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Soybean Root Exudates Increase The Physiological Diversity Of Bacteria In Cadmium-Treated Soil, Leily Kazemi Movahed Feb 2020

Soybean Root Exudates Increase The Physiological Diversity Of Bacteria In Cadmium-Treated Soil, Leily Kazemi Movahed

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Three soybean cultivars with contrasting retention of cadmium (Cd) in the root were grown in Cd-spiked nutrient solution and used to determine that symplastic compartmentalization of Cd in roots is probably responsible for retention of Cd in roots. Roots of the low Cd-accumulator AC Hime treated with 30 mM Cd exuded up to 10-fold higher concentrations of citric, succinic, fumaric and malic acids into the hydroponic solution when compared to control; concentrations of the same organic acids from the high Cd-accumulator Westag 97 increased by up to 3-fold. The same cultivars were grown in Cd-spiked soil and the physiological profiles ...


Soybean Response To Water: Trait Identification And Prediction, Shawn Jenkins Feb 2020

Soybean Response To Water: Trait Identification And Prediction, Shawn Jenkins

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The rising demand for soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merrill] taken in consideration with current climatic trends accentuates the importance of improving soybean seed yield response per unit water (WP). To further our understanding of the quantitative WP trait, a multi-omic approach was implemented for improved trait identification and predictive modeling opportunities. Through the evaluation of two recombinant inbred line populations jointly totaling 439 lines subjected to contrasting irrigation treatments, informative agronomic, phenomic, and genomic associations were identified. Across both populations, relationships were identified between lodging at maturity (r = -0.58, H = 0.86), canopy to air temperature differential at the ...


Deconstructing The Genetic Architecture Of Iron Deficiency Chlorosis In Soybean Using Genome-Wide Approaches, Teshale Assefa, Jiaoping Zhang, R. V. Chowda-Reddy, Adrienne N. Moran Lauter, Arti Singh, Jamie A. O'Rourke, Michelle A. Graham, Asheesh K. Singh Jan 2020

Deconstructing The Genetic Architecture Of Iron Deficiency Chlorosis In Soybean Using Genome-Wide Approaches, Teshale Assefa, Jiaoping Zhang, R. V. Chowda-Reddy, Adrienne N. Moran Lauter, Arti Singh, Jamie A. O'Rourke, Michelle A. Graham, Asheesh K. Singh

Agronomy Publications

Background: Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth and development. Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC), caused by calcareous soils or high soil pH, can limit iron availability, negatively affecting soybean (Glycine max) yield. This study leverages genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a genome-wide epistatic study (GWES) with previous gene expression studies to identify regions of the soybean genome important in iron deficiency tolerance.

Results: A GWAS and a GWES were performed using 460 diverse soybean PI lines from 27 countries, in field and hydroponic iron stress conditions, using more than 36,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Combining this ...


Integration Of Cover Crops Into Midwest Corn-Soybean Cropping Systems And Potential For Weed Suppression, Joshua S. Wehrbein Dec 2019

Integration Of Cover Crops Into Midwest Corn-Soybean Cropping Systems And Potential For Weed Suppression, Joshua S. Wehrbein

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Cover crops have potential to provide benefits to agricultural systems, such as improved soil productivity, nutrient scavenging, weed suppression, and livestock forage. There are several challenges associated with cover crop integration into traditional Midwest corn-soybean cropping systems. One of these challenges is timely establishment in the fall, which is limited by the relatively late harvest of corn and soybean. Cover crop effectiveness is related to the amount of biomass produced, thus maximizing the growth period in the fall is desired. To address this challenge, we evaluated the potential to utilize early-season soybean maturity groups (MGs) to allow for earlier soybean ...


Understanding Nitrogen Limitation In Soybean, Nicolas Cafaro La Menza Dec 2019

Understanding Nitrogen Limitation In Soybean, Nicolas Cafaro La Menza

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Meeting soybean demand on existing cropland area for a global population of 9.7 billion people by the year 2050 requires narrowing the existing gap between average producer yield and yield potential. Soybean relies on two sources on nitrogen (N): biological N2 fixation and indigenous soil N supply. As soybean yield continues to increase, it seems critical to know if there is a yield level at which potential contribution of indigenous nitrogen sources and fixation becomes insufficient to meet crop N requirements for high yields, while still maintaining or increasing protein and oil concentration. This study evaluated N limitation across ...


