Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Digital Commons Network

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Policy

Discipline
Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 361 - 390 of 1198

Full-Text Articles in Entire DC Network

Spreading Democracy Everywhere But Here: The Unlikely Prospect Of Foreign National Defendants Asserting Treaty Violations In American Courts After Sanchez-Llamas V. Oregon And Medellin V. Dretke, Miriam F. Miquelon-Weismann Dec 2014

Spreading Democracy Everywhere But Here: The Unlikely Prospect Of Foreign National Defendants Asserting Treaty Violations In American Courts After Sanchez-Llamas V. Oregon And Medellin V. Dretke, Miriam F. Miquelon-Weismann

University of Massachusetts Law Review

To squarely address this decisional quagmire, this article examines the binding effect of ICJ orders, entered pursuant to its compulsory jurisdiction, on American courts; earlier decisions of the Supreme Court penalizing foreign nationals for failing to timely raise individual treaty claims; the effect on treaty enforcement in domestic courts after the executive branch’s recent foreign policy decision to withdraw from compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; the current policy disputes dividing the United States and the ICJ; and, the national interest, or lack thereof, in treaty compliance. The article concludes that the government’s current claim that a “long standing presumption” exists ...


Strategic Rocket Forces, Soviet, Bert Chapman Dec 2014

Strategic Rocket Forces, Soviet, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

Describes and analyzes the historic development and evolution of the Soviet Union's Strategic Rocket Forces which were a key part of this country's nuclear weapons arsenal. Covers the technical, political, economic, and military reasons for this force's development. U.S. efforts to monitor and assess the quantity and quality of these weapons are also covered.


Palliative Care For The Homeless: An Intervention To Reduce The Healthcare Economic Cost, Eleanor R. Pineau Nov 2014

Palliative Care For The Homeless: An Intervention To Reduce The Healthcare Economic Cost, Eleanor R. Pineau

WURJ: Health and Natural Sciences

Canada's health care system is one of the defining features of the Country. For the past few years - since the economic downturn of 2008 - the health care system has been strained. Furthermore, with Canada's population aging at a fast rate, and older adults being the population that uses the most health care resources, it is imperative to find ways that decrease expenditures while continuing to provide effective care. Through implementing palliative care for Canada's homeless population, resources will be used more effectively and efficiently. In the Ottawa Inner City Health Project - The Hospice - $1.39 million were ...


Sustainable Urban Park Systems, Dorothy C. Ibes Nov 2014

Sustainable Urban Park Systems, Dorothy C. Ibes

Cities and the Environment (CATE)

Lack of multi-dimensional, substantive research on city park systems has undermined the potential role of these public amenities in advancing urban sustainability goals. This study informs holistic policy, planning, and management of parks to balance the multiple goals of sustainability region-wide. A vision for a sustainable urban park system is introduced, informed by multidisciplinary thought and theory. This vision is then operationalized in the development of a quantitative method that examines four key dimensions of sustainability—physical, environmental, socio-economic, and built—across a citywide urban park system. The approach can be customized for use in other cities, but is here ...


2014 Future Earth Young Scientists Conference On Integrated Science And Knowledge Co-Production For Ecosystems And Human Well-Being, Ivy Shiue, Leah Samberg, Benard Kulohoma, Diana Dogaru, Carina Wyborn, Perrine Hamel, Peper Sogaard Jorgensen, Paul Lussier, Bharath Sundaram, Michelle Lim, Antonio Tironi Nov 2014

2014 Future Earth Young Scientists Conference On Integrated Science And Knowledge Co-Production For Ecosystems And Human Well-Being, Ivy Shiue, Leah Samberg, Benard Kulohoma, Diana Dogaru, Carina Wyborn, Perrine Hamel, Peper Sogaard Jorgensen, Paul Lussier, Bharath Sundaram, Michelle Lim, Antonio Tironi

Forest Management Faculty Publications

Effective integration in science and knowledge co-production is a challenge that crosses research boundaries, climate regions, languages and cultures. Early career scientists are crucial in the identification of, and engagement with, obstacles and opportunities in the development of innovative solutions to complex and interconnected problems. On 25-31 May 2014, International Council for Science and International Social Science Council, in collaboration with the International Network of Next-Generation Ecologists and Institute for New Economic Thinking: Young Scholars Initiative, assembled a group of early career researchers with diverse backgrounds and research perspectives to reflect on and debate relevant issues around ecosystems and human ...


