusetts and New England Area Librarian e-Science Symposium

Objective

Datasets are increasingly emerging as a ‘new currency’ in collection development. While purchasing models may in some ways mirror more traditional forms of electronic information, there are many unique considerations in the collection and acquisition of datasets. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which academic libraries have formalized dataset collection development policies and to highlight some of the key considerations in the development of such policies. The focus here is on commercially available datasets, rather than datasets produced at home institutions.

Methods

Currently existing dataset collection development policies and guidelines will be gathered from ...


Squatting: Lifting The Heavy Burden To Evict Unwanted Company, Shannon Dunn Mccarthy Apr 2014

Squatting: Lifting The Heavy Burden To Evict Unwanted Company, Shannon Dunn Mccarthy

University of Massachusetts Law Review

In the later part of 2012, news and media outlets gave widespread attention to the fact that people were living rent-free in homes across the United States while the property owners were left with the burden of evicting the unwanted company in order to gain rightful possession to their property. These stories were not isolated to low incomes areas. News broadcasts shed light on squatters making camp in high-end realty valued in the millions. At the same time, news outlets in the United Kingdom were reporting on the squatting topic, but with a different angle – a recent law criminalizing squatting ...


Anaerobic Digestion As A Renewable Energy Source And Waste Management Technology: What Must Be Done For This Technology To Realize Success In The United States?, Blake Anthony Klinkner Apr 2014

Anaerobic Digestion As A Renewable Energy Source And Waste Management Technology: What Must Be Done For This Technology To Realize Success In The United States?, Blake Anthony Klinkner

University of Massachusetts Law Review

Anaerobic digestion technology uses microorganisms to consume waste and produce methane gas, which serves as a source of clean renewable energy. Although anaerobic digestion is widely used for both purposes throughout the rest of the world, it is rarely applied in the United States. This Article explains the scientific processes of anaerobic digestion. It then discusses how anaerobic digestion has been used throughout history and among societies as a waste management technology and source of renewable energy. The Article continues by addressing the legal aspects of anaerobic digestion, examining the reasons why it is not widely used in the United ...


Moving Beyond The Welfare Standard Of Psychological Well-Being For Nonhuman Primates: The Case Of Chimpanzees, John P. Gluck Apr 2014

Moving Beyond The Welfare Standard Of Psychological Well-Being For Nonhuman Primates: The Case Of Chimpanzees, John P. Gluck

EXPERIMENTATION

Since 1985, the US Animal Welfare Act and Public Health Service policy have required that researchers using nonhuman primates in biomedical and behavioral research develop a plan ‘‘for a physical environment adequate to promote the psychological well-being of primates.’’ In pursuing this charge, housing attributes such as social companionship, opportunities to express species-typical behavior, suitable space for expanded locomotor activity, and nonstressful relationships with laboratory personnel are dimensions that have dominated the discussion. Regulators were careful not to direct a specific set of prescriptions (i.e., engineering standards) for the attainment of these goals, but to leave the design of ...


China's Unbalanced Development, And What We Can Learn From It, Manfredo F. Camperio Ciani Apr 2014

China's Unbalanced Development, And What We Can Learn From It, Manfredo F. Camperio Ciani

Senior Theses and Projects

This paper argues that China’s development is unbalanced, and to see the unbalance we must divide the concept of development into different categories representing its different aspects, such as economic, urban, social, and sustainable. By looking at the different characteristics of development through time, it is possible to see where the unbalance lies. Furthermore, we learn that by categorizing the nature of development, we can gain a more comprehensive insight into the development of individual countries. In conclusion, this paper proposes the creation of a possible Development Index, as it can provide greater understanding of each country’s development.


Regulation Of Alcohol Advertising: Policy Options For Australia, Sandra C. Jones, Ross Gordon Mar 2014

Regulation Of Alcohol Advertising: Policy Options For Australia, Sandra C. Jones, Ross Gordon

Sandra Jones

A systematic search of academic databases was conducted to identify all refereed papers published between 1990 and 2012 on the regulation of alcohol advertising in Australia and three comparison countries (New Zealand, Canada and the UK). This paper reviews the codes that apply to alcohol advertising in each of the four countries, research into the effectiveness of these codes, and the small body of research into consumer attitudes towards alcohol advertising regulation. This review adduces considerable evidence that alcohol advertising influences drinking behaviours, and that current regulatory systems based on co-regulation and voluntary regulation (as is the case in Australia ...


Automatic Deposits For All At Birth: Maine's Harold Alfond College Challenge, Margaret Clancy Mar 2014

Automatic Deposits For All At Birth: Maine's Harold Alfond College Challenge, Margaret Clancy

Center for Social Development Research

The first statewide Child Development Account (CDA) in the United States announced a major change in strategy to automatically enroll all newborns. Evidence from CDA research has contributed to the decision by the College Challenge to remove its original opt-in requirement—in which parents must enroll their newborns in the state’s 529 college savings plan to receive a $500 grant—in favor of universal enrollment—in which every child is enrolled automatically at birth with a $500 grant.