Effect Of Soil-Applied Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase Inhibitor Herbicides On Soybean Seedling Disease, Nicholas J. Arneson May 2019

Effect Of Soil-Applied Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase Inhibitor Herbicides On Soybean Seedling Disease, Nicholas J. Arneson

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Seedling disease is one the most economically important diseases of soybean in the United States. It is commonly caused by Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium spp., and Phytophthora sojae, alone, or together as a disease complex. Fungicide seed treatments continue to provide the most consistent management of seedling diseases. Soil-applied protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) inhibitor herbicides are used preemergence in soybean production to manage several broadleaf weeds. Applications of PPO-inhibitors can result in phytotoxic injury to soybean when environmental conditions are not favorable for soybean growth. These environmental conditions can favor seedling disease development as well. In this thesis, two studies ...


Response Surface Analysis Of Genomic Prediction Accuracy Values Using Quality Control Covariates In Soybean, Diego Jarquin, Reka Howard, George L. Graef, Aaron Lorenz Jan 2019

Response Surface Analysis Of Genomic Prediction Accuracy Values Using Quality Control Covariates In Soybean, Diego Jarquin, Reka Howard, George L. Graef, Aaron Lorenz

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

An important and broadly used tool for selection purposes and to increase yield and genetic gain in plant breeding programs is genomic prediction (GP). Genomic prediction is a technique where molecular marker information and phenotypic data are used to predict the phenotype (eg, yield) of individuals for which only marker data are available. Higher prediction accuracy can be achieved not only by using efficient models but also by using quality molecular marker and phenotypic data. The steps of a typical quality control (QC) of marker data include the elimination of markers with certain level of minor allele frequency (MAF) and ...


Generating High Density, Low Cost Genotype Data In Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merr.], Mary M. Happ, Haichuan Wang, George L. Graef, David L. Hyten Jan 2019

Generating High Density, Low Cost Genotype Data In Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merr.], Mary M. Happ, Haichuan Wang, George L. Graef, David L. Hyten

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Obtaining genome-wide genotype information for millions of SNPs in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] often involves completely resequencing a line at 5X or greater coverage. Currently, hundreds of soybean lines have been resequenced at high depth levels with their data deposited in the NCBI Short Read Archive. This publicly available dataset may be leveraged as an imputation reference panel in combination with skim (low coverage) sequencing of new soybean genotypes to economically obtain high-density SNP information. Ninety-nine soybean lines resequenced at an average of 17.1X were used to generate a reference panel, with over 10 million SNPs called using ...


Physiological Characterization Of The Soynam Parental Lines Under Field Conditions, Akshita Mishra Dec 2018

Physiological Characterization Of The Soynam Parental Lines Under Field Conditions, Akshita Mishra

Theses and Dissertations

The narrow genetic pool of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in North America can limit its future yield gains. Among the worldwide germplasm collection of 45,000 unique landraces, only 80 contribute 99% to the collective parentage of North American soybean cultivars. Among these 80 landraces, just 17 contribute to 86% of the collective parentage of the modern cultivars. The Soybean Nested Association Mapping population (SoyNAM) was therefore developed with the objective of diversifying the soybean gene pool. Forty diverse soybean genotypes from maturity groups (MG) 1 through 5 were crossed with a common MG 3 parent to develop 40 ...


Genome-Wide Analysis Of Genes Encoding Core Components Of The Ubiquitin System In Soybean (Glycine Max) Reveals A Potential Role For Ubiquitination In Host Immunity Against Soybean Cyst Nematode, Chunyu Zhang, Li Song, Mani Kant Choudhary, Bangjun Zhou, Guangchao Sun, Kyle C. Broderick, Loren Giesler, Lirong Zeng Jan 2018

Genome-Wide Analysis Of Genes Encoding Core Components Of The Ubiquitin System In Soybean (Glycine Max) Reveals A Potential Role For Ubiquitination In Host Immunity Against Soybean Cyst Nematode, Chunyu Zhang, Li Song, Mani Kant Choudhary, Bangjun Zhou, Guangchao Sun, Kyle C. Broderick, Loren Giesler, Lirong Zeng

Papers in Plant Pathology

Background: Ubiquitination is a major post-translational protein modification that regulates essentially all cellular and physiological pathways in eukaryotes. The ubiquitination process typically involves three distinct classes of enzymes, ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) and ubiquitin ligase (E3). To date, a comprehensive identification and analysis of core components comprising of the whole soybean (Glycine max) ubiquitin system (UBS) has not been reported.

