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Development Of A Karst Tourism Management Index To Assess Tourism-Driven Degradation Of Protected Karst Sites, Keith R. Semler Jul 2019

Development Of A Karst Tourism Management Index To Assess Tourism-Driven Degradation Of Protected Karst Sites, Keith R. Semler

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The intent of this research was to create and evaluate a karst tourism management index (KTMI). This index is intended to be a new management tool designed to quantify environmental disturbances caused specifically by tourism activities in karst regions, particularly show caves and springs. In an effort to assess the effectiveness of the index as a management tool in karst terrains, after development, the index was applied to six case study sites. A review of the management policies at each study site was conducted with the use of standard policy critique methods and semistructured interviews with managers at the study ...


Effect Of Sleep Loss On Executive Function And Baseline Corticosterone Levels In An Arctic-Breeding Songbird, The Lapland Longspur (Calcarius Lapponicus), Brett Hodinka Jul 2019

Effect Of Sleep Loss On Executive Function And Baseline Corticosterone Levels In An Arctic-Breeding Songbird, The Lapland Longspur (Calcarius Lapponicus), Brett Hodinka

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Sleep is a fundamental and essential component of vertebrate life, although its exact function remains unknown. Animals that are deprived of sleep typically show reduced neurobiological performance, health, and in some cases, survival. However, a number of animals exhibit adaptations that permit them to carry out normal activities even when sleep is restricted or deprived. Lapland longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus), arctic-breeding passerine birds, exhibit around-the-clock activity during their short breeding season, with an inactive period of only 3–4 h/day (71°N). Whether these birds suffer behavioral and physiological costs associated with acute sleep loss (SL) is unknown. To assess ...


Things Cis People Say: Mechanisms Of Moral Disengagement In The Justification Of Anti-Queer Communication, Jonathan M. Sahlman Jul 2019

Things Cis People Say: Mechanisms Of Moral Disengagement In The Justification Of Anti-Queer Communication, Jonathan M. Sahlman

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Despite advances gained by LGBTQIA+ people the issue of discrimination against the queer population continues. Recent events surrounding comments made by alt-right leaders have continued the conversation regarding homophobia and transphobia. The followed study built on previous understandings of moral disengagement theory and communication. 15 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with queer students were conducted in order to explore the role of self-cognitive mechanisms and their potential justifications for anti-queer communication. Findings suggested that not only were mechanisms of moral disengagement present in incidents surrounding anti-queer communication, but the carried with them a range of personal and societal implications. This study offered ...


Tourism And African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Behavior In Zambezi National Park, Zimbabwe, Brigit Rooney Jul 2019

Tourism And African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Behavior In Zambezi National Park, Zimbabwe, Brigit Rooney

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

As charismatic megafauna and a flagship species, African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are vital to the African tourist economy. Conversely, high levels of wildlife tourism can induce behavioral shifts that push desired animals into less frequented areas and disrupt natural behaviors. In order to examine this trade-off, tourism levels and African elephant behaviors were studied in Zambezi National Park (ZNP) near Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe. Over the course of 14 weeks, in-person observations and camera traps in ZNP were used to collect geographic, demographic, and behavioral data from elephant sightings. As a proxy for human presence, geo-locational data were collected for each ...


The Law Of Crime Concentration In Midsized Cities: A Spatial Analysis, Hannah Ridner Jul 2019

The Law Of Crime Concentration In Midsized Cities: A Spatial Analysis, Hannah Ridner

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The geographic concentration of crime led to the proposal of the law of crime concentration in 2015 by David Weisburd. This contribution to crime and place literature needs further research to properly define, measure, and confirm this law. This study builds upon measurement techniques used in previous studies to measure crime concentration across a random sample of mid-sized cities, estimate the expected Gini coefficient in mid-sized cities, and analyze the variation in crime concentration across mid-sized cities. Determining the expected level of crime concentration and whether it varies across cities will advance the literature by providing both a benchmark for ...


Documenting Marine Mammal Behavior And Evaluating The Benefits And Consequences Of Viewing Marine Mammals In Southcentral Alaska, Lauren E. Mccaslin Jul 2019

Documenting Marine Mammal Behavior And Evaluating The Benefits And Consequences Of Viewing Marine Mammals In Southcentral Alaska, Lauren E. Mccaslin

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Marine mammals are in a precarious conservation position because of anthropogenic impacts and historic perceptions that they are a consumable commodity. In light of changing abiotic conditions, further evaluation is needed on the habitat use, behavior, and interactions among marine mammals. Conservation legislation has helped protect species, but the greatest ground swelling may be the advent of the commercial whale watching industry. The feeding grounds in Alaskan waters have made this area a prime tourism location, and these nutrient-rich waters have resulted in a confluence of marine mammal species, including the appealing and abundant humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) that may ...


