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2006

Southern Illinois University Carbondale

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The Water Infrastructure Challenge In Victoria, Robyn Mcleod Jul 2006

The Water Infrastructure Challenge In Victoria, Robyn Mcleod

2006

Water resources, and the infrastructure to sustainability manage these resources, are a priority for the Victorian State Government. Prolonged drought, projected population growth, combined with the potential impact of climate change and the economic importance of industry and agriculture to the economic prosperity of the State, emphasise the importance of investment in innovative and efficient water infrastructure systems.


Central Asian Water Management And Environmental Training Project, Abror N. Gadaev Jul 2006

Central Asian Water Management And Environmental Training Project, Abror N. Gadaev

2006

Uzbekistan Southern DataStream and Samarkand State Architectural and Civil Engineering Institute's training program is designed to support regional water management and environmental protection projects in the Central Asia region, including Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. This training program imparts skills in both the technical aspects of water management as well as the social and democratic aspects of establishing water management goals and administering associated projects. The program seeks to promote cooperation between USA and Uzbekistan by training participants in environmental and water management, thus contributing to improvement in the social, economic and political situation of this region. This ...


The Impacts Of Land Use Change On Water Resources And Traditional Acequia Culture In Northern New Mexico, Marquita Ortiz Et Al. Jul 2006

The Impacts Of Land Use Change On Water Resources And Traditional Acequia Culture In Northern New Mexico, Marquita Ortiz Et Al.

2006

Rural areas throughout the western United States are undergoing rapid and far-reaching land use changes that impact water management, riparian ecosystems, and traditional cultures. Impacts to water resource use and management include: potential risks of groundwater contamination due to increased numbers of single household septic systems, potential overdraft of groundwater resources, surface water quality impacts, and changes in the distribution of water supplies from agricultural to municipal/industrial uses. In northern New Mexico, the acequia water use regime and attendant acequia-related cultural values are at particular risk due to increasing urbanization pressures and the potential impacts on actual water use ...


Thinning And Prescribed Fire In The Santa Fe Municipal Watershed: Protecting Water Quality; Increasing Water Yield?, Paige Grant Jul 2006

Thinning And Prescribed Fire In The Santa Fe Municipal Watershed: Protecting Water Quality; Increasing Water Yield?, Paige Grant

2006

The City of Santa Fe maintains two reservoirs in the municipal watershed that supply 40 per cent of the City’s water. By the end of the 20th century, the forest in that watershed had become so overgrown that it presented an extreme fire risk, threatening the viability of those reservoirs. Consequently, beginning in 1998 Santa Fe National Forest initiated a project to thin out the watershed. To increase the confidence of the community that the project would be carried out in an ecologically sensitive fashion, a commitment was made that thinning and burning treatments would be monitored for ecosystem ...


Restoring A Forest Watershed And Adding Water Back To The Land, Dan C. Abercrombie Jul 2006

Restoring A Forest Watershed And Adding Water Back To The Land, Dan C. Abercrombie

2006

Historical evidence clearly shows a significant decline in both stream flow and ground water recharge in the Sacramento Mountains of southern New Mexico. Photos, oral history, early Census data, and written accounts all paint a much wetter picture than is present today. Dense forests are robbing springs and streams of surface flow. Ground water recharge during the recent drought was non-existent. Large numbers of wells all over Otero County dried up. Drilling deeper was successful in some areas, but people in some areas are still hauling water. Members of the Sacramento River Watershed Coalition recently completed several large thinning projects ...


Impact Of Climate Change On New Mexico's Water Resources, Anne Watkins Jul 2006

Impact Of Climate Change On New Mexico's Water Resources, Anne Watkins

2006

In June, 2005, Governor Bill Richardson signed Executive Order 05-033 on “Climate change and greenhouse gas reduction.” That E.O. called for the State Engineer, in collaboration with other local, state and federal agencies and the State’s research institutions, to “prepare an analysis of the impact of climate change on the State’s water supply and ability to manage its water resources.” This presentation will provide an overview of that report, including: anticipated impacts on New Mexico’s water resources based on existing models and available data; a brief survey of the sectors that will be impacted by climate ...