Results: We performed a systematic, genome-wide analysis of genes that encode core members of the soybean UBS in this study. A total of 1431 genes were identified with high confidence to encode putative soybean UBS components, including 4 ...


Regulation Of Local Auxin Metabolism During Soybean Nodule Development, Suresh Damodaran Jan 2018

Regulation Of Local Auxin Metabolism During Soybean Nodule Development, Suresh Damodaran

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Legume-rhizobia symbiosis leads to the development of secondary root organs called nodules. Rhizobia bacteria housed inside nodules assimilate atmospheric nitrogen and convert them into plant usable forms thereby reducing the need for fertilizer application in crop legumes like soybean. Nodule development is a coordinated process orchestrated by multiple plant hormones. In soybean, the auxin responsive gene expression was detected in nodule primordia and in the periphery of mature nodules, primarily in nodule vasculature. Auxin hypersensitivity reduces nodule formation in soybean and also polar auxin transport inhibition at the site of nodule development is not crucial for determinate nodule formation. Therefore ...


Gene Expression Profiling Of Iron Deficiency Chlorosis Sensitive And Tolerant Soybean Indicates Key Roles For Phenylpropanoids Under Alkalinity Stress, Brian M. Waters, Keenan Amundsen, George L. Graef Jan 2018

Gene Expression Profiling Of Iron Deficiency Chlorosis Sensitive And Tolerant Soybean Indicates Key Roles For Phenylpropanoids Under Alkalinity Stress, Brian M. Waters, Keenan Amundsen, George L. Graef

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Alkaline soils comprise 30% of the earth and have low plant-available iron (Fe) concentration, and can cause iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC). IDC causes soybean yield losses of $260 million annually. However, it is not known whether molecular responses to IDC are equivalent to responses to low iron supply. IDC tolerant and sensitive soybean lines provide a contrast to identify specific factors associated with IDC.We used RNA-seq to compare gene expression under combinations of normal pH (5.7) or alkaline pH (7.7, imposed by 2.5mM bicarbonate, or pH 8.2 imposed by 5mM bicarbonate) and normal (25μM) or ...


Assessing Explanatory Factors For Variation In On-Farm Irrigation In Us Maize-Soybean Systems, Katherine E.B. Gibson, Haishun S. Yang, Trenton E. Franz, Dean E. Eisenhauer, John B. Gates, Paolo Nasta, Bhupinder S. Farmaha, Patricio Grassini Jan 2018

Assessing Explanatory Factors For Variation In On-Farm Irrigation In Us Maize-Soybean Systems, Katherine E.B. Gibson, Haishun S. Yang, Trenton E. Franz, Dean E. Eisenhauer, John B. Gates, Paolo Nasta, Bhupinder S. Farmaha, Patricio Grassini

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Irrigation exhibits large variation across producer fields, even within same region and year. A knowledge gap exists relative to factors that explain this variation, in part due to lack of availability of high-quality irrigation data from multiple field-years. This study assessed sources of variation in irrigation using a large database collected during 9 years (2005–2013) from ca. 1400 maize and soybean producer fields in Nebraska, central USA (total of 12,750 field-year observations). The study area is representative of ca. 4.5 million ha of irrigated land sown with maize and soybean. Influence of biophysical (weather, soil, and crop ...


Sifting And Winnowing: Analysis Of Farmer Field Data For Soybean In The Us North-Central Region, Spyridon Mourtzinis, Juan I. Rattalino Edreira, Patricio Grassini, Adam C. Roth, Shaun N. Casteel, Ignacio A. Ciampitti, Hans J. Kandel, Peter M. Kyveryga, Mark A. Licht, Laura E. Lindsey, Daren S. Mueller, Emerson D. Nafziger, Seth L. Naeve, Jordan Stanley, Michael J. Staton, Shawn P. Conley Jan 2018

Sifting And Winnowing: Analysis Of Farmer Field Data For Soybean In The Us North-Central Region, Spyridon Mourtzinis, Juan I. Rattalino Edreira, Patricio Grassini, Adam C. Roth, Shaun N. Casteel, Ignacio A. Ciampitti, Hans J. Kandel, Peter M. Kyveryga, Mark A. Licht, Laura E. Lindsey, Daren S. Mueller, Emerson D. Nafziger, Seth L. Naeve, Jordan Stanley, Michael J. Staton, Shawn P. Conley

