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North American Continent - A New Source Of Wild Lactuca Spp. Germplasm Variability For Future Lettuce Breeding, A. Lebeda, I. Doležalová, M. Kitner, A. Novotná, P. Šmachová, M. P. Widrlechner Jan 2011

North American Continent - A New Source Of Wild Lactuca Spp. Germplasm Variability For Future Lettuce Breeding, A. Lebeda, I. Doležalová, M. Kitner, A. Novotná, P. Šmachová, M. P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

In the years 2002-2008, missions were undertaken in the USA and Canada to search for wild and weedy Lactuca species. Altogether, 16 states in the USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Iowa, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin and Wyoming) and two provinces in Canada (Ontario and Quebec) were visited. In total, seven wild and weedy Lactuca spp. (L. serriola, L. saligna, L. virosa, L. canadensis, L. biennis, L. floridana, and L. ludoviciana), an interspecific hybrid (L. canadensis × L. ludoviciana), and an undetermined Lactuca species were observed and collected in 200 locations. In this ...


Japanese Raspberry (Rubus Parvifolius L.): An Invasive Species Threat In Savanna And Prairie, Pauline M. Drobney, Mark P. Widrlechner Jan 2010

Japanese Raspberry (Rubus Parvifolius L.): An Invasive Species Threat In Savanna And Prairie, Pauline M. Drobney, Mark P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Japanese raspberry (Rubus parvifolius L.) is native to eastern Asia and Australia and has naturalized in several locations in Illinois, Iowa, Massachusetts, Missouri, and Ohio. This species was introduced in North America for food and erosion control, but it appears to be becoming a serious invasive species threat in savannas and prairies. It was found in a former commercial game-hunting farm on Walnut Creek National Wildlife Refuge (now Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge) in 1991, and was identified as Japanese raspberry in 1995. Japanese raspberry grows vigorously and spreads via rooting from low-arching-to-prostrate canes that are up to 300 cm ...


Building A Comprehensive Collection Of Ash Germplasm, Mark P. Widrlechner Jan 2010

Building A Comprehensive Collection Of Ash Germplasm, Mark P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

This paper summarizes a presentation from the Congress Symposium, “The Introduction of the Emerald Ash Borer in North America, A Case Study of Invasive Species Epidemiology and Conservation of the Host Species.” It briefly discusses the state of Fraxinus (ash) taxonomy, ash as a landscape and forest tree, some of its specialized uses, including those by Native Americans, and its role in supporting other organisms. The devastation caused to native, North American ash populations by the introduction of Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer; EAB) to the Detroit, Michigan area has already led to the loss of tens of millions of ...


Assembling Germplasm Collections Of Nuttall's Povertyweed [Monolepis Nuttalliana (Schult.) Greene] And Other Spinach (Spinacia Oleracea L.) Allies, David M. Brenner, Grace Kostel, Mark P. Widrlechner, Candice A. Gardner Jul 2009

Assembling Germplasm Collections Of Nuttall's Povertyweed [Monolepis Nuttalliana (Schult.) Greene] And Other Spinach (Spinacia Oleracea L.) Allies, David M. Brenner, Grace Kostel, Mark P. Widrlechner, Candice A. Gardner

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

We are acquiring the wild relatives of cultivated spinach as part of our investment in crop germplasm. Some of these relatives are native in the United States, and thus should be readily accessible for collecting. We intend to aid research by conserving and distributing seeds of these plants. Three genera of North American spinach relatives are briefly described below. The germplasm should be useful to study phylogenetic relationships, the host ranges of pathogens and pests, stress tolerance, and many other topics.


Developing A Coordinated Plan For Ash (Fraxinus) Seed Collection In North America, Mark P. Widrlechner, Jeffrey D. Carstens Jan 2009

Developing A Coordinated Plan For Ash (Fraxinus) Seed Collection In North America, Mark P. Widrlechner, Jeffrey D. Carstens

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

No abstract provided.


Ornamental Plants And The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System: Conserving, Evaluating, Seeking, And Sharing, Mark P. Widrlechner Jan 2009

Ornamental Plants And The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System: Conserving, Evaluating, Seeking, And Sharing, Mark P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Genetic diversity is a key component of stable agricultural production in a rapidly changing world. The genetic variation found in field crops, fruits, vegetables, ornamentals, other economically important plants, and their wild and weedy relatives is crucial for crop improvement and the development of new agricultural products. This diversity is found both in nature and in traditional agricultural systems. However, both natural plant communities and traditional agriculture face many threats and are being extensively replaced through urbanization, habitat degradation, and the rise of modern agricultural systems that are based on a relatively narrow genetic base.


