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Beware! Nitrate Potential In Drought-Stricken Corn Crop, Daryl R. Strohbehn, Byron Leu Aug 2005

Beware! Nitrate Potential In Drought-Stricken Corn Crop, Daryl R. Strohbehn, Byron Leu

Integrated Crop Management News

During drought years the potential exists for the corn plant to have high levels of nitrates. This is largely due to high soil nitrogen levels that are readily available, but the plant is unable to utilize it because of moisture shortages. As a result the nitrates accumulate in the plant and can occur at toxic levels. Excessive levels in corn when harvested as green chop or made into corn silage and then fed can causehigh blood levels of methemoglobin to occur.


Genetic Markers For Screening Animals For Improved Disease Resistance (Nramp), Christopher K. Tuggle, Lena Marklund, Thomas J. Stabel, Martha A. Mellencamp, Amber Stumbaugh Jan 2005

Genetic Markers For Screening Animals For Improved Disease Resistance (Nramp), Christopher K. Tuggle, Lena Marklund, Thomas J. Stabel, Martha A. Mellencamp, Amber Stumbaugh

Iowa State University Patents

A method for determining improved innate immunity, disease resistance or performance in animals is disclosed. The method involves assays for a genetic differences in the NRAMP1 gene of the animal which is associated with superior disease resistance. Novel NRAMP1 sequence, assays, and compositions for identifying the presence of absence of these alleles are provided.


Practices To Reduce Dust And Particulates From Livestock Operations Flowchart, Wendy J. Powers Jan 2005

Practices To Reduce Dust And Particulates From Livestock Operations Flowchart, Wendy J. Powers

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Practices to control dust and particulate emissions associated with livestock can be applied to animal housing and manure storage areas. This fact sheet is designed to provide producers with information on relative costs and effectiveness of dust and particulate control practices. This fact sheet accompanies, Practices to Reduce Dust and Particulates from Livestock Operations , (PM 1973a).


The Effects Of Swine Stocking Density In Hoop Structures On Growth, Carcass Composition, And Pork Quality, B. S. Patton, Steven M. Lonergan, Mark S. Honeyman Jan 2005

The Effects Of Swine Stocking Density In Hoop Structures On Growth, Carcass Composition, And Pork Quality, B. S. Patton, Steven M. Lonergan, Mark S. Honeyman

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

Six hundred crossbred gilts and barrows were finished in hoop structures with a stocking density of either 7.5 ft2 per pig or 12.0 ft2 per pig. Performance and growth data including ADG, feed conversion (feed:gain), slaughter weight, shrink percentage during transport and lairage, dressing percentage, loin eye area, 10th rib backfat thickness, last rib fat depth, and fat free lean percentage were analyzed to determine effects of stocking density on growth and carcass traits. Increasing the stocking density from 12 to 7.5 ft2 /pig in hoop structures did not affect growth performance, carcass ...


Efficacy Of Pantothenic Acid As A Modifier Of Body Composition In A Porcine Model Of Obesity Development, C. A. Baldwin, Tim S. Stahly Jan 2005

Efficacy Of Pantothenic Acid As A Modifier Of Body Composition In A Porcine Model Of Obesity Development, C. A. Baldwin, Tim S. Stahly

Animal Industry Report

Our group’s previous research has shown that pantothenic acid (PA) fed in amounts above that needed to maximize body growth effectively reduce fat tissue accretion in pigs. In the current study, the efficacy of PA to minimize fatty tissue accretion in a porcine model of obesity development was determined. Heavy weight pigs (156 kg) were allotted to one of four dietary regimens consisting of a basal diet (8 ppm PA) supplemented with 0, 80, 800, 8000 ppm added PA. The basal diet contained a dietary nutrient mix representative of the American diet (34 % of calories from fat) at daily ...


Triticale-Based Diets For Market Pigs In Deep-Bedded Hoop Barns: A Progress Report, Zabblin M. Sullivan, Mark S. Honeyman, Wayne B. Roush Jan 2005

Triticale-Based Diets For Market Pigs In Deep-Bedded Hoop Barns: A Progress Report, Zabblin M. Sullivan, Mark S. Honeyman, Wayne B. Roush

Animal Industry Report

Triticale-based diets were fed to pigs in deep-bedded hoop barns for a swine feeding study. Finishing pigs (240 head) were used to evaluate the dietary effects of triticalebased diets. The experiment was a randomized complete block design. There were four blocks (two summer, two winter); each block had three dietary treatments, with two replications per treatment. Each replication consisted of a pen of ten pigs (five barrows and five gilts).

