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Shareholder Exit Signs On Us And Eu Highways, Raluca Papadima Sep 2016

Shareholder Exit Signs On Us And Eu Highways, Raluca Papadima

Raluca Papadima

This article discusses legal exit rights (referred to in the United States as appraisal rights and in civil law Europe as withdrawal rights), in the United States, France and Romania. We selected these three countries because they are representative of strong, average and respectively weak capital markets, with varying levels of shareholder activism and litigation (high, normal and respectively low). Additionally, the selection of these countries enabled us to compare the structure of legal exit rights in the United States and in Europe and, within Europe, between two politically, economically and culturally sister countries (France and Romania) which should be ...


Legal Transplantation Or Legal Innovation? Equity-Crowdfunding Regulation In Taiwan After Title Iii Of The U.S. Jobs Act, Chang-Hsien Tsai Dec 2015

Legal Transplantation Or Legal Innovation? Equity-Crowdfunding Regulation In Taiwan After Title Iii Of The U.S. Jobs Act, Chang-Hsien Tsai

Chang-hsien (Robert) TSAI

Crowdfunding has caused a worldwide revolution in early-stage startup financing during recent years.  In the United States, the expansion of for-profit crowdfunding platforms to fund small businesses and startups prompted Congress to pass the game-changing law on equity crowdfunding, Title III of the JOBS Act in 2012 (“CROWDFUND Act”).  While its specific rules and regulations as adopted by the SEC takes effect this year, the substance of the JOBS Act as a whole is geared more towards the goal of capital formation, over the historically promoted goal of investor protection.  The use of equity crowdfunding has extended over to Taiwan ...


Internet Governance Is Our Shared Responsibility, Vinton Cerf, Patrick Ryan, Max Senges Dec 2015

Internet Governance Is Our Shared Responsibility, Vinton Cerf, Patrick Ryan, Max Senges

Patrick T. Ryan

This essay looks at the the different roles that institutions play in the Internet governance ecosystem. We propose a model for thinking of Internet governance within the context of the layered model of the Internet. We use the example of the negotiations in Dubai in 2102 at the World Conference on International Telecommunications to show why it is important for different institutions within the governance system to focus on their areas of expertise (e.g., the ITU, ICANN, and IGF). Several areas of conflict are reviewed, such as the desire to promote more broadband infrastructure (a topic that is in ...


Framing The Responsibility To Protect Doctrine As A Means Of Legal And Moral Intervention With Universal Jurisdiction Legal Obligations Of The Responsibility To Protect Doctrine And Universal Civil Jurisdiction In The Syrian Civil War Crisis, David Satnarine Nov 2015

Framing The Responsibility To Protect Doctrine As A Means Of Legal And Moral Intervention With Universal Jurisdiction Legal Obligations Of The Responsibility To Protect Doctrine And Universal Civil Jurisdiction In The Syrian Civil War Crisis, David Satnarine

David Satnarine

No abstract provided.


How Far Out Of Step Is The Supreme Court Of The United States?, Brian Christopher Jones Aug 2015

How Far Out Of Step Is The Supreme Court Of The United States?, Brian Christopher Jones

Brian Christopher Jones

This piece compares the United States Supreme Court (SCOTUS) and the UK Supreme Court (UKSC) regarding three major areas of interest: court communications, cameras in the courtroom, and judicial selection. Ultimately, it finds that, compared to their neighbour across the pond, the US Supreme Court is deeply out of step. This, coupled with other problems for SCOTUS, could ultimately hurt their legitimacy and constitutional review authority.


International Intellectual Property, Access To Health Care, And Human Rights: South Africa V. United States, Winston Nagan Aug 2015

International Intellectual Property, Access To Health Care, And Human Rights: South Africa V. United States, Winston Nagan

Winston P Nagan

This Article examines the question of access to patented medicines in international law. It analyzes the extent to which international agreements may lawfully limit affordable versions of these medicines that may be available through parallel imports or compulsory licensing procedures. It considers the concept of intellectual property rights from a national and international perspective to determine how these rights must be sensitive to matters of national sovereignty when extraordinary, life-threatening diseases afflict societies in catastrophic ways. This Article suggests that viewing property (including intellectual property) as a human right requires that its scope be delimited and understood in the context ...


