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Deep Neural Network For Complex Open-Water Wetland Mapping Using High-Resolution Worldview-3 And Airborne Lidar Data, Vitor S. Martins, Amy L. Kaleita, Brian K. Gelder, Gustavo W. Nagel, Daniel A. Maciel Dec 2020

Deep Neural Network For Complex Open-Water Wetland Mapping Using High-Resolution Worldview-3 And Airborne Lidar Data, Vitor S. Martins, Amy L. Kaleita, Brian K. Gelder, Gustavo W. Nagel, Daniel A. Maciel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Wetland inventory maps are essential information for the conservation and management of natural wetland areas. The classification framework is crucial for successful mapping of complex wetlands, including the model selection, input variables and training procedures. In this context, deep neural network (DNN) is a powerful technique for remote sensing image classification, but this model application for wetland mapping has not been discussed in the previous literature, especially using commercial WorldView-3 data. This study developed a new framework for wetland mapping using DNN algorithm and WorldView-3 image in the Millrace Flats Wildlife Management Area, Iowa, USA. The study area has several ...


Male Food Pantry Users Have Low Fruit, Vegetable, And Pulse Intakes Despite Interest In Food Nutrition Content, Donna M. Winham, Elizabeth D. Davitt Oct 2020

Male Food Pantry Users Have Low Fruit, Vegetable, And Pulse Intakes Despite Interest In Food Nutrition Content, Donna M. Winham, Elizabeth D. Davitt

Food Science and Human Nutrition Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

Background: Low-income men’s use of food pantries, and dietary intakes including pulses is understudies. Food pantries can help, but resource restriction limits ability to prepare meals. Convenience foods may not be optimal for nutrition. Pulses (beans, peas, lentils, and chickpeas) count as a vegetable and provide fiber, iron, folate, and other shortfall micronutrients. Increased pulse consumption could improve diet quality. Purpose: The study evaluated low-income men’s use dietary intakes including pulses. Methods: Men aged 25-64 years who utilized food pantry services were eligible. Men completed survey questions on demographics, nutrition assistance programs use, fruit/vegetable/fiber dietary intakes ...


Lack Of Consensus On An Aging Biology Paradigm? A Global Survey Reveals An Agreement To Disagree, And The Need For An Interdisciplinary Framework, Alan A. Cohen, Anne M. Bronikowski, Luigi Ferrucci, Et Al. Oct 2020

Lack Of Consensus On An Aging Biology Paradigm? A Global Survey Reveals An Agreement To Disagree, And The Need For An Interdisciplinary Framework, Alan A. Cohen, Anne M. Bronikowski, Luigi Ferrucci, Et Al.

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

At a recent symposium on aging biology, a debate was held as to whether or not we know what biological aging is. Most of the participants were struck not only by the lack of consensus on this core question, but also on many basic tenets of the field. Accordingly, we undertook a systematic survey of our 71 participants on key questions that were raised during the debate and symposium, eliciting 37 responses. The results confirmed the impression from the symposium: there is marked disagreement on the most fundamental questions in the field, and little consensus on anything other than the ...


Volatile Compounds Emitted From The Cat Urine Contaminated Carpet Before And After Treatment With Marketed Cleaning Products: A Simultaneous Chemical And Sensory Analysis, Chumki Banik, Jacek A. Koziel, Elizabeth A. Flickinger Sep 2020

Volatile Compounds Emitted From The Cat Urine Contaminated Carpet Before And After Treatment With Marketed Cleaning Products: A Simultaneous Chemical And Sensory Analysis, Chumki Banik, Jacek A. Koziel, Elizabeth A. Flickinger

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Urination on carpet and subflooring can develop into a persistent and challenging problem when trying to mitigate odor. Very little or no information is published on how volatile organic compounds (VOCs) change over time when urine is deposited on a carpet covering a plywood-type subflooring. This research has investigated the VOCs emitted from carpet + subflooring (control), carpet + subflooring sprayed with water (control with moisture), and cat urine-contaminated carpet + subflooring (treatment) over time (day 0 and 15). In addition, the study has recorded the effect of four popular cleaning product applications on VOCs emitted from carpet and evaluated their efficacy in ...