Resistance In Cucumis Melo Germplasm To Pseudoperonospora Cubensis Pathotypes, A. Lebeda, J. Stepankova, M. Krskova, M. P. Widrlechner Jan 2007

Resistance In Cucumis Melo Germplasm To Pseudoperonospora Cubensis Pathotypes, A. Lebeda, J. Stepankova, M. Krskova, M. P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

The Cucumis melo-Pseudoperonospora cubensis host-pathogen interaction is characterized by large variation in specificity. This report summarizes results obtained by laboratory screening of 52 C. melo accessions by 8 isolates of P cubensis. The isolates represent 8 different pathotypes with low, medium or high levels of pathogenicity. The reaction of C. melo accessions was evaluated on leaf discs removed from adult plants; sporulation intensity of P cubensis isolates was measured 6 to 14 days after inoculation. Relatively little variability in reaction patterns to P cubensis isolates was detected. The majority of C. melo accessions was highly susceptible to most of the ...


Old And New Trends Influencing The Introduction Of New Nursery Crops, Mark P. Widrlechner Jan 2007

Old And New Trends Influencing The Introduction Of New Nursery Crops, Mark P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

At the First National New Crops Symposium in 1988, I reported on four trends that were influencing the introduction of new landscape plants (Widrlechner 1990). These trends were:

1. increased interest in, and use of, low-input plantings;

2. edible landscaping;

3. in vitro propagation methods; and

4. ways to overcome limitations caused by urban conditions.

But trends, by their very nature, are dynamic; what was timely twenty years ago can be passé today. The environment in which nursery producers and retailers operate continually evolves, and the trends that affect them and their consumers need periodic re-analysis. Thus, the objectives of ...


Screening Coriander Gene Pool For Special Uses, Pedro A. López, M. P. Widrlechner, P. W. Simon, S. Rai, T. B. Bailey, C. A. Gardner Jan 2007

Screening Coriander Gene Pool For Special Uses, Pedro A. López, M. P. Widrlechner, P. W. Simon, S. Rai, T. B. Bailey, C. A. Gardner

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is an aromatic member of the Apiaceae with a wide diversity of uses (Diederichsen 1996). Its rapid life cycle allows it to fit into different growing seasons, making it possible to grow the crop under a wide range of conditions. Three subspecies and 10 botanical varieties of coriander have been proposed at the infraspecific level (Diederichsen and Hammer 2003) based on phenotypic characteristics; however, molecular evidence does not support classifications based on phenotypic and/or biochemical characteristics (López 2006).

The objectives of our study were to assess the phenotypic and biochemical characteristics of coriander germplasm collections ...


Predicting The Risk Of Naturalization For Non-Native Woody Plants In The Chicago Region, Kristen Kordecki, Mark P. Widrlechner, Peter Bristol Jun 2006

Predicting The Risk Of Naturalization For Non-Native Woody Plants In The Chicago Region, Kristen Kordecki, Mark P. Widrlechner, Peter Bristol

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

No abstract provided.


While They Were Asleep: Do Seeds After-Ripen In Cold Storage? Experiences With Calendula, Mark P. Widrlechner Jan 2006

While They Were Asleep: Do Seeds After-Ripen In Cold Storage? Experiences With Calendula, Mark P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Methods to break seed dormancy are of great interest to plant propagators, with many papers on this topic presented at past I.P.P.S. meetings. For example, in Vol. 54 of our Combined Proceedings of the International Plant Propagators’ Society, there were reports on embryo culture to avoid dormancy (Douglas, 2004) and recommendations on dormancy-breaking techniques for Helleborus (Bush, 2004), Salvia (Navarez, 2004), and many wildflowers and grasses native to the North Central U.S.A. (Diboll, 2004). As propagators, we typically want quick methods that consistently result in high germination rates without large labor inputs. But if we ...