Federal Agency Efforts To Advance Media Literacy In Substance Abuse Prevention, Alan M. Levitt, Robert W. Denniston Nov 2014

Federal Agency Efforts To Advance Media Literacy In Substance Abuse Prevention, Alan M. Levitt, Robert W. Denniston

Journal of Media Literacy Education

This article describes and reflects upon efforts to generate greater support for media literacy and critical thinking within the strategies and programs of the Federal government, primarily in agencies with an interest in youth substance abuse prevention. Additionally, some of the inherent challenges and obstacles that impacted the ability to expand these efforts are discussed.


Multiple Roles Of Medicaid ...And The Administrative Capacity To Support Them, Eileen Griffin Jd Nov 2014

Multiple Roles Of Medicaid ...And The Administrative Capacity To Support Them, Eileen Griffin Jd

Disability & Aging

Slides presented at the NAMD 2014 Fall Conference, November 4, 2014


Preservation Policies Of The Purdue University Research Repository (Purr), Lisa Zilinski Nov 2014

Preservation Policies Of The Purdue University Research Repository (Purr), Lisa Zilinski

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Linking publications to published datasets in repositories is an important part of the research lifecycle. However, merely linking them does not ensure reusability. It is important for repositories to develop and provide policies for preservation that support the reusability, including lifecycle, ownership, versioning, and attribution aspects of the scholarly process (Bechhofer et al., 2013). In 2103, the Purdue University Libraries developed and implemented a workflow between its institutional repository, its e-Pubs system and its research data repository, Purdue University Research Repository or PURR (Zilinski et al., forthcoming), as well as journal articles linked to published datasets in PURR. This workflow ...


Policymakers Identify Priorities For Phssr, Katherine Froeb Papa Nov 2014

Policymakers Identify Priorities For Phssr, Katherine Froeb Papa

Frontiers in Public Health Services and Systems Research

A major goal for the health services research community is to provide evidence policymakers can use to improve the public’s health. However, it can be difficult to know what evidence policymakers want and how they decide what research to fund.

In order to understand where policymakers turn for evidence and how they make funding decisions amid fiscal and political constraints, AcademyHealth conducted a 3-part Fireside Chat series in the spring of 2014. This editorial summarizes the evidence gaps identified, and provides strategies for communicating with decision makers.


Public Health Services Research: Informing Public Health Practice & Policy, Glen P. Mays Oct 2014

Public Health Services Research: Informing Public Health Practice & Policy, Glen P. Mays

Health Management and Policy Presentations

Heterogeneity in the mechanisms used for organizing and financing public health strategies creates opportunities for comparative effectiveness research (CER) in public health that examine which organization and financing mechanisms work best, for whom, and under what circumstances. Findings from these types of studies have direct utility in shaping public health policy and practice decisions.


Gender-Responsive Policy Development In Corrections: What We Know And Roadmaps For Change, Erica King Msw, Jillian Foley Mppm Oct 2014

Gender-Responsive Policy Development In Corrections: What We Know And Roadmaps For Change, Erica King Msw, Jillian Foley Mppm

Justice Policy

Lack of gender-informed policy creates challenges for correctional practitioners. When there is a gap between training that is evidence-based and gender-informed and what is written in policy, staff may find themselves hindered in their attempts to work toward establishing a gender-responsive environment. This policy bulletin, released in February 2015 and based on survey data and focus groups with women, is an initial step to determine the existence of gender-informed policy within correctional agencies. The findings of this bulletin provide an overview of the current state of gender-responsive policies for women and define a focus for future research, training and technical ...


Good Conduct Time For Prisoners: Why (And How) Wisconsin Should Provide Credits Toward Early Release, Michael O'Hear Oct 2014

Good Conduct Time For Prisoners: Why (And How) Wisconsin Should Provide Credits Toward Early Release, Michael O'Hear

Marquette Law Review

Wisconsin is one of about twenty states not offering good conduct time (GCT) to prisoners. In most states, prisoners are able to earn GCT credits toward accelerated release through good behavior. Wisconsin itself had GCT for more than a century, but eliminated it as part of a set of reforms in the 1980s and 1990s that left the state with what may be the nation’s most inflexible system for the release of prisoners. Although some of these reforms helpfully brought greater certainty to punishment, they went too far in eliminating nearly all meaningful recognition and encouragement of good behavior ...


The Impact Of National Science Foundation Investments In Undergraduate Engineering Education Research: A Comparative, Mixed Methods Study, Jeremi Shavonda London Oct 2014

The Impact Of National Science Foundation Investments In Undergraduate Engineering Education Research: A Comparative, Mixed Methods Study, Jeremi Shavonda London

Open Access Dissertations

The U.S. invests billions of taxpayers' dollars in research tied to the national priorities that contribute to its competitiveness in a global economy. As the federal funding agency with an explicit focus on engineering education, the National Science Foundation (NSF) contains a portfolio of projects focused on improving the quantity of engineering graduates and the quality of engineering programs. Within the agency, the Division of Undergraduate Education invests approximately $190 million (FY 2012) annually on science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education projects. Although the DUE portfolio includes a suite a projects with different foci supporting national initiatives and ...