Proof-Of-Concept Of High-Pressure Torrefaction For Improvement Of Pelletized Biomass Fuel Properties And Process Cost Reduction, Bartosz Matyjewicz, Kacper Świechowski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec Sep 2020

Proof-Of-Concept Of High-Pressure Torrefaction For Improvement Of Pelletized Biomass Fuel Properties And Process Cost Reduction, Bartosz Matyjewicz, Kacper Świechowski, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

This paper provides a comprehensive description of the new approach to biomass torrefaction under high-pressure conditions. A new type of laboratory-scale high-pressure reactor was designed and built. The aim of the study was to compare the high-pressure torrefaction with conventional near atmospheric pressure torrefaction. Specifically, we investigated the torrefaction process influence on the fuel properties of wooden-pellet for two different pressure regimes up to 15 bar. All torrefaction processes were conducted at 300 °C, at 30 min of residence time. The initial analysis of the increased pressure impact on the torrefaction parameters: mass yields, energy densification ratio, energy yield, process ...


Fecal And Ruminal Microbiome Components Associated With Methane Emission In Beef Cattle, Bruno G. N. Andrade, Haithem Afli, Flavia A. Bressani, Rafael R. C. Cuadrat, Priscila S. N. De Oliveira, Gerson B. Mourão, Luiz L. Coutinho, James M. Reecy, James E. Koltes, Marcela Maria De Souza, Adhemar Zerlotini Neto, Sérgio Raposo De Medeiros, Alexandre Berndt, Julio C. P. Palhares, Luciana C. A. Regitano Sep 2020

Fecal And Ruminal Microbiome Components Associated With Methane Emission In Beef Cattle, Bruno G. N. Andrade, Haithem Afli, Flavia A. Bressani, Rafael R. C. Cuadrat, Priscila S. N. De Oliveira, Gerson B. Mourão, Luiz L. Coutinho, James M. Reecy, James E. Koltes, Marcela Maria De Souza, Adhemar Zerlotini Neto, Sérgio Raposo De Medeiros, Alexandre Berndt, Julio C. P. Palhares, Luciana C. A. Regitano

Animal Science Publications

Background: The impact of extreme changes in weather patterns in the economy and humanity welfare are some of the biggest challenges that our civilization is facing. From the anthropogenic activities that contribute to climate change, reducing the impact of farming activities is a priority, since its responsible for up to 18% of greenhouse gases linked to such activities. To this end, we tested if the ruminal and fecal microbiomes components of 52 Brazilian Nelore bulls, belonging to two experimental groups based on the feed intervention, conventional (A) and byproducts based diet (B), could be used as biomarkers for methane (CH ...


Biodistribution Of Degradable Polyanhydride Particles In Aedes Aegypti Tissues, Edmund J. Norris, Adam S. Mullis, Yashdeep Phanse, Balaji Narasimhan, Joel R. Coats, Lyric C. Bartholomay Sep 2020

Biodistribution Of Degradable Polyanhydride Particles In Aedes Aegypti Tissues, Edmund J. Norris, Adam S. Mullis, Yashdeep Phanse, Balaji Narasimhan, Joel R. Coats, Lyric C. Bartholomay

Entomology Publications

Insecticide resistance poses a significant threat to the control of arthropods that transmit disease agents. Nanoparticle carriers offer exciting opportunities to expand the armamentarium of insecticides available for public health and other pests. Most chemical insecticides are delivered by contact or feeding, and from there must penetrate various biological membranes to reach target organs and kill the pest organism. Nanoparticles have been shown to improve bioactive compound navigation of such barriers in vertebrates, but have not been well-explored in arthropods. In this study, we explored the potential of polyanhydride micro- and nanoparticles (250 nm– 3 μm), labeled with rhodamine B ...


