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Quantification Of Voc Emissions From Carbonized Refuse-Derived Fuel Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Antoni Szumny, Jacek Łyczko, Jacek A. Koziel Dec 2018

Quantification Of Voc Emissions From Carbonized Refuse-Derived Fuel Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Antoni Szumny, Jacek Łyczko, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In this work, for the first time, the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from carbonized refuse-derived fuel (CRDF) were quantified on a laboratory scale. The analyzed CRDF was generated from the torrefaction of municipal waste. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify 84 VOCs, including many that are toxic, e.g., derivatives of benzene or toluene. The highest emissions were measured for nonanal, octanal, and heptanal. The top 10 most emitted VOCs contributed to almost 65% of the total emissions. The VOC mixture emitted from torrefied CRDF differed from that emitted by other types ...


Interactions Between Biochar And Compost In Organic Winter Wheat Production And Soil Quality Under Dryland Conditions, Phearen Kit Miller Dec 2018

Interactions Between Biochar And Compost In Organic Winter Wheat Production And Soil Quality Under Dryland Conditions, Phearen Kit Miller

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Organic wheat grown under dryland conditions encounters challenges such as limited nutrients and water. Maintaining organic wheat production requires solutions to these problems in order to retain economic sustainability for the farmers.

Research on biochar and compost have been conducted globally. Despite well known benefits of compost on soil and crop production, few organic farmers apply compost to their fields. Research on biochar is still new. Biochar is charcoal created from pyrolyzing agricultural material under conditions of low oxygen and high heat. Many studies claim that biochar is a valuable soil amendment for improving organic production and reducing environmental pollution ...


Timber Talk, Vol. 56, No. 4, December 2018, Nebraska Forest Service, University Of Nebraska - Lincoln Dec 2018

Timber Talk, Vol. 56, No. 4, December 2018, Nebraska Forest Service, University Of Nebraska - Lincoln

Timber Talk: Nebraska Forest Industry Newsletter

In This Issue:

Lumber Market Reports

Hardwood Lumber Prices

NOTE FROM EDITOR: Transitioning to Electronic Delivery Only

NDA Expands EAB Quarantine

Forest Products Grants Available

Wildfires and Communities in Nebraska

Forest Industry Spotlight: “Good Neighbor Authority” in Nebraska

Trading Post

Timber Sales


Waste To Carbon: Densification Of Torrefied Refuse-Derived Fuel, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Jacek A. Koziel Nov 2018

Waste To Carbon: Densification Of Torrefied Refuse-Derived Fuel, Andrzej Białowiec, Monika Micuda, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

In this work, for the first time, the feasibility of obtaining carbonized refuse-derived fuel (CRDF) pelletization from municipal solid waste (MSW) was shown. Production of CRDF by torrefaction of MSW could be the future of recycling technology. The objective was to determine the applied pressure needed to produce CRDF pellets with compressive strength (CS) comparable to conventional biomass pellets. Also, the hypothesis that a binder (water glass (WG)) applied to CRDF as a coating can improve CS was tested. The pelletizing was based on the lab-scale production of CRDF pellets with pressure ranging from 8.5 MPa to 76.2 ...


Removal Of Antibiotic Resistance Genes In An Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor Treating Primary Clarifier Effluent At 20 °C, Anthony D. Kappell, Lee K. Kimbell, Matthew Seib, Daniel Elliott Carey, Melinda J. Choi, Tino Kalayil, Masanori Fujimoto, Daniel Zitomer, Patrick J. Mcnamara Nov 2018

Removal Of Antibiotic Resistance Genes In An Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor Treating Primary Clarifier Effluent At 20 °C, Anthony D. Kappell, Lee K. Kimbell, Matthew Seib, Daniel Elliott Carey, Melinda J. Choi, Tino Kalayil, Masanori Fujimoto, Daniel Zitomer, Patrick J. Mcnamara

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research and Publications

Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR) play a key role in future plans for sustainable wastewater treatment and resource recovery because they have no energy-intensive oxygen transfer requirements and can produce biomethane for renewable energy. Recent research results show that they can meet relatively stringent discharge limits with respect to BOD5 and TSS when treating municipal wastewater primary effluent. Sustainable used water recovery plans should also consider removal of unregulated pollutants. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) represent an important emerging contaminant due to public health concerns surrounding the spread of infections resistant to common antibiotics. Conventional activated sludge processes have demonstrated mixed ...