Self-Efficacy Of School Psychologists: Developing A Scale For Working With And For Lgbtq Youth, Shelby Monahan Jul 2019

Self-Efficacy Of School Psychologists: Developing A Scale For Working With And For Lgbtq Youth, Shelby Monahan

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning (LGBTQ) students report higher levels of harassment and assault, exposure to prejudiced language, and diminished feelings of safety at school compared to their non-LGBTQ counterparts. Due to the difficulties these young people experience at school as well as their increased risk for psychological distress and suicidality, these students may need additional support to be successful. Although professional organizations support school psychologists acting as advocates to support LGBTQ students, research suggests that practitioners’ knowledge about issues faced by LGBTQ students as well as training related to their needs may lag behind this appeal for ...


Equal Play, Equal Pay: Title Ix Effects On Salary Gap At Division I Football Bowl Series And Football Championship Series Universities, Kara Hodges Jul 2019

Equal Play, Equal Pay: Title Ix Effects On Salary Gap At Division I Football Bowl Series And Football Championship Series Universities, Kara Hodges

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This thesis examines the impacts of Title IX compliance on salary gap of Division I Football Bowl Series and Football Championship Series universities male and female associate professors. Title IX athletic proportionality requirements have been established since the 1980’s and require that each university have an equal percentage of female student athletes as they do female undergraduates. This study uses the National Center for Education Statistics database, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System to calculate salary gap between male and female associate professors and uses the Office of Civil Rights Equity in Athletics Database to calculate Title IX compliance. In ...


Preschool Self-Regulation: A Predictor Of School Readiness, Romin Emmanuel Geiger Jul 2019

Preschool Self-Regulation: A Predictor Of School Readiness, Romin Emmanuel Geiger

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Substantial evidence from previous research has supported the idea that greater self-regulation in the form of “cool” self-regulation or executive functioning and “hot” self-regulation or effortful control is associated with higher academic achievement within the preschool years and school readiness in the kindergarten years (Anaya, 2016; Carlson, 2005). However, there are only a few studies that assess the prediction of school readiness through validated cool and hot self-regulation tasks (Carlson, 2005; Krain, Wilson, Arbuckle, Kastellanos, & Wilham, 2006; Rothbart, Ellis, Rueda, & Posner, 2003; Thompson & Giedd, 2000). There also few studies examining to what extent cool and hot-self-regulation tasks predict socio-emotional (Blair, 2002) and academic achievement ...


How Are Professors Preparing School Psychology Students To Evaluate Research?, Tyler Bryant Burton Jul 2019

How Are Professors Preparing School Psychology Students To Evaluate Research?, Tyler Bryant Burton

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study examines how school psychology professors are preparing graduate students to evaluate research and seeks their views on problematic assessment and intervention practices. School psychology faculty members’ e-mails were identified based on the National Association of School Psychologists’ (NASP) list of Approved Programs (NASP, 2017) and a total of 127 professors responded. Each participant completed a survey that included 22 Likert scale items and three free listing items. Three research questions were proposed: What percentage of school psychology faculty members are using each of the strategies recommended by Lilienfeld et al. (2012)? What school-based assessment practices do school psychology ...


The Effectiveness Of Mobile Eye-Tracking To Enhance Guided Show Cave Experiences, Jenna Michele Hammond Jul 2019

The Effectiveness Of Mobile Eye-Tracking To Enhance Guided Show Cave Experiences, Jenna Michele Hammond

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Karst terrains are landscapes with a distinctive hydrology and set of landforms that arise from a combination of high bedrock solubility and well-developed secondary (fracture) porosity. Karst areas are easily polluted due to the rapid transport of unfiltered percolating water through the systems. While many individuals are able to identify karst landforms such as sinkholes and caves, an understanding of the interconnectedness of the surface and subsurface in karst landscapes, as well as the vulnerability of karst areas to degradation, is often limited. Show caves, which are caves made accessible to visitation by humans through built infrastructure, can serve as ...


