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Terrorism

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The Threat Of Terrorism To Power Grids: Effects Of Electromagnetic Pulses To The United States, Justin Van Dunk Jul 2020

The Threat Of Terrorism To Power Grids: Effects Of Electromagnetic Pulses To The United States, Justin Van Dunk

Liberty University Journal of Statesmanship & Public Policy

Terrorism’s roots can be traced back to the French Revolution.[1] Since 1789 terrorism has adopted many faces and its reach stretches throughout the world. Amidst the difficulty of defining terrorism, the FBI has given us the following definition, “…the unlawful use of…violence against persons…to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.” (Gaines & Miller, 2013, p. 539).[2] Bombing, hijacking, arson, assault, kidnapping, and hostage-taking are just a few of the attack tactics utilized throughout terrorist organization. However, with continuing advancements in technology nations need ...


Analysis Identity Fusion And Psychosocial Development: How The Role Of Father, Mother And Son On Radicalization Within Family, Muhammad Luthfi Zuhdi, Muhamad Syauqillah Jul 2020

Analysis Identity Fusion And Psychosocial Development: How The Role Of Father, Mother And Son On Radicalization Within Family, Muhammad Luthfi Zuhdi, Muhamad Syauqillah

Journal of Strategic and Global Studies

One of crucial issues of radicalism lately is the involvement of family members in acts of terrorism. One of those interesting case is the case of Dita Oepriyanto’s family, the perpetrator of suicide bombing in one church in Surabaya, East Java. Family involvement in extremist acts and terrorism in Indonesia is not a new thing, the story of Dita Oeprianto is a historical cycle with different shifting actors. The story of the Leader of Darul Islam, RM. Kartosuwiryo who rebelled against the Indonesian republic accompanied by his wife and wife giving birth to children in the forest can be ...


The Changing Face Of Terrorism And The Designation Of Foreign Terrorist Organizations, Patrick J. Keenan Jul 2020

The Changing Face Of Terrorism And The Designation Of Foreign Terrorist Organizations, Patrick J. Keenan

Indiana Law Journal

In this Article, I take up one slice of what should be a broad re-examination of

U.S. law and policy. I argue that the new attacks have been undertaken by entities

that can and should be designated as foreign terrorist organizations. Doing this would

permit prosecutors to target those who support these entities with tools that are not

currently available. This Article is both a doctrinal argument that directly addresses

the many legal hurdles that make designating groups, such as foreign hackers and

troll farms, terrorist organizations a complicated endeavor, and a policy argument

about how U.S. law ...


Teacher Educators’ Perceptions Of Terrorism And The Role Of Education: A Qualitative Inquiry, Muhammet Fatih Alkan, Fatih Yazıcı May 2020

Teacher Educators’ Perceptions Of Terrorism And The Role Of Education: A Qualitative Inquiry, Muhammet Fatih Alkan, Fatih Yazıcı

i.e.: inquiry in education

This qualitative study aimed at revealing terrorism perceptions held by teacher educators working in Ankara, the capital of Turkey, and their opinions regarding the role of education that may play in ending terrorism. A total of 30 teacher educators took part in the study. The data were collected using a questionnaire involving open-ended questions in addition to demographics. The data were analyzed using the content analysis technique. The findings were discussed in terms of relevant literature and the social and political context of Turkey, which yielded generalizable implications to other countries with a similar social construct.


Asymmetric Threats: Analyzing The Future Of Nuclear Terrorism & Cyber Attacks; The Value Of Deterrence Theory For Addressing The Challenges Of Nuclear Terrorism In The Age Of 21st Century Cybersecurity, Oliver Demmert-Shelfo May 2020

Asymmetric Threats: Analyzing The Future Of Nuclear Terrorism & Cyber Attacks; The Value Of Deterrence Theory For Addressing The Challenges Of Nuclear Terrorism In The Age Of 21st Century Cybersecurity, Oliver Demmert-Shelfo

Political Science & International Studies | Senior Theses

Given the rapid development and ease of access to technology, the threat of extremist organizations utilizing cyberspace as a means to target critical American strategic infrastructure is of increasing concern. The risk posed by the acquisition of fissile material, sabotage, or use of a nuclear device by an extremist organization has been exasperated due to technological development outpacing strategy. Despite policy-makers’ attempts to protect the public from cyber-attacks and nuclear terrorism, the federal policies in place have failed to account for the continual evolution of technology and the gaps in security that this advancement brings. Through examining documents from congressional ...