Perennial Biomass Crop Establishment, Community Characteristics, And Productivity In The Upper Us Midwest: Effects Of Cropping Systems Seed Mixtures And Biochar Applications, Catherine L. Bonin, Rivka B. Fidel, Chumki Banik, David A. Laird, Robert Mitchell, Emily A. Heaton Nov 2018

Perennial Biomass Crop Establishment, Community Characteristics, And Productivity In The Upper Us Midwest: Effects Of Cropping Systems Seed Mixtures And Biochar Applications, Catherine L. Bonin, Rivka B. Fidel, Chumki Banik, David A. Laird, Robert Mitchell, Emily A. Heaton

Agronomy Publications

Native perennial plants have potential as bioenergy feedstocks, but their use is currently limited by relatively long establishment times and low biomass yields. Some research suggests that incorporating plant species diversity and applying biochar as a soil amendment might alleviate these limitations by creating a more resilient crop and soil system. The objective of this research was to investigate how 1) seeded plant diversity and 2) biochar soil amendments interact to affect the establishment, yield, and plant species composition of biomass cropping systems during the first four years of growth on productive soils. We measured species emergence, cover, peak and ...


Selective Glucose Isomerization To Fructose Via Nitrogen-Doped Solid Base Catalyst Derived From Spent Coffee Grounds, Season S. Chen, Iris K.M. Yu, Dong-Wan Cho, Hocheol Song, Daniel C.W. Tsang, Jean-Philippe Tessonnier, Yong Sik Ok, Chi Sun Poon Oct 2018

Selective Glucose Isomerization To Fructose Via Nitrogen-Doped Solid Base Catalyst Derived From Spent Coffee Grounds, Season S. Chen, Iris K.M. Yu, Dong-Wan Cho, Hocheol Song, Daniel C.W. Tsang, Jean-Philippe Tessonnier, Yong Sik Ok, Chi Sun Poon

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

In this work, glucose isomerization to fructose was conducted via a solid base biochar catalyst derived from spent coffee grounds and melamine. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra identified the majority of pyridinic nitrogen on the biochar surface, which imparted the strong base character of the catalyst. Activity of the catalyst was evidenced by fast conversion of glucose (12%) and high selectivity to fructose (84%) in 20 min at a moderate temperature (120 °C) compared to recently reported immobilized tertiary amines at comparable N concentrations (10-15 mol% relative to glucose). By increasing the reaction temperature to 160 °C, fructose yield ...


Conservation Agriculture Practices Increase Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen: A Meta-Analysis, Navreet K. Mahal, Michael J. Castellano, Fernando E. Miguez Sep 2018

Conservation Agriculture Practices Increase Potentially Mineralizable Nitrogen: A Meta-Analysis, Navreet K. Mahal, Michael J. Castellano, Fernando E. Miguez

Agronomy Publications

Potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN) is considered an important indicator of soil health. Cropping systems management can affect PMN. However, the effect size and relationship with crop yield across specific management practices remain uncertain. We conducted a quantitative review to understand how conservation agriculture management practices affect PMN including N fertilizer application, cropping system diversity, and tillage system as well as the relationship of crop yield with PMN. Data were extracted from 43 studies published in peer-reviewed journals, providing 494 paired comparisons of PMN and 26 paired comparisons of PMN and yield across selected crop management practices. In our meta-analysis, the ...