Individual And Population Aspects Of Interactions Between Cucurbits And Pseudoperonospora Cubensis: Pathotypes And Races, A. Lebeda, M. P. Widrlechner, J. Urban Jan 2006

Individual And Population Aspects Of Interactions Between Cucurbits And Pseudoperonospora Cubensis: Pathotypes And Races, A. Lebeda, M. P. Widrlechner, J. Urban

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

This paper reviews the current state of knowledge regarding variation in interactions between Cucurbitaceae and Pseudoperonospora cubensis as a backdrop for the development and use of systems to characterize pathogenicity at the individual and population levels. Host-parasite specificity and interactions between Cucurbitaceae and P. cubensis exhibit significant variation on both the individual and population level. However, our phytopathological and genetic knowledge of the interactions between individual P. cubensis isolates and a broad range of accessions of most important genera of cultivated cucurbits (e.g., Cucumis, Cucurbita, Citrullus) remains limited. Recently, an improved differential set of cucurbit accessions was developed to ...


Dead, Duplicate Or Discarded: Npgs Inactivation Guidelines, Mark P. Widrlechner Dec 2005

Dead, Duplicate Or Discarded: Npgs Inactivation Guidelines, Mark P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

No abstract provided.


A Comprehensive Echinacea Germplasm Collection Located At The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, Ames, Iowa, Joe-Ann H. Mccoy, Mark P. Widrlechner, Jeffrey D. Carstens Jan 2005

A Comprehensive Echinacea Germplasm Collection Located At The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station, Ames, Iowa, Joe-Ann H. Mccoy, Mark P. Widrlechner, Jeffrey D. Carstens

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Echinacea is a well-established, high-value crop, both as an ornamental and dietary supplement. A comprehensive collection of Echinacea germplasm is currently held at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, Iowa, and is available via seed distribution for research purposes . The NCRPIS's mission includes: (1) The conservation of genetically diverse crop germplasm through collection and acquisition; (2) The conduct of germplasm-related research; and (3) The encouragement of the use of the germplasm collections and associated information for research, crop improvement, and product development.

Representing all nine species collected throughout their respective North American geographic ranges ...


Insights Into Woody Plant Adaptation And Practical Applications, Mark P. Widrlechner Jun 2004

Insights Into Woody Plant Adaptation And Practical Applications, Mark P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Since its inception in 1954, the NC7 Regional Ornamental Plant Trials have evaluated 623 different accessions of woody landscape plants under a wide range of environments across the North Central U.S. and at other locations with similar climatic conditions. The evaluation of replicated field plantings at multiple locations has a long tradition in forestry (Langlet, 1971; Wright, 1976) beginning with common-garden trials of tree populations in the 1700s and leading to the development of modern, replicated designs in Europe in the early 1900s. By evaluating many provenances of the same species at numerous sites, considerable knowledge has been accumulated ...


Assembling And Characterizing A Comprehensive Echinacea Germplasm Collection, Mark P. Widrlechner, Kathleen A. Mckeown Jan 2002

Assembling And Characterizing A Comprehensive Echinacea Germplasm Collection, Mark P. Widrlechner, Kathleen A. Mckeown

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

During the 1990s, the popularity of the genus Echinacea Moench (Asteraceae) as a dietary supplement in the United States increased markedly, as the general public learned of its possible efficacy in fighting colds and other illnesses (Bauer and Wagner 1991; Li 1998). Plant and medical scientists responded to this phenomenon by increasing their efforts to understand the biology, cultivation, and pharmacology of these plants. Unfortunately, very few well-documented living collections of Echinacea were readily available to support that research. Well-documented germplasm collections could also be used to broaden the genetic base of ornamental Echinacea cultivars, which are widely cultivated as ...


Chinese Forestry - Relationships Worth Cultivating, Mark P. Widrlechner Jan 1997

Chinese Forestry - Relationships Worth Cultivating, Mark P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

From 10 September to 1 October 1995, I participated in a cooperative technical exchange program in China, co-sponsored by the U.S, Department of Agriculture and the Chinese Ministry of Forestry. The goals of this trip were to share expertise and to acquire cold-hardy germplasm of disease-resistant elms (Ulmus L.), especially focusing on Ulmus parvifolia Jacq., the lacebark elm. The U.S. team was led by Dr. Eugene Smalley, of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and included: Mrs. Joan Smalley; Drs. Raymond Guries and Weidong Wu, also of the University of Wisconsin; and Dr. George Ware, of the Morton Arboretum. Visits ...