The Grave New World Of Terrorism: A Lawyer's View, James A. R. Nafziger Apr 2020

The Grave New World Of Terrorism: A Lawyer's View, James A. R. Nafziger

Denver Journal of International Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


The Rising Risk Of Terrorism In The Philippines And Natural Resource Corruption, Blair Mills Mar 2020

The Rising Risk Of Terrorism In The Philippines And Natural Resource Corruption, Blair Mills

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

As foreign fighters, who had previously traveled to the Middle East to conduct operations under the flag of ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant), return to the Philippines and other countries in Southeast Asia, they are bringing their ideologies and knowledge of terrorist operations with them. In addition to tracking the growing trend of terrorist attacks being conducted in the Philippines in the name of ISIL, it is crucial to determine how these returning fighters are gathering the funds and resources necessary to carry out these attacks and establish new terrorist cells. This question of how returning terrorists ...


The Definition Of Terrorism, Duncan Gaswaga Feb 2020

The Definition Of Terrorism, Duncan Gaswaga

The International Journal of Ethical Leadership

No abstract provided.


Contemporary Global Environmental Problems., Komilzhon Mirzabdullaevich Umarov, Asadbek Ulugbek Ugli. Akhmadzhonov Jan 2020

Contemporary Global Environmental Problems., Komilzhon Mirzabdullaevich Umarov, Asadbek Ulugbek Ugli. Akhmadzhonov

Scientific Bulletin of Namangan State University

This article discusses global natural issues related to the noticeable impact of man on nature, the inverse effect of nature on man and the economy as well as terrorist, nationalist, religious, political, traditional bombing), telephone, nuclear, chemical, biological, cyber terrorism, aspects affecting ecology of the world. An attempt was made to classify these aspects in order to improve the perception of students.


Women As Nontraditional Terrorists, Giorgi Beruashvili Jan 2020

Women As Nontraditional Terrorists, Giorgi Beruashvili

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Terrorist organizations have always been predominantly dominated by male members in numbers of participants, supporters, and leaders. Despite men having the majority of the roles, oftentimes the world witnesses attack executed by female terrorists which deal a substantial amount of damage to the infrastructure and the peaceful civilians surrounding them. Furthermore, the sense of unpredictability and unpreparedness from the counterterrorist forces and the general public adds up to the overall advantage women possess in the field of terrorism over men. Considering these observations, one can argue that women have grown to be far more dangerous and successful in the field ...


Transportation, Terrorism And Crime: Deterrence, Disruption And Resilience, Daniel Goodrich, Frances Edwards Jan 2020

Transportation, Terrorism And Crime: Deterrence, Disruption And Resilience, Daniel Goodrich, Frances Edwards

Mineta Transportation Institute Publications

Abstract: Terrorists likely have adopted vehicle ramming as a tactic because it can be carried out by an individual (or “lone wolf terrorist”), and because the skills required are minimal (e.g. the ability to drive a car and determine locations for creating maximum carnage). Studies of terrorist activities against transportation assets have been conducted to help law enforcement agencies prepare their communities, create mitigation measures, conduct effective surveillance and respond quickly to attacks.

This study reviews current research on terrorist tactics against transportation assets, with an emphasis on vehicle ramming attacks. It evaluates some of the current attack strategies ...


Counterterrorism Investigator Perceptions: Homegrown Violent Extremists With Mental Illness, Jeffery Brandon Perez Jan 2020

Counterterrorism Investigator Perceptions: Homegrown Violent Extremists With Mental Illness, Jeffery Brandon Perez

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Terrorism endures throughout the world. Some individuals who engage in it may suffer from a cognitive disorder. For those who investigate terrorism, preconceptions exist both toward extremists and toward people with mental illness (MI). A review of the literature has shown how counterterrorism (CT) investigators perceive terrorists’ motivations, and how law enforcement perceives people with MI. In filling a gap between the two, this study aimed to research whether based on their lived experiences, do the understandings, perceptions, and attitudes of CT agents inform their biases and influence their decision-making and ultimately investigations of homegrown violent extremists (HVEs) with MI ...