Removal Efficiencies, Uptake Mechanisms And Competitive Effects Of Copper And Zinc In Various Stormwater Filter Media, Emily Heleva-Ponaski Sep 2018

Removal Efficiencies, Uptake Mechanisms And Competitive Effects Of Copper And Zinc In Various Stormwater Filter Media, Emily Heleva-Ponaski

Dissertations and Theses

Polluted stormwater, if not treated, can compromise water quality throughout our hydrologic cycle, adversely affecting aquatic ecosystems. Common stormwater pollutants, copper and zinc, have been identified as primary toxicants in multiple freshwater and marine environments. For small-scale generators, stormwater management can be cumbersome and implementation of common BMPs impractical thus catch basins are popular though not the most environmentally conscious and sustainable option. This study aims to characterize the potential of a mobile media filter operation for the treatment and on-site recycling of catch basin stormwater. The removal capacities of various commercially available filter media (e.g. a common perlite ...


Timber Talk, Vol. 56, No. 3, September 2018, Nebraska Forest Service, University Of Nebraska - Lincoln Sep 2018

Timber Talk, Vol. 56, No. 3, September 2018, Nebraska Forest Service, University Of Nebraska - Lincoln

Timber Talk: Nebraska Forest Industry Newsletter

In This Issue:

Lumber Market Reports

Hardwood Lumber Prices

American Logger Council Seeking Great Plains Chapter

Woody Biomass Heating Assistance Available

Bureau of Indian Affairs Preparing for Walnut Timber Sale

2018 Nebraska Forestry Festival (October 27)

Forest Industry Spotlight: Much Ado about Residue

Trading Post

Timber Sales


Anaerobic Digestion Of Aqueous Pyrolysis Condensate, Connie Wen Aug 2018

Anaerobic Digestion Of Aqueous Pyrolysis Condensate, Connie Wen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lignocellulosic material can be subjected to pyrolysis to yield pyrolysis liquid, biochar, and gas. The pyrolysis liquid resulting from the condensation of vapours can be separated into a rich organic condensate and an acidic “aqueous pyrolysis condensate” (APC) which may be considered a waste. The target of this research is subjecting APC to anaerobic digestion to produce biogas that can be energy purposed, and to reduce the organic load of APC to acceptable levels for possible disposal. From this study, it was found that without any treatment, the inoculum requires 50 to 60 days of adaptation period to reduce the ...


Water Treatment Residual Coated Wood Mulch For Mitigation Of Toxic Metals And Phosphate From Polluted Urban Stormwater Runoff, Hanieh Soleimanifar Aug 2018

Water Treatment Residual Coated Wood Mulch For Mitigation Of Toxic Metals And Phosphate From Polluted Urban Stormwater Runoff, Hanieh Soleimanifar

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

Polluted urban runoff as a primary non-point pollution source poses a serious threat to urban human and ecological health. Various urban runoff pollutants challenge the exiting stormwater treatment systems. To support the development of a sound and sustainable urban stormwater management, this dissertation targets at transforming a common landscaping practice, i.e. mulching, into a new stormwater treatment technology through coating aluminum water treatment residual (Al-WTR) on the surface of wood mulch chips. WTR is an industrial waste produced from drinking water treatment plants and primarily comprises amorphous aluminum (hydr)oxides. The Al-WTR coating on the modified wood mulch enables ...


Metal Reactivity In Laboratory Burned Wood From A Watershed Affected By Wildfires, Asifur Rahman Jul 2018

Metal Reactivity In Laboratory Burned Wood From A Watershed Affected By Wildfires, Asifur Rahman

Civil Engineering ETDs

Massive amounts of wood ash are deposited into nearby streams as a result of runoff from storm events after increasing frequency of wildfire events that negatively affect water quality. Ash and debris from burned vegetation can alter the pH, turbidity and dissolved oxygen (DO) in water and can release heavy metals, organic matter, and nutrients. We investigated interfacial processes affecting metal mobility in wood ash burned under laboratory-controlled conditions using aqueous chemistry, microscopy and spectroscopy analyses. Wood was collected from the Valles Caldera National Preserve in New Mexico which has experienced two wildfires since 2011 that have caused devastating effects ...