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Field trials are commonly used to estimate the effects of different factors on crop yields. In the present study, we followed an alternative approach to identify factors that explain field-to-field yield variation, which consisted of farmer survey data, a spatial framework, and multiple statistical procedures. This approach was used to identify management factors with strongest association with on-farm soybean yield variation in the US North Central (NC) region. Field survey data, including yield and management information, were collected over two crop growing seasons (2014 and 2015) from rainfed and irrigated soybean fields (total of 3568 field-year observations). Fields were grouped ...


Genetic Architecture Of Soybean Yield And Agronomic Traits, Brian W. Diers, Jim Specht, Katy Martin Rainey, Perry Cregan, Qijian Song, Vishnu Ramasubramanian, George Graef, Randall L. Nelson, William Schapaugh, Dechun Wang, Grover Shannon, Leah Mchale, Stella K. Kantartzi, Alencar Xavier, Rouf Mian, Robert M. Stupar, Jean-Michel Michno, Yong-Qiang Charles An, Wolfgang Goettel, Russell Ward, Carolyn Fox, Alexander E. Lipka, David Hyten, Troy Cary, William D. Beavis Jan 2018

Genetic Architecture Of Soybean Yield And Agronomic Traits, Brian W. Diers, Jim Specht, Katy Martin Rainey, Perry Cregan, Qijian Song, Vishnu Ramasubramanian, George Graef, Randall L. Nelson, William Schapaugh, Dechun Wang, Grover Shannon, Leah Mchale, Stella K. Kantartzi, Alencar Xavier, Rouf Mian, Robert M. Stupar, Jean-Michel Michno, Yong-Qiang Charles An, Wolfgang Goettel, Russell Ward, Carolyn Fox, Alexander E. Lipka, David Hyten, Troy Cary, William D. Beavis

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Soybean is the world’s leading source of vegetable protein and demand for its seed continues to grow. Breeders have successfully increased soybean yield, but the genetic architecture of yield and key agronomic traits is poorly understood. We developed a 40-mating soybean nested association mapping (NAM) population of 5,600 inbred lines that were characterized by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and six agronomic traits in field trials in 22 environments. Analysis of the yield, agronomic, and SNP data revealed 23 significant marker-trait associations for yield, 19 for maturity, 15 for plant height, 17 for plant lodging, and 29 for ...


Microscopic Characterization Of A Transposon-Induced Male-Sterile, Female-Sterile Mutant In Glycine Max L., Katherine A. Thilges, Mark A. Chamberlin, Marc C. Albertsen, Harry T. Horner Oct 2017

Microscopic Characterization Of A Transposon-Induced Male-Sterile, Female-Sterile Mutant In Glycine Max L., Katherine A. Thilges, Mark A. Chamberlin, Marc C. Albertsen, Harry T. Horner

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Premise of research. A male-sterile, female-sterile mutant was discovered in a w4-m mutable line of Glycine max L. The mechanism of its sterility was not well understood. Therefore, different cytological and microscopic techniques were undertaken to better understand the process of mutant phenotype development. Molecular research indicated that mer3 was responsible for the sterility.

Methodology. Macro images were collected of whole plants, flowers, anthers, pods, and ovules. Chromosome spreads from anthers at various meiotic stages were examined. Confocal scanning laser microscopy using optical sectioning was utilized on whole anthers and ovules at various developmental stages. Whole mature anthers and ...


Genetic Architecture Of Charcoal Rot (Macrophomina Phaseolina) Resistance In Soybean Revealed Using A Diverse Panel, Sara M. Coser, R. V. Chowda Reddy, Jiaoping Zhang, Daren S. Mueller, Alemu Mengistu, Kiersten A. Wise, Tom W. Allen, Arti Singh, Asheesh K. Singh Sep 2017

Genetic Architecture Of Charcoal Rot (Macrophomina Phaseolina) Resistance In Soybean Revealed Using A Diverse Panel, Sara M. Coser, R. V. Chowda Reddy, Jiaoping Zhang, Daren S. Mueller, Alemu Mengistu, Kiersten A. Wise, Tom W. Allen, Arti Singh, Asheesh K. Singh

Agronomy Publications

Charcoal rot (CR) disease caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is responsible for significant yield losses in soybean production. Among the methods available for controlling this disease, breeding for resistance is the most promising. Progress in breeding efforts has been slow due to the insufficient information available on the genetic mechanisms related to resistance. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) enable unraveling the genetic architecture of resistance and identification of causal genes. The aims of this study were to identify new sources of resistance to CR in a collection of 459 diverse plant introductions from the USDA Soybean Germplasm Core Collection using field and ...


