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The Neural Correlates And Temporal Dynamics Of Cued Fear Generalization, Kelsey Nicole Wilson Aug 2019

The Neural Correlates And Temporal Dynamics Of Cued Fear Generalization, Kelsey Nicole Wilson

Theses and Dissertations

Fear generalization, the generalization of fear to innocuous stimuli, is a characteristic component of pathological anxiety. For example, after returning from war, a person might begin to experience fear in response to the sound of fireworks, a stimulus typically regarded as safe. When excessive, “overgeneralization” serves as a core feature of fear and anxiety-related disorders, such as PTSD. The present collection of studies sought to investigate the neural correlates and temporal dynamics of fear generalization in humans.

The first study sought to investigate the causal role of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus in the generalization of fear. Contrary ...


Is Episodic Future Thinking Important For Instrumental Activities Of Daily Living In Neurological Patients?, Amanda M. Brunette Aug 2018

Is Episodic Future Thinking Important For Instrumental Activities Of Daily Living In Neurological Patients?, Amanda M. Brunette

Theses and Dissertations

Episodic future thinking is defined as the ability to mentally project oneself into the future into a specific time and place. Episodic future thinking has been explored extensively in neuroscience. However, it has not been determined whether the measurement of episodic future thinking might be valuable in a clinical neuropsychological setting. The current study examined the relationship between episodic future thinking and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), which is a domain of adaptive functioning frequently assessed by neuropsychologists to examine independent living potential including the ability to handle finances, prepare food, complete household duties, and manage medications. A secondary ...


Co-Speech Gesture Integration In Hippocampal Amnesia, Sharice Clough May 2018

Co-Speech Gesture Integration In Hippocampal Amnesia, Sharice Clough

Theses and Dissertations

Co-speech gesture is ubiquitous in everyday conversation, facilitating comprehension, learning, and memory. Information is often provided uniquely in the gesture modality and this information is integrated with speech, affecting the listener’s comprehension and memory of a message. Despite the robust evidence that gesture supports learning, the memory mechanisms that support this learning are unclear. The current study investigates the ability of patients with hippocampal damage to integrate and retain information from co-speech gesture.

Four patients with bilateral hippocampal lesions, four patients with damage to the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, and 17 healthy comparisons watched videos of a storyteller narrating ...


Beneficial Contribution Of Health Behaviors To Learning And Related Brain Mechanisms In Older Adults, Rachel Amelia Clark Cole May 2018

Beneficial Contribution Of Health Behaviors To Learning And Related Brain Mechanisms In Older Adults, Rachel Amelia Clark Cole

Theses and Dissertations

Aging is associated with adverse structural and functional changes in the brain. These changes have been directly linked to declines in certain types of learning and memory, likely due to the negative impact of aging on the hippocampus, a region necessary for cognitive functions such as relational learning, memory, and spatial navigation. Health behaviors and characteristics, like exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), are related to better brain and cognitive aging, though more research is needed to better understand which age-sensitive aspects of cognitive function are most benefited by these health characteristics. The purpose of this collection of studies was to ...


The Effect Of Recent Experience On Template Formation During Categorical Visual Search, Kenneth Eduardo Granillo-Velasquez Jan 2018

The Effect Of Recent Experience On Template Formation During Categorical Visual Search, Kenneth Eduardo Granillo-Velasquez

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

Previous studies have shown that while searching for categorical objects (e.g. cars, clothing, fruits, etc.), we utilize a template as a reference to aid in our detection and identification of our target object. Even more, other research has proposed the capacity of this template to accommodate or modify based on the exemplars presented for that categorical group. In addition, they have shown the capacity of these same exemplars to broaden or further specify the template used during these searches. However, these findings do not consider the effect that recent exemplars have on existing templates. In the following experiment, we ...


The Effects Of Music On Short-Term And Long-Term Memory, Alexandria Miller Jan 2017

The Effects Of Music On Short-Term And Long-Term Memory, Alexandria Miller

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

Recent research has suggested that there could be a benefit for learning verbal information with songs rather than spoken word; also, retrieval practices have been well documented as a beneficial learning strategy. The interaction between the two, however, has not been investigated. In this project, undergraduate students were assigned to one of four groups and listened to several complex sentences. Two groups had sentences that were spoken (Speech-Restudy, and Speech-Retrieval) and two had sentences that were sung (Song-Restudy, and Song-Retrieval). The restudy groups listened to the sentences four times, whereas the retrieval groups listened to the sentences twice, and then ...