An Experimental Study On The Effects Of Pro-Anorexia Content On Eating Disorder Development, Skyler Green Jul 2019

An Experimental Study On The Effects Of Pro-Anorexia Content On Eating Disorder Development, Skyler Green

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Pro-anorexia content, or content that promotes the development and sustainment of eating disorders, is an important topic that has been understudied in the literature. Previous research has primary examined the content featured on pro-anorexia websites, but few researchers have conducted experimental studies examining the direct impact viewing pro-anorexia content has on individuals struggling with an eating disorder. The current study was an experimental study that exposed participants to three conditions: proanorexia content, pro-recovery content, and a control group. The researcher examined the impact that viewing the three levels of content for 10 minutes had on individuals who met criteria and ...


An Urban Karst Aquifer Resource Evaluation And Monitoring Toolbox, Rachel Anne Kaiser Jul 2019

An Urban Karst Aquifer Resource Evaluation And Monitoring Toolbox, Rachel Anne Kaiser

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In urban karst areas, such as the City of Bowling Green, Kentucky and the Tampa Bay Metropolitan Area, groundwater quality faces a variety of threats. The development of residential, commercial, and industrial landuse types allows for a wide variety of groundwater pollutants to enter the karst groundwater systems. Various different models and indices have attempted evaluative approaches to identify issues in urban karst areas, but the methods vary by location and lack a focus on urban karst groundwater quality. There also exists a lack of a data-driven approach that is able to capture short- and long-term changes in threats to ...


A Review Of Written Expression Curriculum-Based Measurement With A Focus On English Language Learners, Shelby Montgomery Jul 2019

A Review Of Written Expression Curriculum-Based Measurement With A Focus On English Language Learners, Shelby Montgomery

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to review the literature on English Language Learners and written expression curriculum-based measurement. In recent years, there has been little research completed in the area of curriculum based measurement for writing for English Language Learners. A systematic review of the literature was conducted and all available literature on the use of written expression curriculum-based measurement since 2006 was identified and reviewed. Given the increasing diversity in our schools, particularly non-native English speakers, this review focused on studies including this group. There were differences in some of the technical features such as sample durations, writing ...


Examining Collegiate Students’ Perceptions Of Date Rape And Sexual Assault, Jalen Rhodes Jul 2019

Examining Collegiate Students’ Perceptions Of Date Rape And Sexual Assault, Jalen Rhodes

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to examine how collegiate males and females perceived date rape and sexual assault by looking into their views on sexual scripts, consent, and alcohol in dating situations. Participants consisted of 323 male and female undergraduate students enrolled in psychology classes at a mid-south university. All participants were directed to an online questionnaire and were randomly assigned to one of four versions of a vignette where a man and a woman are at a party together. After reading their vignette, all participants answered researcher-created questions pertaining to the behavior of the people in the vignette ...


Maquiladoras In Central America: An Analysis Of Workforce Schedule, Productivity And Fatigue., Jose L. Barahona Jul 2019

Maquiladoras In Central America: An Analysis Of Workforce Schedule, Productivity And Fatigue., Jose L. Barahona

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Textile factories or Maquiladoras are very abundant and predominant in Central American economies. However, they all do not have the same standardized work schedule or routines. Most of the Maquiladoras only follow schedules and regulations established by the current labor laws without taking into consideration many variables within their organization that could affect their overall performance. As a result, the purpose of the study is to analyze the current working structure of a textile Maquiladora and determine the most suitable schedule that will abide with the current working structure but also increase production levels, employee morale and decrease employee fatigue ...


Properties Of Functionally Alexandroff Topologies And Their Lattice, Jacob Scott Menix Jul 2019

Properties Of Functionally Alexandroff Topologies And Their Lattice, Jacob Scott Menix

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This thesis explores functionally Alexandroff topologies and the order theory asso- ciated when considering the collection of such topologies on some set X. We present several theorems about the properties of these topologies as well as their partially ordered set.

The first chapter introduces functionally Alexandroff topologies and motivates why this work is of interest to topologists. This chapter explains the historical context of this relatively new type of topology and how this work relates to previous work in topology. Chapter 2 presents several theorems describing properties of functionally Alexandroff topologies ad presents a characterization for the functionally Alexandroff topologies ...


Design And Implementation Of Sql Online Practice Platform, Wenhui Zhang Apr 2019

Design And Implementation Of Sql Online Practice Platform, Wenhui Zhang

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Database management is a very important subject in computer science education. The study of SQL syntax is the most important part of this course. The traditional teaching method only lets the students practice SQL syntax through the textbook exercise. Students cannot get the query result directly. Moreover, students do not know intuitively what is wrong with the query sentence. In this study, we want to find a better way for the teachers and the students to learn this part of database management. Teacher uploads a SQL file through a web page, it will create a database with several tables and ...