Water Quality Impacts Of Cover Crop Following A Drought, Matthew J. Helmers Sep 2020

Water Quality Impacts Of Cover Crop Following A Drought, Matthew J. Helmers

Integrated Crop Management News

The dry conditions throughout large areas of Iowa during 2020 reminds us of Iowa’s last significant drought in 2012 and the subsequent impacts on nitrate-N levels in subsurface drainage the following spring. This article will address concerns for water quality in drought conditions and opportunities to reduce nutrient losses from fields this fall.


Weak Binding To The A2re Rna Rigidifies Hnrnpa2 Rrms And Reduces Liquid–Liquid Phase Separation And Aggregation, Veronica H. Ryan, Scott Watters, Joshua Amaya, Balabhadra Khatiwada, Vincenzo Venditti, Mandar T. Naik, Nicolas L. Fawzi Sep 2020

Weak Binding To The A2re Rna Rigidifies Hnrnpa2 Rrms And Reduces Liquid–Liquid Phase Separation And Aggregation, Veronica H. Ryan, Scott Watters, Joshua Amaya, Balabhadra Khatiwada, Vincenzo Venditti, Mandar T. Naik, Nicolas L. Fawzi

Chemistry Publications

hnRNPA2 is a major component of mRNA transport granules in oligodendrocytes and neurons. However, the structural details of how hnRNPA2 binds the A2 recognition element (A2RE) and if this sequence stimulates granule formation by enhancing phase separation of hnRNPA2 has not yet been studied. Using solution NMR and biophysical studies, we find that each of the two individual RRMs retain the domain structure observed in complex with RNA but are not rigidly confined (i.e. they move independently) in solution in the absence of RNA. hnRNPA2 RRMs bind the minimal rA2RE11 weakly but at least, and most likely, two hnRNPA2 ...


Whole Genome Sequence Data Provides Novel Insights Into The Genetic Architecture Of Meat Quality Traits In Beef, Joel D. Leal-Gutiérrez, Fernanda M. Rezende, James M. Reecy, Luke M. Kramer, Francisco Peñagaricano, Raluca G. Mateescu Sep 2020

Whole Genome Sequence Data Provides Novel Insights Into The Genetic Architecture Of Meat Quality Traits In Beef, Joel D. Leal-Gutiérrez, Fernanda M. Rezende, James M. Reecy, Luke M. Kramer, Francisco Peñagaricano, Raluca G. Mateescu

Animal Science Publications

Tenderness is a major quality attribute for fresh beef steaks in the United States, and meat quality traits in general are suitable candidates for genomic research. The objectives of the present analysis were to (1) perform genome-wide association (GWA) analysis for marbling, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), tenderness, and connective tissue using whole-genome data in an Angus population, (2) identify enriched pathways in each GWA analysis; (3) construct a protein–protein interaction network using the associated genes and (4) perform a μ-calpain proteolysis assessment for associated structural proteins. An Angus-sired population of 2,285 individuals was assessed. Animals were transported to ...


Effect Of Biochar Diet Supplementation On Chicken Broilers Performance, Nh3 And Odor Emissions And Meat Consumer Acceptance, Kajetan Kalus, Damian Konkol, Mariusz Korczyński, Jacek A. Koziel, Sebastian Opaliński Sep 2020

Effect Of Biochar Diet Supplementation On Chicken Broilers Performance, Nh3 And Odor Emissions And Meat Consumer Acceptance, Kajetan Kalus, Damian Konkol, Mariusz Korczyński, Jacek A. Koziel, Sebastian Opaliński

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of biochar diet supplementation for broiler chickens on (1) ammonia and odor emissions from manure, (2) feed conversion ratio and daily weight gain, and (3) selected meat quality and sensory parameters. Beechwood biochar (BC, 2 and 4%) and BC–glycerin–aluminosilicates mix (BCM, 3 and 6%) were tested as dietary additives. A total of 750 chicken broilers (Ross 308) were divided into five dietary groups with five replicates per group (n = 5, 30 birds in each replicate) and reared on a littered floor for 5 weeks. Both feed additives showed ...