Media Portrayal Of Individuals In The Lower Class And Its Effects On Attributions Of Educational Hardships, Krista A. Burke Mar 2014

Media Portrayal Of Individuals In The Lower Class And Its Effects On Attributions Of Educational Hardships, Krista A. Burke

Communication Studies

This study investigated how media portrayals of individuals in the lower class affect people’s beliefs about educational hardships in lower socioeconomic areas. Specifically, this study looked at the attributions of these hardships to determine if media consumption had an effect on the internality of attributions. It was hypothesized that increased media consumption would be related to an increased tendency toward internal attributions. It was hypothesized that increased media consumption would lead to lower support for policy changes regarding education. A survey was distributed to assess media consumption habits and attitudes toward educational hardships in the lower class. Correlation results ...


Policy And Practice Options For Equitable Access To Primary Healthcare For Indigenous Peoples In British Columbia And Norway, Josée G. Lavoie Feb 2014

Policy And Practice Options For Equitable Access To Primary Healthcare For Indigenous Peoples In British Columbia And Norway, Josée G. Lavoie

The International Indigenous Policy Journal

Over the past three decades, policy reforms have been geared towards improving quality of care, responsiveness, and equitable access to healthcare services for all social groups in general, and individuals living in marginalizing circumstances in particular. The purpose of this study was to document how primary healthcare services (PHC) services are provided in Norway and British Columbia to meet the needs of Indigenous peoples and use this knowledge to critically explore policy alternatives that inform the delivery of PHC for vulnerable populations. Findings show that in British Columbia, Indigenous-specific PHC services have been the preferred mechanism to ensure better care ...


The Stock Market Implication Of Political Connections: Evidence From Firms' Dividend Policy, Jerry Cao, Sheng Huang, Qigui Liu, Gary G. Tian Feb 2014

The Stock Market Implication Of Political Connections: Evidence From Firms' Dividend Policy, Jerry Cao, Sheng Huang, Qigui Liu, Gary G. Tian

Qigui Liu

Political connections are valuable for shareholders of privately-run firms especially in countries with weak legal institutions. We study the effect of a firm's political connections in the public equity market by focusing on its impact on the firms' dividend policy. Prior studies suggest that dividends signal the commitment for proper treatment of minority shareholders and thus high growth firms pay dividends to establish such a reputation for better access to equity market in the future. Using a sample of privately-owned Chinese firms, we find that politically connected firms are less likely to pay dividends and pay less if they ...


National Electronic Health Records And The Digital Disruption Of Moral Orders, Karin Garrety, Ian Mcloughlin, Rob Wilson, Gregor Zelle, Mike Martin Feb 2014

National Electronic Health Records And The Digital Disruption Of Moral Orders, Karin Garrety, Ian Mcloughlin, Rob Wilson, Gregor Zelle, Mike Martin

Karin Garrety

The digitalisation of patient health data to provide national electronic health record systems (NEHRS) is a major objective of many governments. Proponents claim that NEHRS will streamline care, reduce mistakes and cut costs. However, building these systems has proved highly problematic. Using recent developments in Australia as an example, we argue that a hitherto unexamined source of difficulty concerns the way NEHRS disrupt the moral orders governing the production, ownership, use of and responsibility for health records. Policies that pursue digitalisation as a self-evident 'solution' to problems in healthcare without due regard to these disruptions risk alienating key stakeholders. We ...


Policy Changes Needed In The Federal Rules Of Evidence, Donald Paine Feb 2014

Policy Changes Needed In The Federal Rules Of Evidence, Donald Paine

Tennessee Journal of Law and Policy

Let's start with how federal sausage is made. Recently, I read that the chief policymaking body supervising rule drafting has 26 federal judges and no practicing lawyers. None. The committees voting on revisions have few practitioners and many judges, professors, and government employees. The legal geniuses in Congress made significant revisions in the evidence package sent over from the Court in 1972, delaying the effective date until January 2, 1975. It's little wonder that the Federal Rules of Evidence need changing. Here are some suggestions.


Reducing Cancer Disparities Through Community Engagement In Policy Development: The Role Of Cancer Councils, Michael A. Preston, Glen P. Mays, Rise' D. Jones, Sharla A. Smith, Chara N. Stewart, Ronda Henry-Tillman Feb 2014

Reducing Cancer Disparities Through Community Engagement In Policy Development: The Role Of Cancer Councils, Michael A. Preston, Glen P. Mays, Rise' D. Jones, Sharla A. Smith, Chara N. Stewart, Ronda Henry-Tillman

Health Management and Policy Faculty Publications

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S and a source of large racial and ethnic disparities in population health. Policy development is a powerful but sometimes overlooked public health tool for reducing cancer burden and disparities. Along with other partners in the public health system, community-based organizations such as local cancer councils can play valuable roles in developing policies that are responsive to community needs and in mobilizing resources to support policy adoption and implementation. This paper examines the current and potential roles played by local cancer councils to reduce cancer burden and disparities. Responsive ...