Precipitation Enhancement: Water Management Strategy In Texas Panhandle Region, Lal K. Almas Jul 2006

Precipitation Enhancement: Water Management Strategy In Texas Panhandle Region, Lal K. Almas

2006

The Texas Panhandle is a semi-arid region with varied rainfall. The variation in rainfall leads to variation in the year-to-year production of agricultural products. Therefore the Texas Panhandle relies on irrigation to both increase and stabilize production. The Ogallala aquifer is the primary source of irrigation water in the region. Due to limited recharge, continued pumping from Ogallala aquifer has resulted in a declining water table. The continued requirements of agricultural, municipal, and industrial sectors emphasize the critical need for alternative water management strategies. Precipitation enhancement is one of the many water management strategies to reduce irrigation water demand.


Innovations For Hydropower And Other Renewables: Potential Benefits To The Energy-Water Nexus, Michael J. Sale Jul 2006

Innovations For Hydropower And Other Renewables: Potential Benefits To The Energy-Water Nexus, Michael J. Sale

2006

Hydropower is the largest energy user of water in the U.S., although most of that water use is not consumptive. In 1995, USGS estimated that hydropower annual water uses was 3,160,000 million gallons per day, or about 16 times more than what is used for thermoelectric cooling. Water used in hydroelectric turbines is generally not consumed, but the timing of water releases may be shifted in time relative to natural flows through reservoir storage and release. Hydropower’s regulation of river flows may compete with other water uses or complement them. Advanced hydropower technologies, such as more ...


Innovations For Thermoelectric Cooling Technologies: Potential Benefits To The Energy-Water Nexus, John R. Gasper Jul 2006

Innovations For Thermoelectric Cooling Technologies: Potential Benefits To The Energy-Water Nexus, John R. Gasper

2006

Thermoelectric power generation currently accounts for 40% of all fresh water withdrawals in the U.S. - the same as is withdrawn for irrigation – and for approximately the same amount of fresh water consumed as the industrial/mining sector. Future consumption may significantly increase due to regulatory-induced shifts to closed cycle cooling. Most of this water is used to manage waste heat. Water availability currently limits the siting of facilities and the generation of electricity throughout the U.S. Meanwhile, demand for electricity is projected to increase by 53 percent from 2003 to 2030. The conflicts that result at this nexus ...


Innovative Materials And Separations Science, William L. Bourcier Et Al. Jul 2006

Innovative Materials And Separations Science, William L. Bourcier Et Al.

2006

Fifty years ago, research and development funding through the U. S. Department of the Interior, Office of Saline Water was used to develop many of the water treatment technologies used today. These include reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, capacitive deionization, and some advanced thermal methods. Since that time, incremental advances to these methods have been made – for example, reverse osmosis is now significantly more energy efficient than it was decades ago; electrodialysis membranes are available that are monovalent ion selective; and multiple effect distillation can now be carried out without the severe corrosion and scaling problems that hindered the metals first used ...


Defining Research And Development Needs At The Energy-Water Nexus, Mike Hightower Et Al. Jul 2006

Defining Research And Development Needs At The Energy-Water Nexus, Mike Hightower Et Al.

2006

Currently, electric power generation is one of largest water withdrawal and use sectors in the U.S. On the other hand, water distribution, treatment, and transmission is one of the largest energy use sectors. As future demands for energy and water continue to increase, competition for water between the energy, domestic, agricultural, and industrial sectors, could significantly impact the reliability and security of future energy production and electric power generation. To address these growing concerns, Congress directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess current and emerging national issues associated with the interdependencies between energy and water. As part of ...


Water Reuse: Creating New Sources Of Water Supply, Jeffrey J. Mosher Jul 2006

Water Reuse: Creating New Sources Of Water Supply, Jeffrey J. Mosher

2006

Communities in the United States and across the world face water supply challenges due to increasing demand, drought, depletion and contamination of groundwater, and dependence on single sources of supply. These communities are increasingly turning to water reuse as a solution to water scarcity by providing new sources of high quality water supplies. Although water reuse is practiced in the United States and many countries around the world, the growth potential for reclaiming treated wastewater effluent for beneficial use is considerable. In addition, communities are considering other nontraditional sources of water for reuse such as concentrate, brackish groundwater, and storm ...


Sustainable Agricultural Water Conservation Research Program Trans-Boundary Diagnostic Outline, Kevin Urbanczyk Et Al. Jul 2006

Sustainable Agricultural Water Conservation Research Program Trans-Boundary Diagnostic Outline, Kevin Urbanczyk Et Al.