Comparing Uganda's Indigenous Soil Classification System With World Reference Base And Usda Soil Taxonomy To Predict Soil Productivity, Stewart Kyebogola, C. Lee Burras, Bradley A. Miller, Onesimus Semalulu, Russell S. Yost, Moses M. Tenywa, Andrew W. Lenssen, Prossy Kyomuhendo, Christopher Smith, Charles K. Luswata, Mwanjalolo J. Gilbert Majaliwa, Lance Goettsch, Carol J. Pierce Colfer, Robert E. Mazur Sep 2020

Comparing Uganda's Indigenous Soil Classification System With World Reference Base And Usda Soil Taxonomy To Predict Soil Productivity, Stewart Kyebogola, C. Lee Burras, Bradley A. Miller, Onesimus Semalulu, Russell S. Yost, Moses M. Tenywa, Andrew W. Lenssen, Prossy Kyomuhendo, Christopher Smith, Charles K. Luswata, Mwanjalolo J. Gilbert Majaliwa, Lance Goettsch, Carol J. Pierce Colfer, Robert E. Mazur

Agronomy Publications

This study examines three soil classification systems - Buganda, World Reference Base, and US Soil Taxonomy - in order to evaluate their relative strengths and feasibility for making linkages between them. Nine field sites and 16 pedons were considered across the soil landscapes of the Buganda catena. Each identified field pedon diagnostic horizons and characteristics were described and their soils analyzed using standard pedological techniques and measurements. To document the indigenous use of the Buganda classification system, interviews and discussions were held with farmer groups and local extension specialists. Using this local expertise, five local soil units were identified. We also identified ...


Genome Scan Detection Of Selective Sweeps Among Biotypes Of The Soybean Aphid, Aphis Glycines, With Differing Virulence To Resistance To A. Glycines (Rag) Traits In Soybean, Glycine Max, Brad S. Coates, Jessica D. Hohenstein, Rosanna Giordano, Ravi Kiran Donthu, Andrew P. Michel, Erin W. Hodgson, Matthew E. O'Neal Sep 2020

Genome Scan Detection Of Selective Sweeps Among Biotypes Of The Soybean Aphid, Aphis Glycines, With Differing Virulence To Resistance To A. Glycines (Rag) Traits In Soybean, Glycine Max, Brad S. Coates, Jessica D. Hohenstein, Rosanna Giordano, Ravi Kiran Donthu, Andrew P. Michel, Erin W. Hodgson, Matthew E. O'Neal

Entomology Publications

Multiple biotypes of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, occur in North America adapted for survival (virulence) on soybean, Glycine max, with one or more different resistance to A. glycines (Rag) traits. The degree of genome-wide variance between biotypes and the basis of virulence remains unknown, but the latter is hypothesized to involve secreted effector proteins. Between 167,249 and 217,750 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were predicted from whole genome re-sequencing of A. glycines avirulent biotype 1 (B1) and virulent B2, B3 and B4 colony-derived iso-female lines when compared to the draft B1 genome assembly, Ag_bt1_v6.0. Differences in nucleotide diversity ...