Pivot, Dorothy Armstrong Jan 2017

Pivot, Dorothy Armstrong

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

“Pivot” provides a digestion of the solo I created for my Capstone Project in Dance Performance. Blending creative nonfiction, dance theory, and experiential detail, “Pivot” illuminates the process of choreographic self-authorship from the perspective of the performer/choreographer. This project, nominally identical to the solo itself, is an experiment. This project includes: recovery, repetition, erasure, agency, authenticity, possession, collaboration, silence, space, independence, constraint, risk. This project rejects binaries and treads between disciplines. This project challenges as it synthesizes. What I write reflects how I danced. For each section, I offer a corresponding written digestion; I focus primarily on the process ...


Memory Mechanisms Of Hand Gesture In Communication And Learning, Caitlin Ann Hilliard Aug 2016

Memory Mechanisms Of Hand Gesture In Communication And Learning, Caitlin Ann Hilliard

Theses and Dissertations

Spontaneous co-speech hand gestures robustly affect learning and memory. Viewing or producing hand gestures during conversation facilitates the encoding, consolidation, and retention of the information in speech. Despite these effects, the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting this relationship remains unknown. In Experiment 1, I explored the memory mechanisms supporting hand gesture by working with patients with damage to their hippocampus and thus their declarative memory system. Participants engaged in discourse tasks that disproportionately engaged the hippocampus. I found that patients gestured less overall than healthy comparisons across all tasks, suggesting that the hippocampus indeed plays a role in gesture production ...


Literature As Memorial: Challenging Histories And Reckoning With Absences Through Contemporary American Literature, Sarah Lindsay Livesay Aug 2016

Literature As Memorial: Challenging Histories And Reckoning With Absences Through Contemporary American Literature, Sarah Lindsay Livesay

Theses and Dissertations

What are the intersections between literary and memorial studies? This study interrogates that question by combining critical readings of contemporary American literature (1969-present) with national memorials. My method of reading moves between physical memorials that provide canonical representations of American historical events and textual memorials that provide literary counter-readings of the same events. These texts challenge traditional memorial-making by reframing the discourses for the ways memorials function in American culture.

The study of memorial traverses several disciplines and fields of scholarship. Within the broad field of memorial studies, this dissertation examines the concerns of physical monuments and memorials, memory and ...


The Hippocampus And Semantic Memory Beyond Acquisition: A Lesion Study Of Hippocampal Contributions To The Maintenance, Updating, And Use Of Remote Semantic Memory, Nathaniel Bloem Klooster May 2016

The Hippocampus And Semantic Memory Beyond Acquisition: A Lesion Study Of Hippocampal Contributions To The Maintenance, Updating, And Use Of Remote Semantic Memory, Nathaniel Bloem Klooster

Theses and Dissertations

Semantic memory includes vocabulary and word meanings, conceptual information, and general facts about the world (Tulving, 1972). According to the standard view of semantic memory in cognitive neuroscience, the hippocampus is necessary to first acquire new semantic information (Gabrieli, Cohen, & Corkin, 1988), but these representations are then consolidated in the neocortex and become independent of the hippocampus with time (McClelland, McNaughton, & O'Reilly, 1995). Remote semantic memory is considered independent of the hippocampus, and the hippocampus is not thought to play a critical role in the processing and use of such representations.

The current work challenges the notion that previously ...


Orientation: Unsure, Joshua Anthony Mcdevitt May 2016

Orientation: Unsure, Joshua Anthony Mcdevitt

Theses and Dissertations

By using the creative process as a means to reflect this work delves into the themes of memory and identity as they relate to my struggle, as an adolescent, to define my sexual orientation.


Optimizing Motor Mmemory In Healthy Adults, Sara Jeanne Hussain May 2016

Optimizing Motor Mmemory In Healthy Adults, Sara Jeanne Hussain

Theses and Dissertations

Motor learning is an important component of daily life: humans are constantly adjusting their movements and acquiring new skills in order to meet the demands of their environment. Motor learning also contributes to neurorehabilitation, so it is therefore important to understand the neural mechanisms underlying motor learning so that these mechanisms can be exploited to promote neurorehabilitation after central nervous system injury. This dissertation focuses on three distinct methods of improving motor learning in healthy adults. In Chapter 2, we tested the effects of perturbation schedule on retention of a locomotor adaptation. The results of this work demonstrated that introducing ...