2006

The USDA-Funded Sustainable Agricultural Water Conservation research program is a joint Texas State University System (TSUS) project. A Transboundary Diagnostic Analysis (TDA) outline has been developed for the purpose of guiding the research projects, while allowing for the functional merging of the diverse research capabilities available within the TSUS system. A rating-system for the integrity of areas under study also is being created to facilitate the interpretation of study results. The objectives of the study are to assess the present environmental status of the Rio Grande and its resources relative to the entire drainage basin. The broad focal points of ...


The Water Utilities Of Ciudad Juarez (Jmas), Chihuahua, Mexico: Water Management And The Modality Of Decentralization, Jorge A. Salas Plata Mendoza Jul 2006

The Water Utilities Of Ciudad Juarez (Jmas), Chihuahua, Mexico: Water Management And The Modality Of Decentralization, Jorge A. Salas Plata Mendoza

2006

The last decades in Mexico have been marked by decentralization to the municipal level of water services. Questions arise relating to the best modality of municipal integration to the water administration systems and their services. Also questions come up involving the limitations and potential contributions of the municipal participation in the basin management. The present work has the objective to respond to these problems and to open a discussion about them. The study is based on a theoretical and empirical bibliographical revision on the participation of the local and state governments in water planning and management. The information stems from ...


Efficient Irrigation For Water Conservation In The Rio Grande Basin, B. L. Harris Et Al. Jul 2006

Efficient Irrigation For Water Conservation In The Rio Grande Basin, B. L. Harris Et Al.

2006

The Rio Grande Basin Initiative began in 2001 aimed at improving irrigation and water use efficiencies, and meeting present and future water demands throughout the Basin in Texas and New Mexico.


Observations Of Surface Water Extent For The Elephant Butte Reservoir In New Mexico, Max Bleiweis, Thomas Schmugge Jul 2006

Observations Of Surface Water Extent For The Elephant Butte Reservoir In New Mexico, Max Bleiweis, Thomas Schmugge

2006

Since the launch of NASA’s Terra satellite in December 1999 the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) radiometer has made more than two dozen of observations of the Elephant Butte Reservoir located on the Rio Grande river in central New Mexico. The first observations were in June 2000 and the most recent were in May 2005. This period includes low water levels resulting from the the recent drought conditions and the earlier full high water conditions in 2000. There was about a 25 m change in water level during this time. The area of the reservoir was estimated ...


Water Reduction Using Ww-B. Dahl Pastures To Produce Beef: Potential To Reduce Aquifer Irrigation And Sustain More Intensive Agriculture For Diverse Western Rangeland Conditions, Carlos Ortega-Ochoa Jul 2006

Water Reduction Using Ww-B. Dahl Pastures To Produce Beef: Potential To Reduce Aquifer Irrigation And Sustain More Intensive Agriculture For Diverse Western Rangeland Conditions, Carlos Ortega-Ochoa

2006

High rates of water withdrawal from the Ogallala aquifer threatens sustainability of various agricultural uses. Since rainfall patterns differ across many Western regions where beef grazing and combined beef and crop rotation practices prevail, locating grasses that meet high nutrition standards for beef while dramatically reducing water requirements (from irrigation of rainfall) under normal and drought conditions rises in importance. We present results of a two year study on 54 hectares using WW-B.Dahl [Bothriochloa bladhii (Retz) S.T. Blake] pasture. For two consecutive summers, we evaluated forage standing crops and the quality of WW-B.Dahl grass under summer grazing ...


Groundwater Irrigation Management Under Variable Risk Preferences, Jeffrey M. Peterson Jul 2006

Groundwater Irrigation Management Under Variable Risk Preferences, Jeffrey M. Peterson

2006

Groundwater is a scarce resource with competing demands – drinking, irrigation, industrial and recreational uses. Irrigation is by far the largest demands of groundwater among the competing uses. The groundwater supplies are declining at an alarming rate in Western Kansas because more water is pumped out than the water recharge rate. Crops undergo water-stress due to water deficiency which might affect yields. Optimal irrigation scheduling is a viable solution to maintain soil moisture level above permanent wilting point, avoid unnecessary irrigation events and conserve water for alternative uses. This paper is aimed at evaluating the downside risk of crop returns using ...


Comparison Of Groundwater Rights In The United States: Lessons For Texas, Ken Rainwater Et Al. Jul 2006

Comparison Of Groundwater Rights In The United States: Lessons For Texas, Ken Rainwater Et Al.