Addition of triticale up to 80% of the diets for finishing pigs greater than 160 pounds to market weight in deepbedded hoop barns, compared with a corn-soybean meal diet, resulted ...


Temperature Abuse Affects The Quality Of Irradiated Pork Loins, M. J. Zhu, Aubrey F. Mendonca, Dong U. Ahn Jan 2005

Temperature Abuse Affects The Quality Of Irradiated Pork Loins, M. J. Zhu, Aubrey F. Mendonca, Dong U. Ahn

Animal Industry Report

Temperature abuse had no significant effect on color, oxidation, and volatiles of irradiated pork loins. However, temperature abuse improved water holding capacity of meat, which could be caused by the accelerated hydrolysis of muscle proteins at higher temperature. Irradiation increased redness, sulfur contents in volatiles and off-odor of pork loin. Off-odor and redness induced by irradiation sustained during storage. Among sulfur compounds, the content of dimethyl disulfide decreased gradually while the level of thiourea remained relatively constant. Irradiation also increased water loss, which might be related to the structural damage in membrane during irradiation. This study shows that temperature abuse ...


Effect Of A Non-Antibiotic Feed Additive (Royal Nutrazyme™) On Nursery Pig Performance, David R. Stender, Jerry Weiss, Dennis Dewitt, Colin D. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Marv Carlson Jan 2005

Effect Of A Non-Antibiotic Feed Additive (Royal Nutrazyme™) On Nursery Pig Performance, David R. Stender, Jerry Weiss, Dennis Dewitt, Colin D. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Marv Carlson

Animal Industry Report

Profitable pork production revolves around increasing average daily gain and feed efficiency and decreasing mortalities. Many health products exist to aid the pork producer in achieving a high health status herd. Antimicrobial products such as Mecadox® are traditionally utilized in the nursery phase. New non-antimicrobial derived products such as oregano oil are also entering the market. To determine the efficacy of these two products a trial was carried out at Iowa Lakes Community College. Four groups of pigs were monitored for growth rate, feed consumption and morbidity. Through the nursery phase, both products improved growth rate over a non-medicated control ...


Automated Dynamic Headspace/Gc-Ms Analyses Affects The Repeatability Of Volatiles In Irradiated Turkey, K. C. Nam, Joseph C. Cordray, Dong U. Ahn Jan 2005

Automated Dynamic Headspace/Gc-Ms Analyses Affects The Repeatability Of Volatiles In Irradiated Turkey, K. C. Nam, Joseph C. Cordray, Dong U. Ahn

Animal Industry Report

The amounts of dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide decreased as sample holding time in an autosampler (4 °C) before purge increased, whereas those of aldehdyes increased as holding time increased due to lipid oxidation. Helium flush of sample vials before sample loading on an autosampler retarded lipid oxidation and minimized the changes of sulfur volatiles in raw meat, but was not enough to prevent oxidative changes in cooked meat. Although DH/GC-MS is a powerful method for automatic analysis of volatiles in meat samples, the number of samples that can be loaded in an autosampler at a time should be ...


A Comparison Of Six Maternal Genetic Lines For Sow Longevity, T. Serenius, Kenneth J. Stalder, Tom J. Baas, John W. Mabry, Rodney N. Goodwin Jan 2005

A Comparison Of Six Maternal Genetic Lines For Sow Longevity, T. Serenius, Kenneth J. Stalder, Tom J. Baas, John W. Mabry, Rodney N. Goodwin

Animal Industry Report

Data from the National Pork Producers Council Maternal Line National Genetic Evaluation Program were used to compare the sow longevity of six different genetic lines, and to estimate the associations of gilt backfat thickness, age at first farrowing, litter size at first farrowing, litter weight at first farrowing, average feed intake during lactation, and average backfat loss during lactation with sow longevity. The lines evaluated were American Diamond Genetics, Danbred North America, Dekalb-Monsanto DK44, Dekalb-Monsanto GPK347, Newsham Hybrids, and National Swine Registry. The results suggest that the sows of Dekalb-Monsanto GPK347 had a clearly lower risk of being culled than ...