Adopting Subsequent Remuneration Right In Chinese Copyright Law, Xi Chen Aug 2015

Adopting Subsequent Remuneration Right In Chinese Copyright Law, Xi Chen

Xi Chen

One heavily and contentiously argued clause in Chinese Copyright Law amendments drafts focuses on the practicality of granting authors of audiovisual works the legal right to collect subsequent remunerations (SRR), when their works are reused in subsequent exploitations.

With the rapid increase of media channels for the Chinese movie industry, and other entertainment industries relying on a heavy usage of audiovisual work, authors demand that they should be entitled to the profit earned from derivative markets and other media channel beyond the first intended market. In order to balance the conflicting interest between the author and the producer, and to ...


Developing An International Carbon Tax Regime, Steven Specht Aug 2015

Developing An International Carbon Tax Regime, Steven Specht

Steven Specht

As atmospheric CO2 remains in the range of 400 ppm, it is necessary to find new international coordination to deal with climate change. The best way forward is an international regime of harmonized domestic carbon taxes. By agreeing to a minimum amount of taxation on domestic, point-source producers, money can be set aside for adaptation costs and alternative means of energy production. Finally, such a plan will overcome the problem of non-participation of countries in agreements like the Kyoto Protocol. As this is a treaty dealing with economics and trade, countries can place taxes on imports of non-participatory countries under ...


The Final Impression Counts - Seeking Common Ground In Design Patent Infringement, Dana Beldiman, Paolo Beconcini Aug 2015

The Final Impression Counts - Seeking Common Ground In Design Patent Infringement, Dana Beldiman, Paolo Beconcini

Dana Beldiman

THE FINAL IMPRESSION COUNTS – Seeking Common Ground in Design Patent Infringement

Dana Beldiman*and Paolo Beconcini

Abstract

The visual appearance of products has become an asset of considerable economic value. Litigation surrounding it is increasingly common and has focused IP law on certain tensions that relate to the visual nature of IP assets.

One such area is design patent infringement. Policy mandates that comparison of two similar designs for purposes of evaluating infringement be performed by a notional purchaser, based on the overall impression of a design as whole. However, in performing the analysis courts are tempted to fall into ...


Wage Gender Disparities: Challenging Prevailing Assumptions, Theoretical Approache, Shlomit Yanisky-Ravid Professor Of Law Jul 2015

Wage Gender Disparities: Challenging Prevailing Assumptions, Theoretical Approache, Shlomit Yanisky-Ravid Professor Of Law

Shlomit Yanisky-Ravid Professor of Law

Women in the United States are, on average and consistently, earning less than their male peers. Sometimes, they are even paid less than the men they supervise. A common response concerns about the 23 cent gender wage gap for full-time year-round workers across occupations, is that it is simply a byproduct of the choices women make: choices to prefer family life and needs, work fewer hours, take on lower-paying jobs, or opt out of the workforce for longer periods of time than men. Under this view, the gender pay gap is not a result of sex discrimination but of women ...


Designing Trial Avoidance Procedures For Post-Conflict, Civil Law Countries: Is German Absprachen An Appropriate Model For Efficient Criminal Justice In Afghanistan?, Nasiruddin Nezaami Jul 2015

Designing Trial Avoidance Procedures For Post-Conflict, Civil Law Countries: Is German Absprachen An Appropriate Model For Efficient Criminal Justice In Afghanistan?, Nasiruddin Nezaami

Nasiruddin Nezaami

In Afghanistan, overflow of court dockets and lengthy trials persist despite recent reforms effected through a new Criminal Procedure Code. The new Code has solved some of the problems that existed prior to its ratification; however, it has failed to establish adequate trial avoidance procedures. This problem is further compounded by the dissatisfaction of parties with trial outcomes. This article suggests that Afghanistan could address both issues by adopting a mechanism similar to German Absprachen as an appropriate case disposing procedure, enabling party consensus, helping courts decrease their dockets, and reducing the length of trials. This analysis is not only ...


Semi-Presidentialism Under The Indian Constitution, Khagesh Gautam Jul 2015

Semi-Presidentialism Under The Indian Constitution, Khagesh Gautam

Khagesh Gautam

No abstract provided.


Cracking Down On Corporate Crime In Italy, Rosa Anna Ruggiero Prof. Jun 2015

Cracking Down On Corporate Crime In Italy, Rosa Anna Ruggiero Prof.

Rosa Anna Ruggiero Prof.