Exploring Contemporary Counterterrorism And Perspectives Of Terrorism Experts To Combat Boko Haram, Enyinaya Njoku Jan 2020

Exploring Contemporary Counterterrorism And Perspectives Of Terrorism Experts To Combat Boko Haram, Enyinaya Njoku

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Within the last decade, the terrorist attacks by Boko Haram have been the topic of considerable scholarly focus; yet, there remains a lack of knowledge and understanding about the causes of failure in counterterrorism measures by the Nigerian government in Borno State. Using Wilner’s contemporary deterrence theory as the foundation, the purpose of this case study of the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) was to bridge the gap in knowledge to understand the causes of failure in counterterrorism measures by the Nigerian government and to explore alternate approaches to the counterterrorism efforts in Borno State to deter Boko Haram. Data ...


The 2018 National Strategy For Counterterrorism: A Synoptic Overview, Dan E. Stigall, Chris Miller, Lauren Donnatucci Oct 2019

The 2018 National Strategy For Counterterrorism: A Synoptic Overview, Dan E. Stigall, Chris Miller, Lauren Donnatucci

Dan E. Stigall

This article briefly reviews a few aspects of the 2018 National Strategy for Counterterrorism (NSCT) that are worthy of examination. These include its wider scope, which encompasses domestic terrorism and state-sponsored terrorism; its focus on prevention efforts with a consideration of future threats; and the efficacy of its approach to pursuing and dismantling terrorist groups, most notably the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS).


Terrorism In The 2020s: Examining The Global Threat Landscape, Landon W. Swearngin May 2019

Terrorism In The 2020s: Examining The Global Threat Landscape, Landon W. Swearngin

MSU Graduate Theses

This thesis uses quantitative and qualitative research methods to (1) explore the global trends and trajectories of terrorism, (2) identify emerging strategic challenges, and (3) outline an opportunity analysis for U.S. counterterrorism strategy. Collectively, this project provides a strategic forecast for terrorism in the 2020s, demonstrating that terrorism is becoming increasingly dangerous, dynamic, and difficult to defeat.


Utilizing Strategic Culture As A Tool To Tailor U.S. Deterrence Policy Towards Iran, Ryan P. Taylor May 2019

Utilizing Strategic Culture As A Tool To Tailor U.S. Deterrence Policy Towards Iran, Ryan P. Taylor

MSU Graduate Theses

The geostrategic environment since the end of the Cold War has drastically changed the way United States (U.S.) policymakers develop strategies to combat a wide range of hostile threats facing the country, especially in the field of the deterrence of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs). Iran is such an actor, who poses one of the greater proliferation threats in the world and continues to commit hostile actions in the Middle East. In this post-Cold War environment, it is imperative that the United States develop a tailored deterrence strategy to meet this challenge. Past deterrence strategies popular during the bipolar ...


Political Extremism And Domestic Terrorism In America, Mark Potok Apr 2019

Political Extremism And Domestic Terrorism In America, Mark Potok

University of Miami National Security & Armed Conflict Law Review

No abstract provided.


Terrorism As Economic Warfare: America's Risky Business, Rodger A. Bates, Bryan Labrecque Jan 2019

Terrorism As Economic Warfare: America's Risky Business, Rodger A. Bates, Bryan Labrecque

The Journal of Public and Professional Sociology

Terrorism is a form of asymmetrical warfare. Terrorists employ a variety of tactics to threaten and intimidate a group or society. Technology is an important force multiplier which may allow them engage in cost-effective actions frequently directed at economic targets. As a means of economic warfare, terrorism can disrupt, demoralize and severely diminish the ability of a group to counter the threat of a terrorist group. It is America's risky business.


Conceptions About Terrorism: How Fearful Are We And How Does That Affect Us?, Rebecca Jackson Jan 2019

Conceptions About Terrorism: How Fearful Are We And How Does That Affect Us?, Rebecca Jackson

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Since the crusades, terrorism has been a form of violence used to promote some kind of agenda, whether political, social, religious or ideological (Martin 2018). With many different definitions of what constitutes terrorism, it is somewhat difficult to measure what exact impact terrorism has had globally. Attacks such as those on 9/11 in the United States and the Manchester bombings have been accepted worldwide as examples of acts of international terrorism. International terrorist attacks have lasting effects on both those directly affected as well as the larger community and beyond. Studies have shown that Americans are overly afraid of ...