Alternative Winter Farrowing Demonstration Project: Two-Year Summary, Peter J. Lammers, Mark S. Honeyman, Jay D. Harmon Jan 2005

Alternative Winter Farrowing Demonstration Project: Two-Year Summary, Peter J. Lammers, Mark S. Honeyman, Jay D. Harmon

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

There is growing demand in Iowa for pigs raised outdoors or in a deep-bedded system without the use of antibiotics, growth promotants, or animal by-products. Currently, most producers selling naturally raised pork market their animals to a company that requires adherence to the Animal Welfare Institute’s (AWI) Animal Welfare Standards. One of the key components of these standards is the prohibition of farrowing crates. While a pasture farrowing system is effective during spring, summer, and fall, an alternative system is needed to farrow pigs in the winter for the naturally raised pork market.


Management Of Optaflexx In Feedlots That Sort Cattle Prior To Market, Darrell Busby, Daniel D. Loy, Dallas L. Maxwell Jan 2005

Management Of Optaflexx In Feedlots That Sort Cattle Prior To Market, Darrell Busby, Daniel D. Loy, Dallas L. Maxwell

Iowa State Research Farm Progress Reports

No abstract provided.


Microbial Inhibitors Combined With Modified Atmosphere Packaging For Improved Control Of Salmonella Typhimurium On Pork Products, A. R. Michaelsen, Joseph G. Sebranek Jan 2005

Microbial Inhibitors Combined With Modified Atmosphere Packaging For Improved Control Of Salmonella Typhimurium On Pork Products, A. R. Michaelsen, Joseph G. Sebranek

Animal Industry Report

Lactate and diacetate in combination with modified atmosphere packaging composed of 99.5% carbon dioxide and 0.5% carbon monoxide were investigated for effects on initial Salmonella Typhimurium populations and suppression of growth of survivors. Results showed that lactate and diacetate in pork chops combined with modified atmosphere packaging improved shelf life compared to vacuum packaged pork chops without lactate and diacetate. Sensory analysis indicated that pork chops in modified atmosphere packages with lactate and diacetate had a greater pink color, but also a vinegar-like flavor and odor. This means that the combination of modified atmosphere packaging with lactate and ...


Post-Packaging Irradiation Combined With Modified Atmosphere Packaging For Control Of Bacterial Pathogens On Meat Products, L. L. Kudra, Joseph G. Sebranek, James S. Dickson, Aubrey F. Mendonca Jan 2005

Post-Packaging Irradiation Combined With Modified Atmosphere Packaging For Control Of Bacterial Pathogens On Meat Products, L. L. Kudra, Joseph G. Sebranek, James S. Dickson, Aubrey F. Mendonca

Animal Industry Report

Irradiation of ground beef in modified atmosphere packaging was compared with irradiation of ground beef in vacuum packaging for the inhibitory impact on Escherichia coli O157:H7. Recovery of surviving organisms showed that packaging systems did not alter the effects of irradiation for reduction of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef. Therefore, modified atmosphere packaging may be used to improve color of irradiated ground beef without affecting the inhibitory impact of irradiation.


Genes For Resistance To Salmonella In Poultry, Susan J. Lamont, Jason R. Hasenstein Jan 2005

Genes For Resistance To Salmonella In Poultry, Susan J. Lamont, Jason R. Hasenstein

Animal Industry Report

A unique chicken resource population was used to determine that variation a biological gene cluster is associated with either resistance to colonization with the food-safety pathogen, Salmonella, or with efficiency of vaccine response to this bacterium. Examination of sequence variations within genes and their associations with Salmonella response traits will help to improve the safety of food and increase animal well-being.