2006

The history of water rights in the United States is rich with conflicts over critical water sources. Surface water and groundwater rights are seen as primarily State responsibilities, except for federal lands and selected interstate and international waters. Establishment of a single set of legal rules and regulations for groundwater is a great challenge because of site-specific conditions. Different rules and regulations based on different doctrines may be adopted by any State. The degree of attention given to the particular groundwater resource depends upon its availability and value in various economic applications. In Texas, management of groundwater resources is a ...


Water Management Strategies To Preserve Groundwater In Texas' Region A, Thomas Marek Et Al. Jul 2006

Water Management Strategies To Preserve Groundwater In Texas' Region A, Thomas Marek Et Al.

2006

The Ogallala aquifer in the heavily irrigated, northern region of Texas continues to decline and has no appreciable rate of recharge. Under the water planning efforts in Texas, the regional water planning group identified a goal of limiting water use to an annual average of 1.25% of saturated thickness to preserve water availability for future generations. As a part of that effort, water management strategies that could be potentially implemented to reduce the rate of irrigation water use were identified and evaluated. The assessment of conservation strategies included the use of the ET network for irrigation scheduling, changes in ...


Short-Term Water Consumption Patterns In Ciudad Juarez, Tom Fullerton Et Al. Jul 2006

Short-Term Water Consumption Patterns In Ciudad Juarez, Tom Fullerton Et Al.

2006

Water utility planning efforts are becoming increasingly difficult throughout the world. Located in a semi-arid region, Ciudad Juárez, Mexico is a fast growing municipality that faces both physical infrastructure and water supply constraints. This paper examines monthly water consumption in Ciudad Juárez utilizing a linear transfer function procedure (LTF). Analysis is carried out for per customer usage and for the total number of municipal water system accounts. Models estimated for both series are subjected to a series of simulation benchmark tests. Findings suggest that water consumption in Ciudad Juárez reacts quickly to changes in economic and weather conditions. Out-of-sample simulation ...


An Economic-Engineering Optimization For The Binational Mexico-U.S. Lower Colorado River Delta: The Mexicali Valley Case Study, Josue Medellin-Azuara, Jay R. Lund Jul 2006

An Economic-Engineering Optimization For The Binational Mexico-U.S. Lower Colorado River Delta: The Mexicali Valley Case Study, Josue Medellin-Azuara, Jay R. Lund

2006

Agricultural water use in the binational Lower Colorado River Basin is about ninety percent of all the beneficial use. Fast growing border cities of Baja California and conservation uses will increase their water allocations in the near future. The CALVIN economic-engineering model was used to evaluate the benefits and costs of a variety of water management strategies in the Lower Colorado River Delta in Mexico. Results show that at 2025 water demand conditions, agriculture seems to be the most suitable donor of water to other sectors. Wastewater reuse for irrigation and/or conservation purposes may reduce dependence on agricultural water ...


Water Options In California: Effective Management Of Supply-Side Risk, Richard Howitt, Jeffrey Williams Jul 2006

Water Options In California: Effective Management Of Supply-Side Risk, Richard Howitt, Jeffrey Williams

2006

In California, the tremendous spatial and temporal variation in precipitation suggests that flexible contractual arrangements, such as option contracts, would increase allocative efficiency of water over time and space. Under such arrangements, a water agency pays an option premium for the right to purchase water at some point in the future, if water conditions turn out to be dry. The premium represents the value of the flexibility gained by the buyer from postponing its decision whether to purchase water. In California, the seller of existing option arrangements is often an agricultural producer who can fallow land, in the event that ...


Water Conservation And Drought Management In Arid Lands: An Open Systems Theory-Based Model For Sustainable Strategic Plan Development, Rossana Alvarez-Diemer Et Al. Jul 2006

Water Conservation And Drought Management In Arid Lands: An Open Systems Theory-Based Model For Sustainable Strategic Plan Development, Rossana Alvarez-Diemer Et Al.

2006

The predominant policy framework of water conservation and drought management is regulatory, with a command-and-control structure, in which regulatory agencies set the standards water suppliers and users must adhere to under threat of penalty. Within this framework, rational solutions and technologies are often proposed as a form of intervention to encourage water suppliers and users to change their practices. This framework is becoming the greatest obstacle to the improvement of water conservation and drought management practices in the Western states. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an open systems theory-based model of strategic planning to obtain knowledge regarding ...


A New Approach To Riparian Area Education In Arizona, George Zaimes Et Al. Jul 2006

A New Approach To Riparian Area Education In Arizona, George Zaimes Et Al.