Synergy Of Thermochemical Treatment Of Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles With Bioethanol Production For Increased Sustainability And Profitability, Samuel O’Brien, Jacek A. Koziel, Chumki Banik, Andrzej Białowiec Sep 2020

Synergy Of Thermochemical Treatment Of Dried Distillers Grains With Solubles With Bioethanol Production For Increased Sustainability And Profitability, Samuel O’Brien, Jacek A. Koziel, Chumki Banik, Andrzej Białowiec

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The bioethanol industry continues improving sustainability, specifically focused on plant energy and GHG emission management. Dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS) is a byproduct of ethanol fermentation and is used for animal feed. DDGS is a relatively low-value bulk product that decays, causes odor, and is challenging to manage. The aim of this research was to find an alternative, value-added-type concept for DDGS utilization. Specifically, we aimed to explore the techno-economic feasibility of torrefaction, i.e., a thermochemical treatment of DDGS requiring low energy input, less sophisticated equipment, and resulting in fuel-quality biochar. Therefore, we developed a research model that ...


Cover Crop Options To Consider For Damaged Crops This Fall, Mike Henderson, Mark A. Licht Aug 2020

Cover Crop Options To Consider For Damaged Crops This Fall, Mike Henderson, Mark A. Licht

Integrated Crop Management News

Many fields have been ravaged by adverse weather this year in Iowa. On top of drought and hail we had a devastating derecho steam-roll a wide swath of Iowa starting in Sac County and progressing eastward along Highway 30. Along with the decision of how to handle this year’s crop, consideration for protecting the soil and preparing for next year’s crop should include cover crops.


Genome-Wide Characterization Of The Grf Family And Their Roles In Response To Salt Stress In Gossypium, Jun-Feng Cao, Jin-Quan Huang, Xia Liu, Chao-Chen Huang, Zi-Shou Zheng, Xiu-Fang Zhang, Xiao-Xia Shangguan, Ling-Jian Wang, Yu-Gao Zhang, Jonathan F. Wendel, Corrinne E. Grover, Zhi-Wen Chen Aug 2020

Genome-Wide Characterization Of The Grf Family And Their Roles In Response To Salt Stress In Gossypium, Jun-Feng Cao, Jin-Quan Huang, Xia Liu, Chao-Chen Huang, Zi-Shou Zheng, Xiu-Fang Zhang, Xiao-Xia Shangguan, Ling-Jian Wang, Yu-Gao Zhang, Jonathan F. Wendel, Corrinne E. Grover, Zhi-Wen Chen

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Background: Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important world-wide fiber crop but salt stress limits cotton production in coastal and other areas. Growth regulation factors (GRFs) play regulatory roles in response to salt stress, but their roles have not been studied in cotton under salt stress.

Results: We identified 19 GRF genes in G. raimondii, 18 in G. arboreum, 34 in G. hirsutum and 45 in G. barbadense, respectively. These GRF genes were phylogenetically analyzed leading to the recognition of seven GRF clades. GRF genes from diploid cottons (G. raimondii and G. arboreum) were largely retained in allopolyploid cotton, with ...


Part 2: Odor-Cued Grab Sampling Of Transient Environmental Odor Events; Mapping The 'Rolling Unmasking Effect' Of Downwind Odor Dispersion, Donald W. Wright, Jacek A. Koziel, David B. Parker, Anna Iwasinska Aug 2020

Part 2: Odor-Cued Grab Sampling Of Transient Environmental Odor Events; Mapping The 'Rolling Unmasking Effect' Of Downwind Odor Dispersion, Donald W. Wright, Jacek A. Koziel, David B. Parker, Anna Iwasinska

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Downwind odor characteristics can be very different depending upon the size of the upwind point-source, interim topography, and wind conditions. At one extreme, the downwind odor plume from a relatively large, confined animal feeding operation (CAFO), located on a flat open plain and under stable, near-straight-line wind conditions can be rather broad, sustained and predictable relative to a fixed receptor site downwind. In contrast, the plume from a small point-source (e.g., a roof vent stack) located on irregular topography and under rapidly shifting wind conditions can be intermittent and fleeting. These transient odor events can be surprisingly intense and ...