Gmmyb176 Interactome And Regulation Of Isoflavonoid Biosynthesis In Soybean, Arun Kumaran Anguraj Vadivel Jun 2017

Gmmyb176 Interactome And Regulation Of Isoflavonoid Biosynthesis In Soybean, Arun Kumaran Anguraj Vadivel

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

MYB transcription factors are one of the largest transcription factor families characterized in plants. They are classified into four types: R1 MYB, R2R3 MYB, R3 MYB and R4 MYB. GmMYB176 is an R1MYB transcription factor that regulates Chalcone synthase (CHS8) gene expression and isoflavonoid biosynthesis in soybean. Silencing of GmMYB176 suppressed the expression of the GmCHS8 gene and reduced the accumulation of isoflavonoids in soybean hairy roots. However, overexpression of GmMYB176 does not alter either GmCHS8 gene expression or isoflavonoid levels suggesting that GmMYB176 alone is not sufficient for GmCHS8 gene regulation. I hypothesized that GmMYB176 acts cooperatively with another ...


Emergence, Competition, And Management Of Glyphosate-Resistant Common Ragweed (Ambrosia Artemisiifolia L.) In Nebraska Soybean, Ethann R. Barnes Apr 2017

Emergence, Competition, And Management Of Glyphosate-Resistant Common Ragweed (Ambrosia Artemisiifolia L.) In Nebraska Soybean, Ethann R. Barnes

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is a competitive annual broadleaf weed in soybean (Glycine max) production fields throughout North America. The recent confirmation of glyphosate-resistant common ragweed in Nebraska justified the need to assess the emergence pattern and competitive ability of common ragweed in soybean and to evaluate alternative herbicide programs for effective management. The objectives of this research were to: 1) evaluate the effect of tillage and develop a predictive model for the emergence pattern of common ragweed in Nebraska; 2) model the competitive interaction between soybean and common ragweed as influenced by density and irrigation levels; 3) characterize ...


Modeling Gross Primary Production Of Midwest Maize And Soybean Croplands With Satellite And Gridded Weather Data, Gunnar Malek-Madani Apr 2017

Modeling Gross Primary Production Of Midwest Maize And Soybean Croplands With Satellite And Gridded Weather Data, Gunnar Malek-Madani

Theses and Dissertations in Geography

The gross primary production (GPP) metric is useful in determining trends in the terrestrial carbon cycle. Models that determine GPP utilizing the light use efficiency (LUE) approach in conjunction with biophysical parameters that account for local weather conditions and crop specific factors are beneficial in that they combine the accuracy of the biophysical model with the versatility of the LUE model. One such model developed using in situ data was adapted to operate with remote sensing derived leaf area index (LAI) data and gridded weather datasets. The model, known as the Light Use Efficiency GPP Model (EGM), uses a four ...


Advancing Our Understanding Of Charcoal Rot In Soybeans, Martha P. Romero Luna, Daren Mueller, Alemu Mengistu, Asheesh K. Singh, Glen L. Hartman, Kiersten A. Wise Jan 2017

Advancing Our Understanding Of Charcoal Rot In Soybeans, Martha P. Romero Luna, Daren Mueller, Alemu Mengistu, Asheesh K. Singh, Glen L. Hartman, Kiersten A. Wise

Agronomy Publications

Charcoal rot [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid] of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is an important but commonly misidentified disease, and very few summary articles exist on this pathosystem. Research conducted over the past 10 yr has improved our understanding of the environment conducive to disease development, host resistance, and improved disease diagnosis and management. This article summarizes the currently available research with an emphasis on disease management.