Shifting Signifier On The Sidelines : Memory And Boundary Work In The Construction Of Joe Paterno, David Asa Schwartz May 2016

Shifting Signifier On The Sidelines : Memory And Boundary Work In The Construction Of Joe Paterno, David Asa Schwartz

Theses and Dissertations

Using myth, media memory, and boundary work as the theoretical underpinnings, this research aims to understand how journalists manipulated meanings assigned to a single subject over a long period of time. The research explores how journalists shaped and reshaped former Penn State University football coach Joe Paterno, and how journalists imprinted evolving cultural values on Paterno. As “what matters” within a culture shifts, the journalistic narrative of authority figures and heroes shifts along with it to reflect new or emerging cultural values.

The research also examined what happens to a profession when it faces severe structural unrest. In this case ...


How Beautiful Is Thy Dwelling, Kate Elizabeth Allen May 2015

How Beautiful Is Thy Dwelling, Kate Elizabeth Allen

Theses and Dissertations

This work focuses on the cross-section between classic still-life art and complex personal issues. It uses traditional and nontraditional still life photography to tell individual vignettes about my life. I explore unresolved issues, which offer subtle suggestion of an experiential narrative. All of the backgrounds and objects included are intentional and represent specific places, people, and events. I allow the viewer to bring their own experiences to the photographs, by not giving them specifics of my stories. I used this work as a way for me to move past these experiences and my hope is that they might also help ...


Manipulation Of Effector And Memory Cd8+ T Cells Via Il-2-Antibody Complexes, Marie Kim May 2015

Manipulation Of Effector And Memory Cd8+ T Cells Via Il-2-Antibody Complexes, Marie Kim

Theses and Dissertations

Due to the growing burden of malignancy and chronic infections, manipulating CD8+ T cell responses for clinical use has become an important goal for immunologists. CD8+ T cells have the unique capacity to recognize and kill tumor cells and intracellular pathogens. Thus far, failed or only minimally effective T cell vaccines against chronic pathogen infections and tumors have highlighted basic knowledge gaps for eliciting memory CD8+ T cell protection. Defining the immunological mechanisms that determine protective capacity and longevity in T cells will be critical to both therapeutic and prohylactic vaccine efficacy.

My studies focus on strategies to manipulate effector ...


Remembering Without Storing: Beyond Archival Models In The Science And Philosophy Of Human Memory, Ian O'Loughlin Jul 2014

Remembering Without Storing: Beyond Archival Models In The Science And Philosophy Of Human Memory, Ian O'Loughlin

Theses and Dissertations

Models of memory in cognitive science and philosophy have traditionally explained human remembering in terms of storage and retrieval. This tendency has been entrenched by reliance on computationalist explanations over the course of the twentieth century; even research programs that eschew computationalism in name, or attempt the revision of traditional models, demonstrate tacit commitment to computationalist assumptions. It is assumed that memory must be stored by means of an isomorphic trace, that memory processes must divide into conceptually distinct systems and phases, and that human remembering consists in inner, cognitive processes that are implemented by distinct neural processes. This dissertation ...


Memory Self-Efficacy In Cognitively Normal Older Adults And Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment, Mary Ellen Stolder Dec 2012

Memory Self-Efficacy In Cognitively Normal Older Adults And Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment, Mary Ellen Stolder

Theses and Dissertations

Although there are ample studies confirming that memory self-efficacy (MSE) declines with age, less is known about what factors account for the variation in MSE among older adults.

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between MSE, diagnostic and clinical characteristics, and subsequent episodic memory performance in older adults. A nonprobability sample of 200 cognitively normal and older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) participating in a longitudinal population-based study investigating the incidence, prevalence and risk factors for MCI completed a questionnaire about self-referent beliefs of MSE. Bandura's (1989) selfefficacy theory and the Integration Model (Whittemore ...


Task-Specific Learning Supports Control Over Visual Distraction, Joshua Daniel Cosman May 2012

Task-Specific Learning Supports Control Over Visual Distraction, Joshua Daniel Cosman

Theses and Dissertations

There is more information in the visual environment than we can process at a given time, and as a result selective attention mechanisms have developed that allow us to focus on information that is relevant to us while ignoring information that is not. It is often assumed that our ability to overcome distraction by irrelevant information in the environment requires conscious, effortful processing, and traditional theories of selective attention have emphasized the role of an observer's explicit intentions in driving this control. At the same time, effortful control on the basis of explicit processes may be maladaptive when the ...