The paper describes the changes in the Italian system regarding corporate criminal liability. With the implementation of Legislative Decree No. 231 on June 8th, 2001, Italy aligned itself with other European countries (France, the United Kingdom, Holland, Denmark, Portugal, Ireland, Sweden, Finland), which already provided for the liability of corporate entities responsible for committing certain crimes. The previous gap in legislation had serious implications at an international level, especially in light of the objective of fostering cooperation in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice in the European Union - through, for example, the progressive alignment of Member States’ legislation. These ...


A Comparison Of The Jurisprudence Of The Ecj And The Efta Court On The Free Movement Of Goods In The Eea: Is There An Intolerable Separation Of Article 34 Of The Tfeu And Article Of 11 Of The Eea?, Jarrod Tudor Apr 2015

A Comparison Of The Jurisprudence Of The Ecj And The Efta Court On The Free Movement Of Goods In The Eea: Is There An Intolerable Separation Of Article 34 Of The Tfeu And Article Of 11 Of The Eea?, Jarrod Tudor

Jarrod Tudor

Article 11 of the European Economic Area (“EEA”) and Article 34 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (“TFEU”) prohibit quantitative restrictions on the free movement of goods. The EEA is monitored by the European Free Trade Area Court (“EFTA Court”) and the TFEU is monitored by the European Court of Justice (“ECJ”). In theory, the EFTA Court and the ECJ should interpret Article 11 and Article 34 in the same manner in order to promote harmonization of the law on the free movement of goods and allow for further economic integration between EFTA and the EU ...


Afghan Juvenile Code In Practice: Assessing Against International Juvenile Law, Christopher W. Carlson Jr. Apr 2015

Afghan Juvenile Code In Practice: Assessing Against International Juvenile Law, Christopher W. Carlson Jr.

Christopher W. Carlson Jr.

This Article assesses and compares Afghanistan’s juvenile procedures with the systems and norms advocated by the United Nations (“UN”). The Afghan Juvenile Code of 2005 is compared with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child’s four key guidelines. The four guidelines include: (1) imprisonment of juveniles “shall be used only as a measure of last resort”; (2) any such imprisonment shall be “for the shortest appropriate period of time”; (3) juveniles who are in prison shall be “separated from adults”; and (4) they shall have the right to maintain “family contact.” These guidelines serve as a ...


The Free Movement Of Capital In Europe: Is The European Court Of Justice Living Up To Its Framers' Intent And Setting An Example For The World?, Jarrod Tudor Apr 2015

The Free Movement Of Capital In Europe: Is The European Court Of Justice Living Up To Its Framers' Intent And Setting An Example For The World?, Jarrod Tudor

Jarrod Tudor

The benefits to free movement of international financial flows are numerous but include an efficient asset market and the opportunity for economic growth and development for countries engaged in an agreement allowing for such freedom. The free movement of capital is one of the four pillars of the Treaty on the Function of the European Union (TFEU) along with the free movement of goods, services, and labor. Article 63 of the TFEU prohibits limitations on the free movement of capital while Article 65 of the TFEU allows for some exceptions. Not only does the free movement of capital doctrine suppose ...


Discriminatory Internal Taxation In The European Union: The Power Of The European Court Of Justice To Limit The Tax Sovereignty Of Member-States Under Article 110 Of The Tfeu, Jarrod Tudor Apr 2015

Discriminatory Internal Taxation In The European Union: The Power Of The European Court Of Justice To Limit The Tax Sovereignty Of Member-States Under Article 110 Of The Tfeu, Jarrod Tudor

Jarrod Tudor

Protectionism can come in a variety of methods including the use of internal taxation policies that discriminate against imports making those imports more expensive on the domestic market and thus favoring domestically-produced goods. Discriminatory taxation policies have been developed by member-states to mask protectionism by distinguishing products based on import status, product similarity, product life cycle, consumption, tax collection practices, transportation charges, and state aid. The Framers of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) wrote Article 110 with the objective in mind to prohibit internal taxation policies from discriminating against goods in made in other member-states ...


Notes From A New Underground: The Intersection Of Russian Orthodoxy, Religious Liberty, Lgbt Rights, And State Authority, John Ehrett Feb 2015

Notes From A New Underground: The Intersection Of Russian Orthodoxy, Religious Liberty, Lgbt Rights, And State Authority, John Ehrett

John Ehrett

Current laws in the Russian Federation impose sanctions against both speech deemed offensive to Russia’s traditional religious groups and speech considered “propaganda” of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. This Article offers a contemporary examination of the historical, cultural and political forces underlying these ongoing trends, and offers an interdisciplinary consideration of issues surrounding the intersection of liberty of religious expression with liberty of LGBT expression in Vladimir Putin’s Russia. This is historically contextualized through consideration of the political integration of church and state as a contributing factor toward limitations on these political freedoms. Ultimately, a ...