Dwight Eisenhower, The Warrior, & John Kennedy, The Cold Warrior: Foreign Policy Under Two Presidents, Andrew C. Nosti Oct 2014

Dwight Eisenhower, The Warrior, & John Kennedy, The Cold Warrior: Foreign Policy Under Two Presidents, Andrew C. Nosti

Student Publications

This paper presents a comparison between President Eisenhower and President Kennedy's foreign affairs policies, specifically regarding the Cold War, by examining the presidents' interactions with four distinct Cold War regions.


Social Workers Shaping Welfare Policy In South Africa: The White Paper For Social Welfare And Lessons For Policy Practice, Leila Patel Sep 2014

Social Workers Shaping Welfare Policy In South Africa: The White Paper For Social Welfare And Lessons For Policy Practice, Leila Patel

Center for Social Development Research

Social Workers Shaping Welfare Policy in South Africa: The White Paper for Social Welfare and Lessons for Policy Practice


Nuclear Chain Reaction: Why Economic Sanctions Are Not Worth The Public Costs, Nicholas C.W. Wolfe Sep 2014

Nuclear Chain Reaction: Why Economic Sanctions Are Not Worth The Public Costs, Nicholas C.W. Wolfe

Nicholas A Wolfe

International economic sanctions frequently violate human rights in targeted states and rarely achieve their objectives. However, many hail economic sanctions as an important nonviolent tool for coercing and persuading change. In November 2013, the Islamic Republic of Iran negotiated a temporary agreement with major world powers regarding Iran’s nuclear program. The United States’ media and politicians have repeatedly and incorrectly attributed Iran’s willingness to negotiate to the effectiveness of economic sanctions.

Politicians primarily focus on immediate domestic effects and enact sanctions without a thorough understanding of the long-term effects on the United States economy and the public within ...


An Examination Of Crime Perception And Arkansas Fair Housing, David Montague, Shannon Rynders, Jennifer Bearden, Jennifer M. Miller, Carol Johnson, Emily Blank Sep 2014

An Examination Of Crime Perception And Arkansas Fair Housing, David Montague, Shannon Rynders, Jennifer Bearden, Jennifer M. Miller, Carol Johnson, Emily Blank

International Social Science Review

This study examines the issue of fair housing from the standpoint of appraisal reports that determine the value of properties. Specifically, descriptors of crime within Arkansas appraisal reports are analyzed, along with completed interview questionnaires representing the mortgage lending, law enforcement, and home appraisal communities. This study provides pivotal findings with respect to appraisal reports in Arkansas and implications for public policy. Particularly, it finds that some of the most relevant stakeholders related to housing in Arkansas unfairly categorize certain geographic areas according to perceptions of crime, as indicated by a review of data found within appraisal reports. This study ...


Innovations In Asset Building, Michael Sherraden Sep 2014

Innovations In Asset Building, Michael Sherraden

Center for Social Development Research

Innovations in Asset Building


A Critical Examination Of Policy And Practice In The Transition Experience For Students With Math Learning Disabilities In Mumbai, India, Melinda S. Eichhorn Sep 2014

A Critical Examination Of Policy And Practice In The Transition Experience For Students With Math Learning Disabilities In Mumbai, India, Melinda S. Eichhorn

Doctoral Dissertations

Although some research has examined the experiences of students with learning disabilities in Indian secondary schools (see Karande, Sholarpurwala, & Kulkarni, 2011; Karande, Mahajan, & Kulkarni, 2009), the role of policy in students’ transition into post-secondary education has been largely unexamined. This study is a preliminary effort at providing an investigation of special education policy in Mumbai and the impact on students’ transition to post-secondary education, especially in regards to mathematics. This study extends the current knowledge of students with learning disabilities in Mumbai by 1) taking an in-depth look at students with math learning disabilities specifically, 2) focusing on the transition between secondary and higher secondary education, and 3) examining the impact of current policies and procedures through the lens of critical pedagogy.

In this study, I gathered data on the math proficiency of secondary students with MLD and their typically achieving peers in Mumbai. Additionally, I conducted interviews with secondary students and post-college adults with MLD, as well as interviews with secondary math teachers and college lecturers in mathematics. I also observed post-secondary math classes in various colleges, collected survey data from math lecturers, and reviewed documents from educational institutions all over Mumbai.