The Perceived Benefits, Challenges, And Environmental Effects Of Cover Crop Implementation In South Carolina, Lucas Clay, Katharine Perkins, Marzieh Motallebi, Alejandro Plastina, Bhupinder Singh Farmaha Aug 2020

The Perceived Benefits, Challenges, And Environmental Effects Of Cover Crop Implementation In South Carolina, Lucas Clay, Katharine Perkins, Marzieh Motallebi, Alejandro Plastina, Bhupinder Singh Farmaha

Economics Publications

Cover crops are becoming more accepted as a viable best management practice because of their ability to provide important environmental and soil health benefits. Because of these benefits, many land managers are strongly encouraging the use of cover crops. Additionally, there is limited information on farmers′ perceptions of the benefits and challenges of implementing cover crops. Many farmers state that they do not have enough money or time to implement cover crops. In an attempt to gather more data about the adoption rate and perceptions of cover crops in South Carolina, a survey was sent to 3000 row crop farmers ...


Challenges And Opportunities In Machine-Augmented Plant Stress Phenotyping, Arti Singh, Sarah Jones, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar, Daren S. Mueller, Kulbir Sandhu, Koushik Nagasubramanian Aug 2020

Challenges And Opportunities In Machine-Augmented Plant Stress Phenotyping, Arti Singh, Sarah Jones, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar, Daren S. Mueller, Kulbir Sandhu, Koushik Nagasubramanian

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Plant stress phenotyping is essential to select stress-resistant varieties and develop better stress-management strategies. Standardization of visual assessments and deployment of imaging techniques have improved the accuracy and reliability of stress assessment in comparison with unaided visual measurement. The growing capabilities of machine learning (ML) methods in conjunction with image-based phenotyping can extract new insights from curated, annotated, and high-dimensional datasets across varied crops and stresses. We propose an overarching strategy for utilizing ML techniques that methodically enables the application of plant stress phenotyping at multiple scales across different types of stresses, program goals, and environments.


Comprehensive Analysis Of Non Redundant Protein Database, Hamid Bagheri, Robert Dyer, Andrew J. Severin, Hridesh Rajan Aug 2020

Comprehensive Analysis Of Non Redundant Protein Database, Hamid Bagheri, Robert Dyer, Andrew J. Severin, Hridesh Rajan

Office of Biotechnology Publications

Background: Scientists around the world use NCBI’s non-redundant (NR) database to identify the taxonomic origin and functional annotation of their favorite protein sequences using BLAST. Unfortunately, due to the exponential growth of this database, many scientists do not have a good understanding of the contents of the NR database. There is a need for tools to explore the contents of large biological datasets, such as NR, to better understand the assumptions and limitations of the data they contain.

Results: Protein sequence data, protein functional annotation, and taxonomic assignment from NCBI’s NR database were placed into a BoaG database ...


Harvest And Storage Of Weather-Damaged Corn For Silage, Brian Dougherty Aug 2020

Harvest And Storage Of Weather-Damaged Corn For Silage, Brian Dougherty

Integrated Crop Management News

Extreme weather events may lead to a decision to make corn silage rather than harvest corn for grain, or to harvest acres that will exceed current silage storage capacity. Before harvesting for silage, make sure you have a market for the silage or a sufficient number of livestock to feed it to. It may be difficult to harvest good quality corn silage if the crop has weather damage and the economic value of the silage will likely be lower than silage from non-damaged fields. The resources section has links to information that can help with pricing forages in the field ...


Silage Harvest Of Drought-Stressed And Severely Lodged Corn, Brian J. Lang Aug 2020

Silage Harvest Of Drought-Stressed And Severely Lodged Corn, Brian J. Lang

Integrated Crop Management News

The decision to chop corn for silage should be made when there is no further potential to increase grain dry matter and whole plant moisture is in the proper range for the storage structure. The proper harvest moisture content is the same for drought stressed and normal corn. Recommended whole plant moisture contents are 65-70% in horizontal silos (trenches and bunkers), 60-70% for bags, 60-65% for upright stave silos, and 50-60% for upright oxygen limiting silos.