Gene Silencing Of Argonaute5 Negatively Affects The Establishment Of The Legume-Rhizobia Symbiosis, Maria Del Rocio Reyero-Saavedra, Zhenzhen Qiao, Maria Del Socorro Sanchez-Correa, M. Enrique Diaz-Pineda, Jose L. Reyes, Alejandra A. Covarrubias, Marc Libault, Oswaldo Valdes-Lopez Jan 2017

Gene Silencing Of Argonaute5 Negatively Affects The Establishment Of The Legume-Rhizobia Symbiosis, Maria Del Rocio Reyero-Saavedra, Zhenzhen Qiao, Maria Del Socorro Sanchez-Correa, M. Enrique Diaz-Pineda, Jose L. Reyes, Alejandra A. Covarrubias, Marc Libault, Oswaldo Valdes-Lopez

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

The establishment of the symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia is finely regulated at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional and posttranslational levels. Argonaute5 (AGO5), a protein involved in RNA silencing, can bind both viral RNAs and microRNAs to control plant-microbe interactions and plant physiology. For instance, AGO5 regulates the systemic resistance of Arabidopsis against Potato Virus X as well as the pigmentation of soybean (Glycine max) seeds. Here, we show that AGO5 is also playing a central role in legume nodulation based on its preferential expression in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean roots and nodules. We also report that the expression ...


Increasing Renewable Oil Content And Utility, William Richard Serson Jan 2017

Increasing Renewable Oil Content And Utility, William Richard Serson

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Since the dawn of agriculture man has been genetically modifying crop plants to increase yield, quality and utility. In addition to selective breeding and hybridization we can utilize mutant populations and biotechnology to have greater control over crop plant modification than ever before. Increasing the production of plant oils such as soybean oil as a renewable resource for food and fuel is valuable. Successful breeding for higher oil levels in soybean, however, usually results in reduced protein, a second valuable seed component. We show that by manipulating a highly active acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) the hydrocarbon flux to oil in ...


Dissecting Salt Tolerance In Soybean By Profiling Differential Physiological Responses Under Salt Stress, Jade Amber Newsome Dec 2016

Dissecting Salt Tolerance In Soybean By Profiling Differential Physiological Responses Under Salt Stress, Jade Amber Newsome

Theses and Dissertations

Saline soils are common worldwide and limit the yield potential of many crops. Plants respond in a variety of ways to the stress imposed by saline soils. Plants under salt stress must first sense their surroundings and transmit a signal alerting the rest of the plant to the saline conditions. Salt tolerance in soybeans is typically defined by exclusion of chloride ions from foliar tissues. Though differences in ion uptake among soybean genotypes is well documented, the key mechanisms employed by tolerant cultivars to cope with salt stress on the whole-plant level are still largely unknown. Objectives of the current ...


Modeling Long-Term Corn Yield Response To Nitrogen Rate And Crop Rotation, Laila A. Puntel, John E. Sawyer, Daniel W. Barker, Ranae Dietzel, Hanna Poffenbarger, Michael J. Castellano, Kenneth J. Moore, Peter J. Thorburn, Sotirios V. Archontoulis Nov 2016

Modeling Long-Term Corn Yield Response To Nitrogen Rate And Crop Rotation, Laila A. Puntel, John E. Sawyer, Daniel W. Barker, Ranae Dietzel, Hanna Poffenbarger, Michael J. Castellano, Kenneth J. Moore, Peter J. Thorburn, Sotirios V. Archontoulis

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Improved prediction of optimal N fertilizer rates for corn (Zea mays L.) can reduce N losses and increase profits. We tested the ability of the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to simulate corn and soybean (Glycine max L.) yields, the economic optimum N rate (EONR) using a 16-year field-experiment dataset from central Iowa, USA that included two crop sequences (continuous corn and soybean-corn) and five N fertilizer rates (0, 67, 134, 201, and 268 kg N ha-1) applied to corn. Our objectives were to: (a) quantify model prediction accuracy before and after calibration, and report calibration steps; (b) compare ...