Promoting “Academic Entrepreurship” In Europe And The United States: Creating An Intellectual Property Regime To Facilitate The Efficient Transfer Of Knowledge From The Lab To The Patient, Constance Bagley, Christina Tvarno Feb 2015

Promoting “Academic Entrepreurship” In Europe And The United States: Creating An Intellectual Property Regime To Facilitate The Efficient Transfer Of Knowledge From The Lab To The Patient, Constance Bagley, Christina Tvarno

Constance E. Bagley

In 2014, the European Commission announced the launch of a study of knowledge transfer by public research organizations and other institutes of higher learning “to determine which additional measures might be needed to ensure an optimal flow of knowledge between the public research organisations and business thereby contributing to the development of the knowledge based economy.” As the European Commission has recognized, the EU needs to take action to “unlock the potential of IPRs [intellectual property rights] that lie dormant in universities, research institutes and companies.” This article builds on our earlier work on structuring efficient pharmaceutical public-private partnerships (PPPPs ...


Impartiality And Independence: Misunderstood Cousins, James E. Moliterno Feb 2015

Impartiality And Independence: Misunderstood Cousins, James E. Moliterno

James E. Moliterno

No abstract provided.


The New-Breed, “Die-Hard” Chinese Lawyer: A Comparison With American Civil Rights Cause Lawyers, James E. Moliterno Feb 2015

The New-Breed, “Die-Hard” Chinese Lawyer: A Comparison With American Civil Rights Cause Lawyers, James E. Moliterno

James E. Moliterno

No abstract provided.


The Rise Of Judicial Governance In The Supreme Court Of India, Manoj Mate Jan 2015

The Rise Of Judicial Governance In The Supreme Court Of India, Manoj Mate

Manoj S. Mate

This article analyzes how the Supreme Court of India, through its activism and assertiveness, has emerged as arguably the most powerful court among democratic polities. Over the past four and a half decades, the Court dramatically expanded its role in the realm of rights and governance, asserting the power to invalidate constitutional amendments under the basic structure doctrine, control judicial appointments, and govern in the areas of environmental policy, monitoring and investigating government corruption, and promoting electoral transparency and accountability. In this article, I argue that the Court’s shift toward greater, yet selective, assertiveness in India’s governance can ...


The Harmonization Of Browsewrap Agreements Abroad And The Protection Of American Consumers, Tinsley A. Ashley Jan 2015

The Harmonization Of Browsewrap Agreements Abroad And The Protection Of American Consumers, Tinsley A. Ashley

Tinsley A Ashley

No abstract provided.


Demanding Individual Rights And Civil Liberties: An Iranian Approach, Zahra Takhshid Dec 2014

Demanding Individual Rights And Civil Liberties: An Iranian Approach, Zahra Takhshid

Zahra Takhshid

Iran has a long history of social movements and revolutions. The 1906 Constitutional Revolution led to the recognition of individual rights as part of Iran’s first Constitution. With the Islamic Revolution of 1979, a new constitution was enacted, which devoted one chapter to “the Rights of the Nation.”

The Constitution has introduced several methods to protect the recognized rights: the Guardian Council, the Tribunal of Administrative Justice, and the Commission of Article 90.

In addition to the institutions introduced in the Constitution, the Legislature and the Executive branch proposed new safeguarding procedures and adopted new statutes, which recognized broader ...


Crime And Punishment, A Global Concern: Who Does It Best And Does Isolation Really Work?, Melanie M. Reid Dec 2014

Crime And Punishment, A Global Concern: Who Does It Best And Does Isolation Really Work?, Melanie M. Reid

Melanie M. Reid

On July 8, 2013, 30,000 prisoners in California joined a hunger strike organized by gang members kept in Pelican Bay’s Security Housing Unit and argued that solitary confinement constituted cruel and unusual punishment. As a result of his confinement, one inmate involved in the hunger strike stated that he felt as if all his ties to humanity had been severed. Every country, in some form or another, imprisons and isolates individuals for two common reasons: to punish or to protect society from the person’s anticipated future conduct. This article examines the relationship between crime and punishment and ...