Practical Joy, Mary Naree Laube May 2012

Practical Joy, Mary Naree Laube

Theses and Dissertations

I will be presenting my work in two parts. The first section is dedicated to recent paintings that comprise my M.F.A. thesis exhibition: Practical Joy. The second section will investigate Practical Joy as an installation. I will raise questions regarding the relationship between my paintings and the exhibition space in order to situate my work into a contemporary discourse.


D'Un Salaud L'Autre : Etude De La Figure Romanesque Des Nazis Et De Leurs Collaborateurs, Marion Duval May 2011

D'Un Salaud L'Autre : Etude De La Figure Romanesque Des Nazis Et De Leurs Collaborateurs, Marion Duval

Theses and Dissertations

My dissertation investigates significant changes in the way the Nazi occupation of France and the Holocaust have been portrayed in fiction. Two novels published in 2006 - Didier Daeninckx's Itineraire d'un Salaud Ordinaire and Jonathan Littell's Les Bienveillantes - are essential for this study. Both of these controversial books shook existing literary models concerned with the memory of the victims of the war by making the perpetrators of atrocities central characters. These two novels allow me to contextualize the full evolution of such literary actors, beginning with the work of Robert Merle and Louis-Ferdinand Celine. My dissertation examines the ...


32% Of The Archive, Jill Elise Kambs May 2011

32% Of The Archive, Jill Elise Kambs

Theses and Dissertations

32% of the Archive explores memory, loss, and the power of ephemera through recording and re-presenting objects from a personal archive. Through uniform recording, framing, and treatment of the art objects, 32% of the Archive, attempts to neutrally display personal objects so the audience can objectively investigate the material. The gesture falls short of impartial, though, for the specificity of the subject and the enormity of the act carries an emotional charge. Beyond presenting data, this work reflects a sincere effort to remember and preserve, to puzzle and piece together, to pay homage to what is lost in the transience ...


Character Of Memorization: Quotation And Identity In Nineteenth-Century British Literature, Joanne Nystrom Janssen Jul 2010

Character Of Memorization: Quotation And Identity In Nineteenth-Century British Literature, Joanne Nystrom Janssen

Theses and Dissertations

In nineteenth-century Britain, the average person's mind was an anthology containing snatches of poetry, Latin verb conjugations, Bible verses, folk songs, miscellaneous facts, and the catechism. Because secular and religious education emphasized learning by rote, students' minds were stocked with information and quotations that originated in other texts, which is reflected in characters who repeat those bits and pieces in the period's literature. My dissertation investigates concepts of personal and national identity in Victorian literature and culture, particularly through the understudied phenomenon of rote memory. George Eliot's Maggie Tulliver, for example, quotes Thomas à Kempis's Imitation ...


Lucan's Cato, The Defeat Of Victory, The Triumph Of Memory, Mark Allen Thorne Jul 2010

Lucan's Cato, The Defeat Of Victory, The Triumph Of Memory, Mark Allen Thorne

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation provides a new examination of the figure of Cato within Lucan's epic poem Bellum Civile by focusing on the theme of memory within the epic and its interaction with Cato's character specifically. It argues that one may read the epic as possessing the rhetorical function of a literary funeral monumentum, the purpose of which is to retell the death of Rome in the Roman Civil War, mourn its passing, and yet in so doing simultaneously preserve its memory so that future generations may remember the liberty Rome once possessed and may be influenced by that memory ...


The Role Of Camkii Binding Nmdars In Synaptic Plasticity And Memory, Robert Francis Dallapiazza May 2010

The Role Of Camkii Binding Nmdars In Synaptic Plasticity And Memory, Robert Francis Dallapiazza

Theses and Dissertations

Our memories are fundamental components of who we are as individuals. They influence almost every aspect of our lives such as our decisions, our personalities, our emotions, and our purpose in life. Diseases that affect memory have devastating impacts on the individuals who bear them. Imagine not being able to recall pleasant memories or even the faces of close family members. It's important to understand the biology of memory formation not only because it's an intriguing scientific question, but because of its consequences when these processes are lost. N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII ...


In The Air, Lindsay Elizabeth Warren May 2010

In The Air, Lindsay Elizabeth Warren

Theses and Dissertations

An investigation into memory of heightened moments through visual phenomena.


A Study Of Retention In Reading, Herbert Frederick Spitzer May 1938

A Study Of Retention In Reading, Herbert Frederick Spitzer

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.