Ornamental Seed Production In Field Cages With Insect Pollinators, Mark P. Widrlechner, Craig A. Abel, Richard L. Wilson Jan 1996

Ornamental Seed Production In Field Cages With Insect Pollinators, Mark P. Widrlechner, Craig A. Abel, Richard L. Wilson

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS), located at Iowa State University in Ames, is one of the primary sites of the U.S. National Plant Germ plasm System (Roath et al., 1990; White et al., 1989). The NCRPIS specializes in the management of germplasm of agronomic and horticultural crops and their wild relatives that are primarily allogamous (outbreeding). Each year, crop~specific curators at the NCRPIS regenerate seeds of hundreds of germplasm accessions in the field and under glass, controlling pollination to preserve the genetic integrity of the collections. Pollinations for some crops, such as pumpkins, domesticated sunflowers ...


A New Look At Prairie Plant Germplasm, Mark P. Widrlechner Jul 1994

A New Look At Prairie Plant Germplasm, Mark P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

In 1988, data describing the prairie plant germplasm maintained by the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) were surveyed, and the results were reported to the Eleventh North American Prairie Conference. During the 6 years since that initial survey, the taxonomic database of the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), the primary database for the NPGS, has been improved substantially, and additional germplasm has been added to the NPGS and made available for distribution. Because of this progress, NPGS holdings were surveyed anew, and demand for these holdings was also examined. In 1988, 295 or 862 prairie taxa identified from ...


Diversity Among And Within Populations Of Agastache Foeniculum, Roger G. Fuentes-Granados, Mark P. Widrlechner Jul 1994

Diversity Among And Within Populations Of Agastache Foeniculum, Roger G. Fuentes-Granados, Mark P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

An electrophoretic analysis of isozymes was conducted on 11 populations of Agastache foeniculum maintained in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System. Eleven enzyme staining systems, controlled by 19 putative loci, were assayed to estimate parameters of genetic diversity and to determine systematic relationships among populations of this prairie species. Polypmorphism was detected in seven putative loci: Cat1, Got1, Got2, Pgm2, Phi2, Tpi1, and Tpi2. Percentage of polymorphic loci and average number of alleles per locus for the species were 36.8 and 1.6, respectively. Total heterozygosity was 0.08. Partitioning of genetic variability was 0.63 and 0 ...


Is Eastern Europe A Useful Source Of New Landscape Plants For The Midwest?, Mark P. Widrlechner Jan 1994

Is Eastern Europe A Useful Source Of New Landscape Plants For The Midwest?, Mark P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Climatic extremes and unfavorable soils limit landscape plant diversity in the midwestern U.S. Since 1983, I have coordinated the NC-7 Regional Ornamental Trials (Widrlechner, 1990) for evaluating new landscape plants in the region and for increasing the future, diversity of well-adapted plants found in commerce. I acquire, propagate, and distribute promising new plants for long-term testing at 38 sites representing the region's climates and soils.

Plants for testing can come from breeding programs or public gardens, but often originate from wild collections. Selecting promising plants for testing from the native woody flora of the temperate world is not ...


Seed Storage For The Commercial Propagator, Mark P. Widrlechner Jan 1991

Seed Storage For The Commercial Propagator, Mark P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Commercial propagators routinely produce a diverse mix of seedlings, yet the volumes of the Proceedings of the International Plant Propagators' Society have remarkably little advice on seed storage. Most propagators plant freshly-collected seeds or store seeds only briefly before planting. But there may be advantages to storing seeds for future use. This report will consider some of those advantages, summarize pertinent reports on seed storage for landscape plants, and present some personal experiences with germination of stored seeds.


A Field Evaluation Of Native Mint Family Plants As Honey Bee Forage In Iowa, Mark P. Widrlechner Aug 1990

A Field Evaluation Of Native Mint Family Plants As Honey Bee Forage In Iowa, Mark P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

A preliminary field plot was established in 1986 to assess the suitability of various species of native, perennial mint family plants (Lamiaceae) as food plants to support honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). This report summarizes honey bee preference data collected over three growing seasons, along with general information on these plants' range of adaptation and ease of culture. In general, Agastache populations had the highest levels of honey bee visitation, followed by populations of Pycnanthenum. Honey bee activity on populations of Monarda and Salvia was much less. Within Agastache and Pycnanthemum populations, bee preference differed greatly among plant populations. The ...