Closing Ceremony, Illinois Mathematics And Science Academy Jul 2018

Closing Ceremony, Illinois Mathematics And Science Academy

The International Student Science Fair 2018

No abstract provided.


Application Of Agricultural Waste Biochar For Canteen Wastewater Treatment In Chulalongkorn University, Norakamon Ariyakanon, Chalisa Vikrompanitkul Jun 2018

Application Of Agricultural Waste Biochar For Canteen Wastewater Treatment In Chulalongkorn University, Norakamon Ariyakanon, Chalisa Vikrompanitkul

The International Student Science Fair 2018

The potential use of biochar in canteen wastewater remediation. Biochars were prepared from rice straw, bagasse or coir, produced by slow temperature pyrolysis at 300oC for 1 h. This study characterized the physical and chemical properties of biochar products related to wastewater treatment. The physical and chemical parameters of wastewater were analyzed before and after treatment with the three different types of biochar. Measured parameters included, pH, biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), oil and grease, total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TKN). The biochar derived from rice straw contained the highest ...


Application Of Agricultural Waste Biochar For Canteen Wastewater Treatment In Chulalongkorn University, Norakamon Ariyakanon, Chalisa Vikrompanitkul Jun 2018

Application Of Agricultural Waste Biochar For Canteen Wastewater Treatment In Chulalongkorn University, Norakamon Ariyakanon, Chalisa Vikrompanitkul

The International Student Science Fair 2018

The potential use of biochar in canteen wastewater remediation. Biochars were prepared from rice straw, bagasse or coir, produced by slow temperature pyrolysis at 300oC for 1 h. This study characterized the physical and chemical properties of biochar products related to wastewater treatment. The physical and chemical parameters of wastewater were analyzed before and after treatment with the three different types of biochar. Measured parameters included, pH, biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), oil and grease, total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TKN). The biochar derived from rice straw contained the highest ...


Full Issue 47(2) Jun 2018

Full Issue 47(2)

International Journal of Speleology

No abstract provided.


2017 Eurēca Winners, Office Of Undergraduate Research May 2018

2017 Eurēca Winners, Office Of Undergraduate Research

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

List of awardees


Recycled Substrates: Plant Biomass And Plant Cover Correlation, Richard K. Sutton May 2018

Recycled Substrates: Plant Biomass And Plant Cover Correlation, Richard K. Sutton

Landscape Architecture Program: Faculty Scholarly and Creative Activity

Green roofs extend roof membrane life and reduce waste to landfills. However, green roof costs must be reduced if their benefits are to accrue more widely. Use of recycled materials may reduce costs and also keep those materials out of landfills. Some work has been done on use of local recycled materials for green roof substrates, but none describe the characteristics, proportions and results of using an entire suite of blended recycled materials in admixtures (i.e., mixtures of very different materials) such as crumb rubber (CR), crushed used brick (CB) and compost (CPT) in concert with greens grade sand ...


Degradation Of Orange G Through Persulfate Activated Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron Composites And Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes, Suzana Ivandic May 2018

Degradation Of Orange G Through Persulfate Activated Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron Composites And Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes, Suzana Ivandic

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Properly treated wastewater is necessary for water reuse and to avoid unnecessary impacts on the environment. The poultry industry utilizes large amounts of water for poultry processing. The need for innovative ways to treat organic contaminants in the poultry wastewater industry is especially necessary due to increased poultry consumption. The U.S. Department of Agriculture projected Americans would consume approximately 92 pounds of chicken per person in 2017.1 Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is currently used in poultry wastewater treatment, but DAF does not remove organic contaminants efficiently per effluent standards. Implementation of processes that degrade contaminants directly would benefit ...