Association Of Genetic Variation To Healthfulness Of Beef, Shu Zhang, Travis Knight, Jennifer Minick, Richard G. Tait Jr., Allen H. Trenkle, Doyle E. Wilson, Gene H. Rouse, Daryl R. Strohbehn, James M. Reecy, Donald C. Beitz Jan 2005

Association Of Genetic Variation To Healthfulness Of Beef, Shu Zhang, Travis Knight, Jennifer Minick, Richard G. Tait Jr., Allen H. Trenkle, Doyle E. Wilson, Gene H. Rouse, Daryl R. Strohbehn, James M. Reecy, Donald C. Beitz

Animal Industry Report

The objective was to determine the natural variability in beef fatty acid composition and to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene to test the association of SNPs with fatty acid composition. We have used common gas chromatographic techniques to determine the fatty acid composition of phospholipids and triacylglycerols (TAGs) extracted from beef muscle (longissimus dorsi) from 800 sire-identified cattle originating from Iowa State University beef cattle breeding selection projects. Heritability of individual fatty acids and indexes of fatty acid desaturase and elongase systems were calculated by evaluating specific ratios of fatty acids (product/precursor). In ...


Farrow-To-Finish In A Hoop Barn: A Demonstration, Peter J. Lammers, Mark S. Honeyman Jan 2005

Farrow-To-Finish In A Hoop Barn: A Demonstration, Peter J. Lammers, Mark S. Honeyman

Animal Industry Report

Iowa pork producers are witnessing an increasing market demand for naturally raised pork— pigs raised outdoors or in a deep-bedded system without the use of antibiotics, growth promotants, or animal by-products. To address the growing demand for information about systems meeting natural pork protocol, the National Pork Board, Iowa State University, and private individuals formed a committee to design a farrow to finish system utilizing one hoop barn per group of pigs. Pigs were farrowed in a removable pen equipped with heated creep area. At the time of weaning, sows and pens were removed. The young pigs then stayed in ...


Processing Factors Affect Fresh Pork Color And Water Holding Capacity, G. Mendez, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Steven M. Lonergan Jan 2005

Processing Factors Affect Fresh Pork Color And Water Holding Capacity, G. Mendez, Elisabeth J. Huff-Lonergan, Steven M. Lonergan

Animal Industry Report

It is well understood that many producer inputs influence fresh pork quality. These inputs include swine genetics, nutrition and handling. It is necessary to develop harvest procedures that maintain the quality defined by preslaughter inputs. Maintenance of quality is a key component during the harvest and chilling phase of the pork production chain.

The results of this project are important because they demonstrate that subtle differences in the harvest process have the potential to improve fresh pork color and water holding capacity. Proteins that contribute to pork color and water holding capacity are damaged by a combination of high temperature ...


Nitrogen Excretion And Ammonia Emissions From Pigs Fed Reduced Crude Protein Diets Or Yucca Extract, D. M. Panetta, Wendy J. Powers, Hongwei Xin, Brian J. Kerr Jan 2005

Nitrogen Excretion And Ammonia Emissions From Pigs Fed Reduced Crude Protein Diets Or Yucca Extract, D. M. Panetta, Wendy J. Powers, Hongwei Xin, Brian J. Kerr

Animal Industry Report

Dietary strategies are an important part of management systems designed to reduce ammonia emitted from animal feeding operations. Two potential strategies (reducing dietary crude protein content and adding yucca extract to the diet) were evaluated in two swine feeding trials. Three groups of pigs were housed in environmental chambers in order to allow for direct measurement of ammonia emissions. Emission rates and excreta nitrogen and ammonium concentrations were analyzed. Feeding a diet with four amino acids resulted in large though nonsignificant reductions in ammonia emissions, and affected excreta nitrogen concentrations; increasing urinary ammonium-N while decreasing urinary and fecal total nitrogen ...


Infectious Dose Determination Of Acute Salmonella Infection In Swine, A. T. Loynichan, D.L. Hank Harris Jan 2005

Infectious Dose Determination Of Acute Salmonella Infection In Swine, A. T. Loynichan, D.L. Hank Harris

Animal Industry Report

Minimal infectious doses have been determined for intranasal and Salmonella contaminated environmental models of acute Salmonella infection. Trials 1 and 2 were conducted in which Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium were intranasally inoculated at levels of 1 X 101 , 1 X 103 , and 1 X 105 (trial 1) or 1 X 103 , 1 X 105 and 1 X 107 (trial 2) colony forming units (CFU) per animal (5 animals per principle group). Trials 3 and 4 were conducted in which S. Typhimurium were used to contaminate holding pens to levels of 1 X 101 , 1 X 103 , and 1 ...