Sampling Performance Of Multiple Independent Molecular Dynamics Simulations Of An Rna Aptamer, Shuting Yan, Jason M. Peck, Muslum Ilgu, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Monica H. Lamm Aug 2020

Sampling Performance Of Multiple Independent Molecular Dynamics Simulations Of An Rna Aptamer, Shuting Yan, Jason M. Peck, Muslum Ilgu, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Monica H. Lamm

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Using multiple independent simulations instead of one long simulation has been shown to improve the sampling performance attained with the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method. However, it is generally not known how long each independent simulation should be, how many independent simulations should be used, or to what extent either of these factors affects the overall sampling performance achieved for a given system. The goal of the present study was to assess the sampling performance of multiple independent MD simulations, where each independent simulation begins from a different initial molecular conformation. For this purpose, we used an RNA aptamer that ...


Wind Damaged Corn – Nutrient Content?, John E. Sawyer, Antonio Mallarino Aug 2020

Wind Damaged Corn – Nutrient Content?, John E. Sawyer, Antonio Mallarino

Integrated Crop Management News

The August 10, 2020 high winds (derecho) caused lodged or flattened corn in many Iowa fields. The corn development ranged mainly from stages R3 (milk) to R5 (dent). Some fields may not be harvested, some chopped for silage, and some harvested for grain. Nutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) remaining in the field may be different than with normal harvest due to partial plant removal, grain harvest, or grazing. Therefore, adjustments can be made for future fertilizer or manure applications.


Expectations For Lodged Corn, Joel L. Dejong, Mark A. Licht, Meaghan J. B. Anderson Aug 2020

Expectations For Lodged Corn, Joel L. Dejong, Mark A. Licht, Meaghan J. B. Anderson

Integrated Crop Management News

Derecho. Another of those words we wished we hadn’t heard in 2020 but are quite certain we won’t forget about the results from its occurrence. Millions of corn acres were damaged, and there are many questions about the lasting impact.


The Impact Of Surficial Biochar Treatment On Acute H2s Emissions During Swine Manure Agitation Before Pump-Out: Proof-Of-The-Concept, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec, Myeongseong Lee, Hantian Ma, Peiyang Li, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Robert C. Brown Aug 2020

The Impact Of Surficial Biochar Treatment On Acute H2s Emissions During Swine Manure Agitation Before Pump-Out: Proof-Of-The-Concept, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec, Myeongseong Lee, Hantian Ma, Peiyang Li, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Robert C. Brown

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Acute releases of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are of serious concern in agriculture, especially when farmers agitate manure to empty storage pits before land application. Agitation can cause the release of dangerously high H2S concentrations, resulting in human and animal fatalities. To date, there is no proven technology to mitigate these short-term releases of toxic gas from manure. In our previous research, we have shown that biochar, a highly porous carbonaceous material, can float on manure and mitigate gaseous emissions over extended periods (days–weeks). In this research, we aim to test the hypothesis that biochar can ...


Is Biochar From The Torrefaction Of Sewage Sludge Hazardous Waste?, Andrzej Białowiec, Jakub Pulka, Marzena Styczyńska, Jacek A. Koziel, Joanna Kalka, Marcelina Jureczko, Ewa Felis, Piotr Manczarski Aug 2020

Is Biochar From The Torrefaction Of Sewage Sludge Hazardous Waste?, Andrzej Białowiec, Jakub Pulka, Marzena Styczyńska, Jacek A. Koziel, Joanna Kalka, Marcelina Jureczko, Ewa Felis, Piotr Manczarski

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Improved technologies are needed for sustainable management of sewage sludge (SS). The torrefaction (also known as biomass “roasting”) is considered a pretreatment of SS before use in agriculture. However, it is not known whether the torrefaction has the potential to decrease heavy metals’ (HMs) leachability and the SS toxicity. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the influences of the SS torrefaction parameters (temperature and process time) on HM contents in biochar, HM leachability, and biochar toxicity, and compare them with raw SS. The experiments were designed in 18 combinations (six temperatures, 200, 220, 240, 260, 280, and ...