Nc-7 Regional Ornamental Trials: Evaluation Of New Woody Plants, Mark P. Widrlechner Jun 1990

Nc-7 Regional Ornamental Trials: Evaluation Of New Woody Plants, Mark P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

The North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station was established in Ames, Iowa in 1948. The activities of this Station are conducted under the auspices of a continuing research project funded by the United States Department of Agriculture and twelve state agricultural experiment stations in the north central United States (Wilson et al. , 1985). This project was the seventh such cooperative project in the North Central Region and is commonly referred to as the NC-7 Project.


Germplasm Resources At The North Central Plant Introduction Station, W. W. Roath, R. L. Clark, M. P. Widrlechner, R. L. Wilson Jan 1990

Germplasm Resources At The North Central Plant Introduction Station, W. W. Roath, R. L. Clark, M. P. Widrlechner, R. L. Wilson

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

History

The introduction of potentially useful plant species into the United States dates back to the early 19th century when embassies were asked to collect and import these materials.A more organized effort was established when the Section of Seed and Plant Introduction was formed in 1898 within the USDA. No provisions were made, however, to store these materials adequately and much was lost (Wilson et al. 1985).


Trends Influencing The Introduction Of New Landscape Plants, Mark P. Widrlechner Jan 1990

Trends Influencing The Introduction Of New Landscape Plants, Mark P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Any discussion of new crops in the American nursery industry must begin with a realization that this industry is already one of the most diversified sectors of American agriculture. This diversity is reflected in the range of production methods used, the fact that nursery crops are produced in every one of our states, and the large number of species being grown. These facts notwithstanding, there is strong interest in new plants for the nursery industry. But any single new introduction is likely to have little impact on an industry that already has such a broad mix of products. There is ...


Germplasm Resources Information Network And Ex Situ Conservation Of Germplasm, Mark P. Widrlechner Aug 1988

Germplasm Resources Information Network And Ex Situ Conservation Of Germplasm, Mark P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

The Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), the master database of the National Plant Germplasm System, was queried to measure the usefulness and limitations of ex situ germplasm collections for prairie research. A list of 862 taxa of grasses and forbs native to the prairies of the midwestern United States was checked in a stepwise fashion against recognized names in the GRIN database. Each species was checked against recognized names in the taxonomy area of the database. For each recognized species, the accessions area was queried to see if any populations were entered in the database. The inventory area was then ...


Steps In Becoming Your Own Plant Breeder, Mark P. Widrlechner Jan 1988

Steps In Becoming Your Own Plant Breeder, Mark P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

As herb growers and marketers, all of us enjoy working with plants and 'their useful products. Many of us are involved wit:h growing herbs from seed or cuttings. There probably aren't quite so many of us who produce our own seed and of those who do produce seed there are even fewer who do so using some method of controlled pollination. To be a plant breeder, first you need to learn how to produce quality seed under controlled pollination conditions for the species you want to improve.


Effects Of Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.) Pollen Storage Conditions On Pollen Viability And Progeny Mdh1 Allelic Frequency, W. W. Roath, J. S. Pomeroy, M. P. Widrlechner Jan 1988

Effects Of Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.) Pollen Storage Conditions On Pollen Viability And Progeny Mdh1 Allelic Frequency, W. W. Roath, J. S. Pomeroy, M. P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Storing pollen for long periods could have advantages in germplasm maintenance because it would allow preservation of a large sample of genetic diversity in a very small area. This study tested different storage conditions on viability and gene frequency changes of progeny of crosses from stored pollen. Pollen was collected into glass vials from 1986 field grown plants. Samples were then dried for four hours and placed into storage in a refrigerator, a refrigerator freezer, and into liquid nitrogen for 220 to 360 days. Heads of C!·!SHA 89 grown in the greenhouse during the winter of 1986 - 1987 and ...


Mint Family As Plants For Honeybee Forage, Mark P. Widrlechner Jan 1987

Mint Family As Plants For Honeybee Forage, Mark P. Widrlechner

NCRPIS Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

A large number of herbs and commercial essential oil plants are members of the mint family, Lamiaceae (Tucker, 1986; Tucker and Lawrence, 1987). Many species in this family are also useful nectar sources for honeybees (Ayers et al., 1987; Crane, 1975; Pellett, 1947). Honey production may be an added benefit to the herb grower or seed producer.