The data from this mixed methods study revealed that, for this sample of students in Mumbai, secondary students with MLD do have gaps in their conceptual and procedural knowledge of mathematics as compared to their peers without MLD, especially in the areas of fractions, decimals, pre-algebra, and word problems. Through interview and survey data, secondary students with MLD also expressed frustration with geometry and algebra. The data also revealed that post-secondary students who take Secretarial Practice in place of math in junior college are not prepared for the degree college math course that follows. Additionally, post-secondary students with MLD expressed feelings of fear and judgment when asking for help in mathematics from college lecturers and peers. This suggests that there is a need for professional development among all educators, from primary to post-secondary, to raise awareness of MLD. Also, trying to mediate students’ difficulties at the secondary or post-secondary level is too late; early identification of MLD and early intervention are necessary.

These findings will be useful for inclusive education advocacy groups in India as they work with policy makers and enforcers at the national and state level, as they revise policy and procedures for students with learning disabilities in Maharashtra and India.


Assessment Of Policies For Innovative Financing In Infrastructure Systems, Ali Mostafavi, Dulcy Abraham, Charlene Sullivan Aug 2014

Assessment Of Policies For Innovative Financing In Infrastructure Systems, Ali Mostafavi, Dulcy Abraham, Charlene Sullivan

Infrastructure System-of-Systems (I-SoS ) Research Group

Infrastructure systems are drivers of the economy in the nation. A dollar spent on infrastructure development yields roughly double the initial spending in ultimate economic output in the short term; and over a twenty-year period, and generalized ‘public investment’ produces an aggregated $3.21 of economic activity per $1.00 spent [1]. Thus, formulation of policies pertaining to infrastructure investment and development is of significance affecting the social and economic wellbeing of the nation. The aim of this policy brief is to evaluate innovative financing in infrastructure systems from two different perspectives: (1) through consideration of the current condition of ...


Reducing Global Carbon: Creating An American Policy, Cameron Otsuka Aug 2014

Reducing Global Carbon: Creating An American Policy, Cameron Otsuka

Economics Theses

The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) first assessment report, released in 1990, calculated that carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions had been responsible for more than half of the greenhouse gas effect. As of 2006, the United States, China, and European Union (EU) consume 56% of global CO2 emissions (Brinkley & Less, 2010). Figure 1, below, shows that CO2 levels have continued to rise at basically the same rate since before the 1960s (Tans & Keeling). 23 years later, on September 27, 2013, the IPCC released its fifth assessment report, concluding that climate change is the result of human activity ...


Efficient Methods For Optimizing Hydropower Under Uncertainty, Timothy Michael Magee Jr., Edith A. Zagona, Mitch Clement Aug 2014

Efficient Methods For Optimizing Hydropower Under Uncertainty, Timothy Michael Magee Jr., Edith A. Zagona, Mitch Clement

International Conference on Hydroinformatics

There are several sources of uncertainty in scheduling hydropower: reservoir inflows, power generation, demand and value, and the value of water remaining in storage at the end of the planning horizon. RiverWare is an object oriented modeling tool widely used for the operations and planning of large and small systems of reservoirs. Typically, short term optimization of hydropower is complicated by the need to meet a wide variety of prioritized non-power constraints and RiverWare is designed to satisfy these constraints to the extent possible. We present four different approaches that use deterministic methods combined with uncertainty models to efficiently optimize ...


Policy Update: Federal And State Legislation To Support Grandfamilies, Ana Beltran Jul 2014

Policy Update: Federal And State Legislation To Support Grandfamilies, Ana Beltran

GrandFamilies: The Contemporary Journal of Research, Practice and Policy

Building on the progress of the last 20 years, helpful federal and state legislation continues to be pursued on behalf of grandfamilies. This update summarizes policy efforts during the last year and looks ahead to what is on the horizon. At the federal level, legislative efforts are focused on grandfamilies who are involved with the child welfare system. States are responding to federal activity by enacting policies to place more children with relatives and better serve grandfamilies who come into contact with the system, including “family finding” laws and including fictive kin as “relatives.” State policymakers are also striving to ...


Mckinney Vento Legislation: A Policy Analysis Of The Evolution Of Homeless Law In Illinois, Cathleen J. Weber Jul 2014

Mckinney Vento Legislation: A Policy Analysis Of The Evolution Of Homeless Law In Illinois, Cathleen J. Weber

Theses and Dissertations

This policy analysis looks at the evolution of homeless education laws both through federal legislation and state laws. A policy analysis was utilized to show changes through the reauthorization of the McKinney-Vento Act.

One aspect of this analysis utilized qualitative data from four individual administrators in four central Illinois school districts. The qualitative data reviewed the training received by each administrator and the policies guiding their enrollment procedures.