International Civil Individual Responsibility And The Security Council: Building The Foundations Of A General Regime, Vincent-Joël Proulx Jan 2019

International Civil Individual Responsibility And The Security Council: Building The Foundations Of A General Regime, Vincent-Joël Proulx

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article focuses on a few tools at the disposal of the United Nations Security Council (“UNSC”) to enhance individual (read: civil) responsibility concerning nonstate terrorist actors with a view to opening other avenues of inquiry regarding other subversive nonstate actors (“NSAs”), for instance in the areas of transnational torts, human rights (“HR”) violations, and environmental damage caused by business entities. As discussed in Part V, recent developments surrounding the application of the Alien Tort Claims Act (“ATCA”) in the United States and the prospect of establishing a basis for universal civil jurisdiction further signal that no such solid basis ...


Are Domestic Abusers Terrorists: Rhetoric, Reality, And Asylum Law, Natalie Nanasi Jan 2019

Are Domestic Abusers Terrorists: Rhetoric, Reality, And Asylum Law, Natalie Nanasi

Faculty Scholarship

The terms terrorism and terrorist are highly charged but all too often imprecisely utilized in legal, media, and political arenas. The terminology has even entered the field of intimate partner violence, where the phrases terrorism in the home or intimate terrorism have been used to describe domestic abuse. This language has proliferated not only due to identified commonalities between intimate partner abuse and terroristic behaviors but also because of the rhetorical impact of the words in highlighting the gravity of domestic violence. However, expanding the legal framework of terrorism into new areas has potentially serious and far-reaching consequences. It is ...


Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Counter-Narrative Tactics In Preventing Radicalization, Ellen Berman Jan 2019

Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Counter-Narrative Tactics In Preventing Radicalization, Ellen Berman

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

The U.S. Department of State disseminates counter-radicalization information through social media but has been unable to reach users due to an inability to create engaging posts due to a lack of understanding of the interests of the general population. The purpose of this quantitative study was to assess the utility of data analytics when administering counter-radicalization social media campaigns. The population for this study were social media posts published on the Quilliam Facebook page between 1 January 2018 and 31 December 2018. The nonexperimental quantitative descriptive research design sought to examine the correlation between the independent variables (topic of ...


Visualization, Feature Selection, Machine Learning: Identifying The Responsible Group For Extreme Acts Of Violence, Mahdi Hashemi, Margeret A. Hall Nov 2018

Visualization, Feature Selection, Machine Learning: Identifying The Responsible Group For Extreme Acts Of Violence, Mahdi Hashemi, Margeret A. Hall

Interdisciplinary Informatics Faculty Publications

The toll of human casualties and psychological impacts on societies make any study on violent extremism worthwhile, let alone attempting to detect patterns among them. This paper is an effort to predict which violent extremist organization (VEO), among 14 currently active ones throughout the world, is responsible for a violent act based on 14 features, including its human and structural tolls, its target type and value, intelligence, and weapons utilized in the attack. Three main steps in our paper include: 1) the visualization of the violent acts through linear and non-linear dimensionality reduction techniques; 2) sequential forward feature selection based ...


Islamic Terrorism In The United States – The Association Of Religious Fundamentalism With Social Isolation & Paths Leading To Extreme Violence Through Processes Of Radicalization., Shay Shiran Jun 2018

Islamic Terrorism In The United States – The Association Of Religious Fundamentalism With Social Isolation & Paths Leading To Extreme Violence Through Processes Of Radicalization., Shay Shiran

Student Theses

This exploratory study focuses on identifying motivations for religious terrorism and Islamic terrorism in the United States in particular. Terrorism is a crime of extreme violence with the end purpose of political influence. This crime is challenging to encounter for its multi-faced characteristics, the unusual motivations of its actors, and their semi-militant conduct. The hypothesis of this study asserts that religious terrorists are radicalized by passing from fundamental to extreme devout agendas, caused by isolation from the dominant society, and resulted in high potential to impose those agendas by extreme violence. Under the theoretical framework of subculture in criminology, this ...