2006

Riparian areas are called “ribbons of life” since they are considered the most productive habitats in North America (Johnson et al. 1977; Chaney et al. 1990). In the arid western United States, riparian areas comprise less than 2% of the total land (Ffolliott et al. 2004). Despite their small area, Patten (1998) says that the role of riparian areas is disproportionate to their size, particularly in the semi-arid regions of North America. This is mainly due to the many functions and values of riparian areas. These functions and values are due to greater water availability relative to the adjacent terrestrial ...


Involving Citizens In Watershed Management: The Arizona Master Steward Watershed Program, Robert M. Emanuel, George Zaimes Jul 2006

Involving Citizens In Watershed Management: The Arizona Master Steward Watershed Program, Robert M. Emanuel, George Zaimes

2006

Arizona faces many complicated water resource issues including: groundwater overdraft; nonpoint source pollution; population growth; and water use conflicts. The Arizona Master Watershed Steward (MWS) Program is designed to prepare, educate and train volunteers who can provide knowledge, leadership, and service in the protection and monitoring of local watersheds. The first MWS training course was presented in Prescott, Arizona in fall of 2001, and expanded in 2002 and 2003. The training course has 10 four-hour sessions and two daylong field trips. Topics covered are: hydrology; climate; geologic processes; ecology; human impacts; water quality; land uses; geospatial tools; water law, and ...


Economic And Hydrologic Implications Of Selected Water Policy Alternatives For The Southern Ogallala Aquifer, Erin Wheeler Et Al. Jul 2006

Economic And Hydrologic Implications Of Selected Water Policy Alternatives For The Southern Ogallala Aquifer, Erin Wheeler Et Al.

2006

The primary objective of this study was to analyze and evaluate the impacts of selected water conservation policy alternatives on the Ogallala Aquifer underlying the Southern High Plains of Texas and Eastern New Mexico for the purposes of identifying which alternative or alternatives most effectively achieve conservation of the aquifer and keep the heavily agriculturally dependent economy viable. The specific objectives were to: 1. Determine the characteristics of water conservation policy alternatives which could extend the economic life of the aquifer, and 2. Evaluate the economic life of the aquifer across the region under different water conservation alternatives for a ...


Underground Storage Of Recoverable Water Systems: A Management Tool For Conjunctive Uses Of Surface Water And Groundwater In An Arid Region, Zhuping Sheng, Joshua Villalobos Jul 2006

Underground Storage Of Recoverable Water Systems: A Management Tool For Conjunctive Uses Of Surface Water And Groundwater In An Arid Region, Zhuping Sheng, Joshua Villalobos

2006

Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater becomes one of important strategies of water supply management that should be considered to optimize the water resources development, management and conservation within a basin, especially in arid regions such as the southwestern United States. An underground storage of recoverable water system is certainly one of the tools to be used for that purpose. Several hydrologic aspects need to be carefully studied before implementing a program of conjunctive use of surface and groundwater: underground storage availability; production capacity of the aquifer in term of potential discharge; natural recharge of the aquifer; induced natural recharge ...


Hydrological Analysis Of Conjunctive Management Approaches To Increase Freshwater Supplies On The Lower South Platte River, Colorado, James T. Mccord Et Al. Jul 2006

Hydrological Analysis Of Conjunctive Management Approaches To Increase Freshwater Supplies On The Lower South Platte River, Colorado, James T. Mccord Et Al.

2006

This paper describes conjunctive surface water – groundwater management approaches to water allocation and administration on the South Platte in Colorado, focusing in particular on the hydrologic evaluation of the efficacy of the various conjunctive operations proposed to increase supplies.


Estimating Aquifer Recharge Through Playas Of The Great Plains Using Temperature Probes, Ken Rainwater Et Al. Jul 2006

Estimating Aquifer Recharge Through Playas Of The Great Plains Using Temperature Probes, Ken Rainwater Et Al.

2006

The magnitude of recharge through playa wetlands in the High Plains has often been debated, but rarely been quantified. The ephemeral nature of water in playas makes it difficult and expensive to observe filling and drying/draining cycles. Rugged, inexpensive tools are needed to demonstrate the movement of water below the root zone to observe the recharge process. We performed proof of concept studies to evaluate temperature as an indicator of infiltration/recharge in playa wetlands. Single-ringed infiltrometers with embedded Cu-constantan thermocouples and Hobo probes at 50, 100, 150 and 200 cm soil depths were used to quantify infiltration and ...