Performance Assessment Of Solid State Anaerobic Digestion Of Poultry Litter, Mason Puckett May 2018

Performance Assessment Of Solid State Anaerobic Digestion Of Poultry Litter, Mason Puckett

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The disposal of poultry litter can exert an economic and environmental burden to the agriculture community. As a result, it is desirable to reduce the amount of waste and recover resources from the waste. This study focuses on the construction and preliminary testing of a laboratory scale (20 L) solid state anaerobic digester (AD) fed with dry poultry litter. Glucose was added in addition to the poultry litter to achieve the appropriate C:N ratio to support the growth of anaerobic microorganisms. The AD was first fed every 4 days at 4 g VS/L/feeding for 24 days, rested ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Biodiesel Fuels From Furfuryl Alcohol And Spent Coffee Grounds, Amanda Raley May 2018

Synthesis And Characterization Of Biodiesel Fuels From Furfuryl Alcohol And Spent Coffee Grounds, Amanda Raley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Biodiesel can be synthesized using several different triacylglycerides, alcohols, and catalysts. In this study, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) were produced from their respective alcohols and coffee oil, using either a basic (K2CO3) catalyst or an acidic catalyst (H2SO4). Fatty acid furfuryl esters (FAFurEs) were produced using commercially-purchased cooking oils (canola, olive, corn, sunflower, and peanut) with furfuryl alcohol, a basic (K2CO3) catalyst, a co-solvent (THF), and an ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate). All samples were produced using either conventional heating methods (CH) or microwave-assisted ...


The Production, Characterization, And Upgrading Of Biochars Into Activated Carbon, Kasey Johnston May 2018

The Production, Characterization, And Upgrading Of Biochars Into Activated Carbon, Kasey Johnston

Honors College

There is a growing demand for sustainable alternatives to petroleum based fuels to be used in the transportation sector. To this end, thermochemical pathways have been proposed for the conversion of renewable feedstock such as wood and corn stover to transportation fuels. Although it is recognized that renewable feedstock sources are environmentally superior to the current petroleum based fuels, the commercial production of renewable fuels via thermochemical pathways must also be economically advantageous. Thermochemical conversion of a renewable feedstock results in the production of a significant amount of biochar that has a low economic value. To improve the overall economics ...


Development Of Protein Display Systems And Genetic Tools For Spore-Forming Bacteria, Erin Drufva May 2018

Development Of Protein Display Systems And Genetic Tools For Spore-Forming Bacteria, Erin Drufva

Doctoral Dissertations

One major area of synthetic biology is to engineer microbial cells and subcellular systems for diverse applications including biosynthesis, biocatalysis, therapeutics, drug delivery, and bioremediation. For most applications, robust cellular systems are preferred for longer activity half-life and resistance to harsh environments. Two projects related to robust cellular systems involving Gram-positive bacteria are presented in this work. One is to develop thermostable genetic reporters for Geobacilli species and the other is to display an enzyme on the Bacillus subtilis spore surface to enhance its robustness and present an alternative to purified enzymes for industrial applications.

Bacillus subtilis and Geobacillus thermoglucosidans ...


The Role Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi In Urban Brownfield Soils, Jennifer Rosalia Balacco May 2018

The Role Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi In Urban Brownfield Soils, Jennifer Rosalia Balacco

Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects

AMF are symbionts to a majority of terrestrial plants and can improve plant nutrient uptake, water relations, and stress tolerance. This study evaluated the effects of AMF in heavy metal contaminated soils via a growth chamber experiment to determine the interactions between soil and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) affecting plant growth. Rye grass was grown in two contaminated soils from Liberty State Park, an urban brownfield, and one non-contaminated commercial soil, to which half of the treatments received AMF inoculum. Dried plant biomass, root:shoot ratio, and soil phosphatase activity were measured at the completion of the experiment. Soil contamination ...