Are Illegal Direct Actions By Animal Rights Activists Ethically Vigilante?, Michael P. Allen, Erica Von Essen May 2018

Are Illegal Direct Actions By Animal Rights Activists Ethically Vigilante?, Michael P. Allen, Erica Von Essen

Between the Species

Constructed as terrorist, illegal direct actions by animal rights activists have become the subject of draconian law enforcement measures in the US and UK. Some scholars respond to this phenomenon by interpreting such actions to protect vulnerable animals not as terrorist but civilly disobedient. This approach highlights their ethical character, as a normatively relevant consideration in the state’s law enforcement response. Consistent with this approach, we argue that illegal direct actions by animal rights activists are not terrorist, although their motivations are sometimes anti-statist and anarchist. However, we also argue that civil disobedience is an awkward fit for many ...


The Interplay Of Intelligence, Education, And The Media In Western Counterterrorism Strategies, Lincoln Gimnich May 2018

The Interplay Of Intelligence, Education, And The Media In Western Counterterrorism Strategies, Lincoln Gimnich

International and Global Studies Undergraduate Honors Theses

Terrorist activity has increased and evolved in Western societies in the twenty-first century as terrorist organizations have sought new methods to further their ideologies and goals. Counterterrorism thus requires a similar evolution that undoubtedly reverses the historic trend wherein counterterrorism has been merely reactive. Through interviews with experts, qualitative analysis of governmental publications and documents, and review of existing literature, this project explores the institutions of intelligence, education, and the media and their work within the larger counterterrorism and anti-radicalization framework of Western states. The project focuses specifically on domestic intelligence operations, intelligence sharing agreements, the United Kingdom’s Prevent ...


The Popular But Unlawful Armed Reprisal, Mary Ellen O'Connell Apr 2018

The Popular But Unlawful Armed Reprisal, Mary Ellen O'Connell

Journal Articles

The United States and Iran carried out armed reprisals in Syria during 2017 in the wake of chemical and terror attacks. Despite support for their actions even by countries such as Germany and France, retaliatory uses of force are clearly prohibited under international law. International law generally prohibits all use of armed force with narrow exceptions for self-defense, United Nations Security Council authorization, and consent of a government to participate in a civil war. Military force after an incident are reprisals, which have been expressly forbidden by the UN. Prior to the Trump administration, the U.S. consistently attempted to ...


Declaration Of The Modern Caliphate: Understanding The Importance Of Mosul To Isil, Megan Marchetti, Matthew J. Smith, Ken Wallace Apr 2018

Declaration Of The Modern Caliphate: Understanding The Importance Of Mosul To Isil, Megan Marchetti, Matthew J. Smith, Ken Wallace

Politics, Philosophy, and Legal Studies: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

This paper examines the importance of the Iraqi city of Mosul to ISIL. Special attention is given to the conquering of Mosul, ISIL's governance, and the Battle of Mosul.


The Terror Experts: Discourse, Discipline, And The Production Of Terrorist Subjects At A University Research Center, Liam Christopher Mclean Jan 2018

The Terror Experts: Discourse, Discipline, And The Production Of Terrorist Subjects At A University Research Center, Liam Christopher Mclean

Honors Papers

This thesis examines the production and circulation of discourses related to (counter)terrorism at a university-affiliated terrorism and security studies research center in eastern Massachusetts. Drawing on participant observation, documentary analysis, and interviews with faculty and students at the research center, I suggest that expert discourses of (counter)terrorism at the center traffic in an archetypal construction of the terrorist that I call the “depoliticized radical.” This construction locates the root of terrorism in individual morality and psychology, tending to abstract the terrorist from the political conditions in which they enact violence. I further propose that the depoliticized radical functions ...


Patterns Within Nine Preattack Phases That Emerged In Israel Suicide Bombing Cases, Aaron Richman Jan 2018

Patterns Within Nine Preattack Phases That Emerged In Israel Suicide Bombing Cases, Aaron Richman

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

From 2000 to 2013, Israel had the second highest number of deaths from suicide attacks and was on the list of countries that may experience increases in terrorism due to ongoing conflicts. Suicide bombings present highly complex situations for counterterrorism and counterinsurgency professionals. Using Freeman, Tucker, and Merton's framework of 9 preattack phases as the primary theoretical constuct, the purpose of this multiple case study was to explore specific patterns that consistently emerged in the adversary planning process for 6 successful or failed suicide bombing cases in Israel. Secondary, archival data were acquired through a data use agreement with ...