Colicins As Antibiotic Alternatives For The Treatment And Prevention Of Post-Weaning Diarrhea And Edema Disease In Swine, Chad H. Stahl Jan 2005

Colicins As Antibiotic Alternatives For The Treatment And Prevention Of Post-Weaning Diarrhea And Edema Disease In Swine, Chad H. Stahl

Animal Industry Report

It is estimated that over 50% of all economic losses in weaned pigs are due to Escherichia coli infections, causing either diarrhea or edema disease. Despite animal health and economic concerns, concerns over the spread of antibiotic resistance will limit the types of antibiotics that can be used in production animals. Therefore, we have examined alternatives to conventional antibiotics.


Volatile Compounds Produced By Irradiation Of Commercial Hams And Frankfurters, T. A. Houser, Joseph G. Sebranek, W. Núnez Maisonet, Joseph C. Cordray, B. R. Wiegand, Dong U. Ahn, E. J. Lee Jan 2005

Volatile Compounds Produced By Irradiation Of Commercial Hams And Frankfurters, T. A. Houser, Joseph G. Sebranek, W. Núnez Maisonet, Joseph C. Cordray, B. R. Wiegand, Dong U. Ahn, E. J. Lee

Animal Industry Report

Low-dose irradiation (1.6 kGy) of commercially- produced cured, sliced ham and frankfurters resulted in off-odors and off-flavors following the irradiation treatment. Lipid oxidation was not affected by irradiation but gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis showed that several new volatile compounds were produced in the products by irradiation processing. These included heptane, trans-1-butyl-2- methylcyclopropanone, 2-octene toluene and 2- butanone. Changes in odor and flavor of irradiated ham and frankfurters resulting from production of volatile compounds must be controlled before irradiation will be accepted by the industry or by consumers as a means of improved the microbial safety of these products.


Combining Pediocin (Alta™ 2341) With Thermal Pasteurization For Control Of Listeria Monocytogenes On Frankfurters, C. H. Chen, Joseph G. Sebranek, James S. Dickson, Aubrey F. Mendonca Jan 2005

Combining Pediocin (Alta™ 2341) With Thermal Pasteurization For Control Of Listeria Monocytogenes On Frankfurters, C. H. Chen, Joseph G. Sebranek, James S. Dickson, Aubrey F. Mendonca

Animal Industry Report

Combining heat pasteurization after packaging with addition of pediocin (ALTA™ 2341) as a antimicrobial treatment for frankfurters was more effective than either treatment alone for reducing the number of contaminating Listeria monocytogenes. Heat treatments were most effective for single link packages, intermediate for 5-link packages and least effective for 10-link packages. Combining these treatments provides for improved control of contaminating L. monocytogenes on frankfurters and increases the safety of these products for consumers.


Use Of Bacteriophage Felix01, Hl18 And Hl03 To Reduce Salmonella Enterica Typhimurium Burden In Mice, Nancy M. Boury, N. K. Lee, D.L. Hank Harris Jan 2005

Use Of Bacteriophage Felix01, Hl18 And Hl03 To Reduce Salmonella Enterica Typhimurium Burden In Mice, Nancy M. Boury, N. K. Lee, D.L. Hank Harris

Animal Industry Report

Multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium are of increasing concern in the food industry and on the farm. While these strains are becoming increasingly resistant to commonly used antimicrobial agents, they remain sensitive to killing by their natural predators, bacteriophage. Bacteriophage are able kill MDR strains of Salmonella in vitro. We have recently tested the ability of a well-known salmonella bacteriophage, Felix 01 and two recently isolated phage (HL03 and HL18) to reduce the Salmonella Typhimurium burden in orally challenged, susceptible mice. When each of the phage was given at the same time as the oral Salmonella ...


Nutritional Modulation Of The Proliferation And Activation Of Blood Lymphocyte Subsets From Milk Replacer-Fed Calves, Monica R. Foote, B. J. Nonnecke, M. A. Fowler, B. L. Miller, Donald C. Beitz, W. R. Waters Jan 2005

Nutritional Modulation Of The Proliferation And Activation Of Blood Lymphocyte Subsets From Milk Replacer-Fed Calves, Monica R. Foote, B. J. Nonnecke, M. A. Fowler, B. L. Miller, Donald C. Beitz, W. R. Waters

Animal Industry Report

Feeding greater quantities of protein and energy to neonatal calves was associated with a reduction in proliferative responses of T lymphocyte subsets to in vitro polyclonal stimulation. Feeding an intensified diet was also associated with altered in vitro expression of activation molecules, CD25, CD44, and CD62L. These data suggest that plane of nutrition during the neonatal period influences lymphocyte-activities essential for the development of a normal immune response.