Another aspect provided in this analysis is the changes established in response to court cases filed when school districts violated the provisions of the McKinney-Vento Act. The reauthorizations that followed each finding ...


Garbage Everywhere What Refuse In India's Streets Reveals About America's Hidden Trash Problem, Noah M. Sachs Jun 2014

Garbage Everywhere What Refuse In India's Streets Reveals About America's Hidden Trash Problem, Noah M. Sachs

Law Faculty Publications

In early 2014, I arrived in the southern Indian city of Bangalore, which just two years before had been paralyzed by a garbage-worker strike and a severe shortage of landfill space. The municipal government had responded to public anger over uncollected trash with decrees on waste segregation and composting that went unenforced, and by the time I showed up, not much had changed. In the city that bills itself as India’s Silicon Valley, there are still putrid piles of garbage all around town. Bangaloreans accept open dumps in their neighborhoods as a fixture of the landscape, to be seen ...


Vaccination Perceptions Of School Employees In A Rural School District, Janelle L. B. Macintosh Jun 2014

Vaccination Perceptions Of School Employees In A Rural School District, Janelle L. B. Macintosh

All Faculty Publications

Background: There continues to be a need for increases in adult vaccination rates, especially among those working in environments which may easily become communicable disease outbreak centers, such as school employees in the school environment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate why rural Utah school employees were non-compliant with the influenza and measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccines, as well as to identify their view on mandatory vaccination policies.

Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to all school employees in a rural Utah school district. Data analysis included frequencies and measures of central tendency and dispersion for quantitative items ...


Social Challenges And Policy Innovations By Social Workers In Australia, Manohar Pawar Jun 2014

Social Challenges And Policy Innovations By Social Workers In Australia, Manohar Pawar

Center for Social Development Research

By summarizing the social challenges in the contemporary Australian context, this article aims to discuss policy innovations by Australian social workers. Acknowledging that the concept of policy innovation is broad and sometimes ambiguous, it looks at four examples by social workers. Drawing on secondary data analysis, it discusses how social workers played an important role in introducing legislative changes/amendments to protect children in difficult circumstances, resisted a refugee policy that incarcerates innocent children, challenged and changed procedures and policies within an organization, and influenced policymakers to revert budgetary decisions to enhance access to services. These examples show the social ...


I Didn't Consent To That: Secondary Analysis Of Discrimination Against Bdsm Identified Individuals, Larry Iannotti Jun 2014

I Didn't Consent To That: Secondary Analysis Of Discrimination Against Bdsm Identified Individuals, Larry Iannotti

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Sadomasochism (BDSM) sexual behavior is an understudied phenomenon within the social sciences generally, and social work in particular. While BESM sexuality encompasses a wide variety of activities a community of individuals interested in BDSM is identifiable and has coalesced around organized groups, events, political activism, and shared sexual interests. This community has experienced discrimination, violence, and harassment (DVH) as a result of social approbation and stigma associated with BDSM practices. The study examines results of a secondary analysis of data from the Survey of Violence & Discrimination against Sexual Minorities, conducted in 2008. Severity and frequency of various types of DVH ...


A Policy And Infrastructure Analysis Of Bicycle Friendly Campuses: An Examination Of Three Atlanta-Area Universities, Virginia Kincaid May 2014

A Policy And Infrastructure Analysis Of Bicycle Friendly Campuses: An Examination Of Three Atlanta-Area Universities, Virginia Kincaid

Public Health Theses

According to the American College Health Association, less than half of college student populations participate in regular physical activity. With continued emphasis on the importance of exercise, creating opportunities for active transportation around college campuses is becoming critical. Attributes of the community design around us play a vital role in either promoting or hindering physical activity. Additionally, because of a growing interest in sustainability, university officials are finding it necessary to prioritize the environmental impact of decisions made at college campuses.

While some campuses have seen an organic growth in bicycling, proper planning and implementation of bicycle-friendly policies yields a ...


Interpreting, Stephanie Jo Kent May 2014

Interpreting, Stephanie Jo Kent

Doctoral Dissertations

What do community interpreting for the Deaf in western societies, conference interpreting for the European Parliament, and language brokering in international management have in common? Academic research and professional training have historically emphasized the linguistic and cognitive challenges of interpreting, neglecting or ignoring the social aspects that structure communication. All forms of interpreting are inherently social; they involve relationships among at least three people and two languages. The contexts explored here, American Sign Language/English interpreting and spoken language interpreting within the European Parliament, show that simultaneous interpreting involves attitudes, norms and values about intercultural communication that overemphasize information and ...