Where Did They Go? Analysis Of Out-Migration From Mammoth Cave National Park, 1920-1940, Collins U. Eke Apr 2019

Where Did They Go? Analysis Of Out-Migration From Mammoth Cave National Park, 1920-1940, Collins U. Eke

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The 52,830-acre Mammoth Cave National Park, located in the karst region of south-central Kentucky, was formally established in July of 1941, culminating nearly three decades of park creation that displaced several thousand residents of the region. This thesis sampled residents using the 1920 manuscript census for the United States Census of Population and Housing and tracked their migration destinations using the 1930 and 1940 manuscript censuses. Migration patterns for the entire sample, as well as by race and homeownership status, were identified through mapping. Out-migrants generally chose locations north, west, and east of the proposed park area, noticeably neglecting ...


Participation In Extracurricular Activities And Academic Achievement: A Comprehensive Review, Erin Morris, Apr 2019

Participation In Extracurricular Activities And Academic Achievement: A Comprehensive Review, Erin Morris,

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

At school, students are provided numerous opportunities to use their skills and abilities to complete tasks or solve problems. Students are considered to have academic success when they meet specific criteria on outcomes such as grade point averages (GPA), scores on standardized tests, and skill acquisition across areas like reading and math. Given the importance of academic achievement (AA) as an outcome measure, researchers have attempted to study certain variables that may relate to or predict AA. Extracurricular activities (EAs) are defined as school-sanctioned activities that students can participate in outside of the traditional school day. Participation in EAs has ...


Yugoslav Revolutionary Legacy: Female Soldiers And Activists In Nation-Building And Cultural Memory, 1941-1989, Maja Antonić Apr 2019

Yugoslav Revolutionary Legacy: Female Soldiers And Activists In Nation-Building And Cultural Memory, 1941-1989, Maja Antonić

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

While women are often excluded and/or portrayed as victims in the historical scholarship on war, this research builds on recent scholarship that shows women as active agents in warfare. I focus on Yugoslavia’s WWII Partizankas, female soldiers and activists, who held visible positions in the war effort, public consciousness and, later memory. Using gender as a category of analysis, my thesis explores Partizankas’ legacy and their contributions in the National Liberation Movement (NLM) in WWII (1941- 1945) and post-war nation building. I argue that the organizational framework of the Anti-Fascist Women’s Front (AWF) under the guidance of ...


Analysis Of 2017 Multi-Agency Field Campaign Data For Wintertime Surface Pollution In The Cache Valley Of Utah, Gerardo Diaz Jr. Apr 2019

Analysis Of 2017 Multi-Agency Field Campaign Data For Wintertime Surface Pollution In The Cache Valley Of Utah, Gerardo Diaz Jr.

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Atmospheric motions resulting from rising airborne parcels help to scatter emissions, including PM, away from their sources, decreasing local pollution levels. However this pattern shifts during the wintertime, as cold air damming and inversion layers create stable conditions that limit the vertical transport of air masses. Both point and area sources of emissions currently dot the western United States and are responsible for the production of the vast majority of agricultural pollution in the region. At the same time, population-growth has resulted in an ever-increasing amount of urbansource emissions. The entrapment of PM, which are produced when a wide array ...


Assessment Of Academic Vocabulary In Early Adolescents Using A Novel Sampling Method, Amber Cline Apr 2019

Assessment Of Academic Vocabulary In Early Adolescents Using A Novel Sampling Method, Amber Cline

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The current study examined a method of language sampling (the Dixit Method- Science, Math, Engineering, Arts, and Math) in early adolescents with typically developing language. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the DM-STEAM in eliciting lexically sophisticated spoken language samples in the early adolescent population. To examine lexical sophistication, traditional measures of analysis such as mean length of utterance (MLU) and average type token ratio (AVG TTR) were applied along with a measure of low frequency vocabulary. To compare performance on the DM-STEAM, school standardized assessments were obtained to measure student skill in academic content ...


A Phylogenetic Analysis Of Bostrichoidea (Coleoptera) And Revisions Of The Southern African Spider Beetle Genera Meziomorphum And Eutaphroptinus (Ptinidae: Coleoptera), Olivia M. Gearner Apr 2019

A Phylogenetic Analysis Of Bostrichoidea (Coleoptera) And Revisions Of The Southern African Spider Beetle Genera Meziomorphum And Eutaphroptinus (Ptinidae: Coleoptera), Olivia M. Gearner

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Proposals for the internal relationships and classification of the bostrichoids are currently poorly supported, and almost all are based on morphology alone. This study improves upon on previous phylogenetic analyses of the group by including more taxa using the standard genes for many phylogenetic analyses. Cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), 28S small subunit rRNA, and 16S small subunit rRNA mitochondrial genes were sequenced or obtained from Genbank, then analyzed using parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Topologies differed depending on genes used. A three gene tree and a two gene (28S and CO1) tree both supported relationships in which a basal ...