Genetic Pathways To Environmentally Friendly Pigs, A. Qu, L. Hittmeier, Laura Grapes, Max F. Rothschild, Chad H. Stahl Jan 2005

Genetic Pathways To Environmentally Friendly Pigs, A. Qu, L. Hittmeier, Laura Grapes, Max F. Rothschild, Chad H. Stahl

Animal Industry Report

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has enacted regulations that will restrict the amount of phosphorus (P) that can be applied to land. With the vast majority of swine production sites operating at high stocking densities and having less available land on which to apply animal effluent, increased P levels in manure could substantially increase production costs.


Searching For Mutations In Pigs Using The Human Genome, Laura Grapes, Stephen Rudd, Rohan L. Fernando, Karine Megy, Dominique Rocha, Max F. Rothschild Jan 2005

Searching For Mutations In Pigs Using The Human Genome, Laura Grapes, Stephen Rudd, Rohan L. Fernando, Karine Megy, Dominique Rocha, Max F. Rothschild

Animal Industry Report

In humans, mice, rats, primates and pigs, it has been observed that some genes contain a high number of mutations, while others contain no mutations at all. It has not been determined whether a relationship exists across species for the variability of mutation number (i.e. a gene with a large number of mutations in one species will also have a large number of mutations in a closely related species). Here, the number of mutations in regions of genes that code for proteins were compared across pig, human and mouse. For the comparison, the pig mutations were obtained using computational ...


A Quantitative Trait Loci Resource And Comparison Tool For Pigs: Pigqtldb, Zhiliang Hu, James M. Reecy, Max F. Rothschild Jan 2005

A Quantitative Trait Loci Resource And Comparison Tool For Pigs: Pigqtldb, Zhiliang Hu, James M. Reecy, Max F. Rothschild

Animal Industry Report

The Pig Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) database has gathered all pig QTL data published during the past 10 years. The database and its peripheral tools make it possible to compare, confirm and locate on pig chromosomes the most feasible location for a gene responsible for quantitative trait important to pig production.


Dietary Spray-Dried Bovine Plasma Protein Improves Growth Performance And Breast-Meat Yield Of Broilers Raised In A High-Antigen Environment, Kristjan Bregendahl, Dong U. Ahn, Darrell W. Trampel, J. M. Campbell Jan 2005

Dietary Spray-Dried Bovine Plasma Protein Improves Growth Performance And Breast-Meat Yield Of Broilers Raised In A High-Antigen Environment, Kristjan Bregendahl, Dong U. Ahn, Darrell W. Trampel, J. M. Campbell

Animal Industry Report

  • Dietary bovine spray-dried plasma protein (SDPP) had no effects on growth performance or breast-meat yield of broilers raised in a low-antigen environment (Exp. 1).
  • Dietary bovine SDPP, fed at intermediate levels throughout the growth period, improved growth performance and breast-meat yield of broilers raised in a high-antigen environment (Exp. 2).
  • Further research is needed to determine the optimal inclusion level of bovine SDPP and to determine if SDPP should be fed throughout the growth period or in early growth phases only.


Genetic Line Differences In Cytokine Mrna Expression Of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes Exposed To Salmonella Enteritidis In-Vitro, Susan J. Lamont, Michael G. Kaiser, Jennifer H. Cheeseman Jan 2005

Genetic Line Differences In Cytokine Mrna Expression Of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes Exposed To Salmonella Enteritidis In-Vitro, Susan J. Lamont, Michael G. Kaiser, Jennifer H. Cheeseman

Animal Industry Report

Three genetically diverse chicken lines were used to evaluate genetic line differences and pathogen affect on early cytokine gene expression to Salmonella enteritidis. Cytokines are communication molecules in the immune system. Early cytokine involvement is critical to a host’s ability to mount an effective immune response to S. enteritidis. Knowledge of genetic differences in cytokine expression will facilitate a greater understanding of host and pathogen dynamics, and may enable selection for enhanced disease resistance to this pathogen.