Thinking Globally, Policy Locally: A Plan For Decentralized Law Enforcement In Côte D’Ivoire, __ J. Of Int’L Bus. & L. __ (Forthcoming 2015), Hugh Mundy Dec 2014

Thinking Globally, Policy Locally: A Plan For Decentralized Law Enforcement In Côte D’Ivoire, __ J. Of Int’L Bus. & L. __ (Forthcoming 2015), Hugh Mundy

Hugh Mundy

During a 2009 speech in Ghana, President Barack Obama said, “Africa doesn’t need strongmen. It needs strong institutions.” Obama credited Ghana’s “impressive rates of growth” to the country’s “repeated peaceful transfers of power even in the wake of closely contested elections.” Free elections and non-violent power transfers, he said, “may lack the drama of the twentieth century’s liberation struggles” but “will ultimately be more significant.” Last July, the president expressed similar sentiments during a highly anticipated trip to Kenya. Côte d’Ivoire offers a stark example of the instability wrought when an unseated leader refuses to ...


The Transformation Of South African Private Law After Twenty Years Of Democracy, 14 Nw. J. Int’L Hum. Rts. (Forthcoming 2016)., Christopher J. Roederer Dec 2014

The Transformation Of South African Private Law After Twenty Years Of Democracy, 14 Nw. J. Int’L Hum. Rts. (Forthcoming 2016)., Christopher J. Roederer

Christopher J. Roederer

In The Transformation of South African Private Law after Ten Years of Democracy, 37 Colum. Hum. Rts. L. Rev. 447 (2006), I evaluated the role of private law in consolidating South Africa’s constitutional democracy. There, I traced the negative effects of apartheid from public law to private law, and then to the law of delict, South Africa’s counterpart to tort law. I demonstrated that the law of delict failed to develop under apartheid and that the values animating the law of delict under apartheid were inconsistent with the values and aspirations of South Africa’s democratic transformation. By ...


The Failure Of Corporate Internal Controls And Internal Information Sharing: A Conceptual Framework For Taiwan, Chang-Hsien Tsai Dec 2014

The Failure Of Corporate Internal Controls And Internal Information Sharing: A Conceptual Framework For Taiwan, Chang-Hsien Tsai

Chang-hsien (Robert) TSAI

Although East Asian jurisdictions such as Taiwan have been adopting similar models of Anglo-American independent directors and audit committees in recent years, we can find that common issues are failure of internal controls, in general, and dysfunctional internal information-sharing mechanisms, in particular. To accommodate Taiwan’s reform trend towards furthering the adoption of independent directors and audit committees, this paper offers a roadmap for conceptual solutions which are harmonic with each other as prerequisites to enable monitors of management to have the incentives and means to exercise their oversight. First, the board’s duty to monitor should be reiterated while ...


Elite Institutionalism And Judicial Assertiveness In The Supreme Court Of India, Manoj Mate Dec 2014

Elite Institutionalism And Judicial Assertiveness In The Supreme Court Of India, Manoj Mate

Manoj S. Mate

This article examines judicial challenges to central government power in the Supreme Court of India by analyzing activism and assertiveness in fundamental rights decisions from 1977 to 2007. Based on field research and contextual analysis of politically significant decisions, the article traces patterns of judicial assertiveness in politically significant fundamental rights decisions. During this era, the Court was selectively assertive in challenging the central government in fundamental rights cases. This article provides an explanatory account of the motives and factors that drove the Supreme Court of India‘s selective activism and assertiveness in politically significant fundamental rights decisions. It argues ...


Whither Communism: A Comparative Perspective On Constitutionalism In A Postsocialist Cuba, Jon L. Mills, Daniel Ryan Koslosky Nov 2014

Whither Communism: A Comparative Perspective On Constitutionalism In A Postsocialist Cuba, Jon L. Mills, Daniel Ryan Koslosky

Jon L. Mills

For over fifty years, Cuba has been a source of high-spirited political and policy debates. Its history and geostrategic position make it unique in American diplomatic and socioeconomic history. Interest in the island has not waned with the collapse of Communism in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. On the contrary, Raul Castro’s assumption of Government has led many to begin asking how and under what circumstances political liberalization and economic transformation may occur in Cuba. This article examines the possible constitutional outcomes of a Cuba transition and introduces a framework for analyzing both Cuban economic reforms and ...