Identification And Characterization Of The Isoflavonoid-Specific Prenyltransferase Gene Family To Prevent Stem And Root Rot In Soybean, Arjun Sukumaran Sep 2016

Identification And Characterization Of The Isoflavonoid-Specific Prenyltransferase Gene Family To Prevent Stem And Root Rot In Soybean, Arjun Sukumaran

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Soybean is one of the most predominantly grown legumes worldwide, however, one deterrent to maximizing its yield is the pathogen, Phytophthora sojae, which causes stem and root rot disease. Many strategies have been implemented to combat this pathogen such as use of pesticides and certain agricultural practices. However, these have been largely ineffective in completely preventing P. sojae infection. An alternative strategy would be to improve the innate resistance of soybean by promoting increased glyceollin production. Glyceollins are soybean-specific antimicrobial agents which are derived from the isoflavonoid branch of the general phenylpropanoid pathway. Soybeans produce 3 forms of glyceollin: glyceollin ...


High Throughput Phenotypic Evaluation Of Drought-Related Traits In Soybean, Hua Bai Aug 2016

High Throughput Phenotypic Evaluation Of Drought-Related Traits In Soybean, Hua Bai

Theses and Dissertations

Drought limits crop growth and yield in soybean. Rapid and effective methods of screening large numbers of soybean lines for drought tolerance are urgently needed. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of drought in soybean during reproductive stages. In the first experiment five genotypes from maturity groups 2 through 5 were tested under well-irrigated and drought conditions. Beginning at R5, leaf samples were taken for nitrogen concentration analysis. Pictures were taken across the top of each plot to determine the intensity of greenness using the Dark Green Color Index (DGCI). Aerial photographs were also taken to determine aerial ...


Virus-Induced Gene Silencing And Transient Gene Expression In Soybean (Glycine Max) Using Bean Pod Mottle Virus Infectious Clones, Steven A. Whitham, Lori M. Lincoln, R. V. Chowda-Reddy, Jaime D. Dittman, Jamie A. O'Rourke, Michelle A. Graham Jun 2016

Virus-Induced Gene Silencing And Transient Gene Expression In Soybean (Glycine Max) Using Bean Pod Mottle Virus Infectious Clones, Steven A. Whitham, Lori M. Lincoln, R. V. Chowda-Reddy, Jaime D. Dittman, Jamie A. O'Rourke, Michelle A. Graham

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful and rapid approach for determining the functions of plant genes. The basis of VIGS is that a viral genome is engineered so that it can carry fragments of plant genes, typically in the 200 to 300 base pair size range. The recombinant viruses are used to infect experimental plants, and wherever the virus invades, the target gene or genes will be silenced. VIGS is thus transient, and in the span of a few weeks, it is possible to design VIGS constructs and then generate loss-of-function phenotypes through RNA silencing of the target genes ...


Microscopic Characterization Of A Transposon-Induced Male-Sterile, Female-Sterile Mutant In Glycine Max L., Katherine A. Thilges Jan 2016

Microscopic Characterization Of A Transposon-Induced Male-Sterile, Female-Sterile Mutant In Glycine Max L., Katherine A. Thilges

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A male-sterile, female-sterile mutant was identified in a transposon-tagging study in soybean (Glycine max L.). This mutant displayed abnormalities in both micro- and mega-sporogenesis, as well as gametogenesis. Vegetatively, the mutant showed no visible differences from the wild-type phenotype. Analyses of male meiotic chromosomes were done to better understand any issues that could occur to cause sterility. Wild-type and mutant anthers and ovules were cleared throughout their development, followed by confocal scanning laser microscopy to look for any abnormalities, and to determine the timing of abortion in both the male and female organs in the mutant. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy ...


Simulating Long-Term Impacts Of Cover Crops And Climate Change On Crop Production And Environmental Outcomes In The Midwestern United States, Andrea D. Basche, Sotririos V. Archontoulis, Thomas C. Kaspar, Dan B. Jaynes, Timothy B. Parkin, Fernando E. Miguez Jan 2016

Simulating Long-Term Impacts Of Cover Crops And Climate Change On Crop Production And Environmental Outcomes In The Midwestern United States, Andrea D. Basche, Sotririos V. Archontoulis, Thomas C. Kaspar, Dan B. Jaynes, Timothy B. Parkin, Fernando E. Miguez

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

It is critical to evaluate conservation practices that protect soil and water resources from climate change in the Midwestern United States, a region that produces one-quarter of the world’s soybeans and one-third of the world’s maize. An over-winter cover crop in a maize–soybean rotation offers multiple potential benefits that can reduce the impacts of higher temperatures and more variable rainfall; some of the anticipated changes for the Midwest. In this experiment we used the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to understand how winter rye cover crops impact crop production and environmental outcomes, given future climate change. We ...