Using Cereal Rye Cover Crop And Narrow-Row Soybean To Manage Herbicide-Resistant Waterhemp, Prashant Jha, Ramawater Yadav, Robert G. Hartzler Aug 2020

Using Cereal Rye Cover Crop And Narrow-Row Soybean To Manage Herbicide-Resistant Waterhemp, Prashant Jha, Ramawater Yadav, Robert G. Hartzler

Integrated Crop Management News

Waterhemp control is an increasing challenge for soybean producers due to the evolution of multiple herbicide-resistant populations. With dwindling herbicide resources, there is a need to integrate non-chemical strategies into current weed management programs in soybean. Cereal rye is the most common cover crop grown in the Midwest due to its winter hardiness and short life cycle. The high C:N ratio of cereal rye compared to legume or brassica cover crops results in a slow degradation of the residues; thereby, increasing the duration of weed suppression. This along with a greater biomass accumulation makes cereal rye an ideal cover ...


Tibial Stress During Running Following A Repeated Calf‐Raise Protocol, Hannah M. Rice, Megan Kenny, Matthew A. Ellison, Jon Fulford, Stacey A. Meardon, Timothy R. Derrick, Joseph Hamill Aug 2020

Tibial Stress During Running Following A Repeated Calf‐Raise Protocol, Hannah M. Rice, Megan Kenny, Matthew A. Ellison, Jon Fulford, Stacey A. Meardon, Timothy R. Derrick, Joseph Hamill

Kinesiology Publications

Abstract Tibial stress fractures are a problematic injury amongst runners. Increased loading of the tibia has been observed following prolonged weight‐bearing activity and is suggested to be the result of reduced activity of the plantar flexor muscles. The musculature that spans the tibia contributes to bending of the bone and influences the magnitude of stress on the tibia during running. Participant‐specific models of the tibia can be used as a non‐invasive estimate of tibial stress. This study aimed to quantify tibial stress during running using participant‐specific bone geometry and to compare tibial stress before and after ...


Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Inhibitory Effects Of Lentogenic Newcastle Disease Virus On Cell Survival And Immune Function In Spleen Of Commercial Layer Chicks, Jibin Zhang, Michael G. Kaiser, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, Terra R. Kelly, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont Aug 2020

Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Inhibitory Effects Of Lentogenic Newcastle Disease Virus On Cell Survival And Immune Function In Spleen Of Commercial Layer Chicks, Jibin Zhang, Michael G. Kaiser, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, Terra R. Kelly, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Huaijun Zhou, Susan J. Lamont

Animal Science Publications

As a major infectious disease in chickens, Newcastle disease causes considerable economic losses in the poultry industry, especially in developing countries where there is limited access to effective vaccination. Therefore, enhancing resistance to the virus in commercial chickens through breeding is a promising way to promote poultry production. In this study, we investigated gene expression changes at 2 and 6 dpi after infection at day21 with a lentogenic Newcastle disease virus in a commercial egg-laying chicken hybrid using RNA sequencing analysis. By comparing NDV challenged and nonchallenged groups, 526 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (FDR < 0.05) were identified at 2 dpi, and only 36 at 6 dpi. For the DEGs at 2 dpi, IPA analysis predicted inhibition of multiple signaling pathways in response to NDV that regulate immune cell development and activity, neurogenesis and angiogenesis. Upregulation of Interferon Induced Protein with Tetratricopeptide Repeats 5 (IFIT5) in response to NDV was consistent between the current and most previous studies. Sprouty RTK Signaling Antagonist 1 (SPRY1), a DEG in the current study is located in a significant QTL associated with virus load at 6 dpi in the same population. These identified pathways and DEGs provide potential targets to further study breeding strategy to enhance NDV resistance in chickens.