A Look Into The College Readiness Needs Of First Time College Students, Lindsey Coomer Cox Apr 2019

A Look Into The College Readiness Needs Of First Time College Students, Lindsey Coomer Cox

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study examines the college readiness needs of first year college students based on experiences from students and staff involved with a first year transitional initiative program at Western Kentucky University. The purpose of the study is to share students’ college readiness needs with public school systems in hopes to intervene with these needs before students arrive at college. A total of 45 participants volunteered to be in focus groups, an interview, and complete a survey. Two research questions were proposed: What college readiness needs still exist for first time college students upon entrance to a four year public university ...


Characteristics Of Behavior Rating Scales: Revisited, Ellen Cox Apr 2019

Characteristics Of Behavior Rating Scales: Revisited, Ellen Cox

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study was a replication of a study by Hosp et al. (2003), which looked at items on behavior rating scales to determine if they can be used to plan and monitor positive behavior interventions. For this study, ten forms of commonly used behavior rating scales were selected, and the so what and dead man tests were applied on each scale. Each item on the scale was placed into one of four categories: positive action, negative action, lack of positive action, and lack of negative action. Then, these categories were used to rate each scale to determine which subscales survived ...


Nidoto Nai Yoni "Let It Not Happen Again": The Effect Of World War Ii And Mass Incarceration On Japanese American Women's Gender Roles, Laura Bohuski Apr 2019

Nidoto Nai Yoni "Let It Not Happen Again": The Effect Of World War Ii And Mass Incarceration On Japanese American Women's Gender Roles, Laura Bohuski

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This thesis analyses the experiences, memories, and events of the World War II mass incarceration of Japanese Americans to determine what changes this traumatic event engendered in the gender roles of Issei and Nisei women. The events of incarceration separated families and broke down traditional societal norms leaving a deeply emotional and psychological scar upon the Japanese American community. Ironically, new opportunities arose for Issei and Nisei women as both a result of the effects of the mass incarceration upon the Japanese American community and because of governmental pressures such as labor shortages and the cost of housing over one ...


Immigration And Underbanking: An Analysis Of The Financial Integration Of Immigrant Populations, James Baugh Apr 2019

Immigration And Underbanking: An Analysis Of The Financial Integration Of Immigrant Populations, James Baugh

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Underbanking, or use of alternative financial services such as payday lenders rather than traditional banks, is a practice that has substantial financial and social harm. Given that literature and prior research shows that immigrants face unique cultural barriers to financial assimilation, the current study examines how immigrant status influences one’s odds of being underbanked. Using the June 2015 Underbanking Supplement to the Current Population Survey, immigrants are delineated by first- and second-generation status, as well by the development status of their country of origin, and their relationship to underbanking is examined through a series of logistic regression analyses. Results ...


From Education To Incarceration: A Study Of School Process Affecting Disproportionate Minority Contact Within Hardin County’S Juvenile Justice System, Krystal Carver-Dickens Apr 2019

From Education To Incarceration: A Study Of School Process Affecting Disproportionate Minority Contact Within Hardin County’S Juvenile Justice System, Krystal Carver-Dickens

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study seeks to understand how school processes affect disproportionate minority contact within the Hardin County Juvenile Justice System. A study completed by Lovell and Drummond (2016) in conjunction with the Hardin County BRIDGES Council, is used as the foundation for the current research. The original research, along with several others, examined disproportionate minority contact (DMC) after the student had been referred from their respective schools to the juvenile court system. The current study investigates 858 juvenile court records, with permission of the Hardin County Juvenile Judges, and examines school information included in the court records related to the student ...


Evaluating The Success Of Female Selected Sex-Sorted Semen At Western Kentucky University's Dairy Farm, Briley Loggan Apr 2019

Evaluating The Success Of Female Selected Sex-Sorted Semen At Western Kentucky University's Dairy Farm, Briley Loggan

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of female selected sex-sorted semen and to determine the association of variables on the success of Western Kentucky University’s Dairy Farm. Official breeding and calving records (n=144) were used to determine the relation of lactation number, breeding season, breeding number, breeding year and semen type on pregnancy results, sex of offspring, and the mortality of the offspring. Previous research has shown pregnancy results can be influenced by lactation number, breeding season, number of breedings and semen type. Results from this study show that pregnancy results were not associated ...