Novel Treatments For Native Forb Restoration In The Great Basin, Adam J. Fund May 2018

Novel Treatments For Native Forb Restoration In The Great Basin, Adam J. Fund

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Public land management agencies, conservation organizations, and landowners are interested in expanding the diversity of plant species used in rangeland restoration seedings. While the restoration of native grasses and shrubs in the Great Basin has become increasingly successful, restoration of native forbs continues to be problematic. In the Great Basin, soil water availability and soil fungal pathogens are thought to limit to restoration success. During the course of two years, we conducted two field experiments at three sites in the Great Basin that spanned a latitudinal gradient encompassing different precipitation and temperature patterns.

In the first experiment, we evaluated two ...


Wastewater Refining And Reuse And City-Level Water Decision Making, Ahmed Abuhussein Apr 2018

Wastewater Refining And Reuse And City-Level Water Decision Making, Ahmed Abuhussein

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Direct discharge of treated and untreated wastewater to natural surface water bodies, including rivers and lakes, is generally known to produce adverse environmental impacts that have been of concern for the past 10–15 years, particularly in the Great Lakes basin. Examples of these impacts include eutrophication and the emergence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Advancement in wastewater treatment plant operations alone may not be feasible to meet the 2016–2019 Federal Sustainable Development Strategy (FSDS), especially on phosphorus reduction targets. Diverting treated wastewater to land could present a multibarrier approach for integrated PPCPs management, and could also ...


Construction Of A Pen-Scale Methane Collection System And Dietary Strategies For Methane Mitigation From Growing And Finishing Cattle, Thomas Winders Apr 2018

Construction Of A Pen-Scale Methane Collection System And Dietary Strategies For Methane Mitigation From Growing And Finishing Cattle, Thomas Winders

Theses and Dissertations in Animal Science

Methane production from ruminants has been researched for many years because it has a global warming potential 25x that of carbon dioxide, meaning that mitigating smaller amounts of methane can have a large environmental impact. Research has focused on individual animal methane measurements, but the literature lack in industry-scale measurements. For that reason, the methane barn was built to evaluate dietary strategies on pens of cattle rather than on individual animals. In order to test the methane barn capabilities, an experiment designed to produce differences in methane production was conducted. Cattle received the same growing diet, at either ad-libitum access ...


Effect Of Increasing Levels Of Monosilicic Acid On Arsenic And Phosphorus Sorption In Soil, Flávia Bastos Agostinho Apr 2018

Effect Of Increasing Levels Of Monosilicic Acid On Arsenic And Phosphorus Sorption In Soil, Flávia Bastos Agostinho

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Arsenic (As) accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa) grains has increased human’s daily intake. Studies have shown that arsenite is taken up through known silicon (Si) transporters in rice. Moreover, the availability of As in soil is affected by chemically similar ligands that have high affinity to oxides surfaces, such as Si and phosphorus (P). Studies were conducted to: (I) investigate the role of elevated levels of Si on the concentration of different As fractions in soil and on As uptake by rice; (II) evaluate the effect of increasing monosilicic acidconcentrations on As sorption and kinetics in soil; and (III ...


Design Improvements To Sulfate-Reducing Bioreactors For Mine-Influenced Stream Remediation In Cold Climates, Katrina Moreira Apr 2018

Design Improvements To Sulfate-Reducing Bioreactors For Mine-Influenced Stream Remediation In Cold Climates, Katrina Moreira

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Mine-influenced water (MIW), a waste water product containing heavy metals and sulfates, is a significant pollution source to waters in Montana. Implementing a low cost, passive treatment system, such as a sulfate-reducing bioreactor (SRBR), is desired for remediation of streams influenced by heavy metals in remote locations. SRBR systems operate by using organic matter and sulfate-rich water to precipitate and immobilize dissolved heavy metals. Sulfate-reducing bacteria utilize the organic matter as an electron donor to convert sulfate to sulfide, and then sulfide in the bioreactor is utilized to precipitate heavy metals. Under ideal operating conditions, SRBR systems can remove >98 ...