Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Digital Commons Network

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 138

Full-Text Articles in Entire DC Network

Arctic Geopolitics Reconsidered: Pathways To Conflict And Cooperation, Christopher Tremoglie Jun 2020

Arctic Geopolitics Reconsidered: Pathways To Conflict And Cooperation, Christopher Tremoglie

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

The Arctic region is widely considered to be one of the planet’s last frontiers. As the world’s countries competed for Earth’s resources, few areas of the world were left unscathed; the Arctic was one of those regions. However, as climate change accelerates the melting of sea ice in the Arctic, previously inaccessible areas, believed to contain an abundance of natural resources such as minerals, natural gas, and oil, will soon become available for extraction. This race for resources has created tension among the actors in the Arctic.

As such, this paper asks: what conditions would be necessary ...


White Or Foreign? Differentiating Perceptions Of The Racialization Of National Identity In Canada, The United States, Australia, And New Zealand, Lucy Hu Jun 2020

White Or Foreign? Differentiating Perceptions Of The Racialization Of National Identity In Canada, The United States, Australia, And New Zealand, Lucy Hu

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Past literature has established that often in a white-majority society, a national label is associated with the white population more than people of other ethnic origins. Canada, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand share many historical and institutional similarities, making them valuable comparative cases. While scholars have researched national identity to varying degrees in these countries, the gap remains in comparative analysis of perceptions of national identity. This thesis first analyzes comparative public opinion data to establish differences in the degree to which national identity is racially-exclusive in the case countries. Second, it compares historical immigration policy, multiculturalism policy ...


National Minorities And European Union Accession: A Consideration Of Communist Legacies And Eu Conditionality In Central And Eastern Europe, Esther Moriah Yeung Apr 2020

National Minorities And European Union Accession: A Consideration Of Communist Legacies And Eu Conditionality In Central And Eastern Europe, Esther Moriah Yeung

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

The fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe prompted Western Europe to integrate the region with European Union (EU) expansion. The collapse of the Eastern bloc was concerning to the West, which viewed the nationalist tensions in the region as having the potential to trigger destabilization and conflict. This thesis evaluates the treatment of Hungarian national minorities in three states that eventually joined the EU: Slovakia, Romania, and Slovenia. Marxist-Leninist legacies, in combination with democratization and EU membership, determined key differences in state compliance with EU national minority recommendations in the wake of membership. I identify how both communist-era ...


Transcending Turnout: Identity, Campus Experiences, And The Political Behaviors Of Latinx Youth, Isabella Fierro Apr 2020

Transcending Turnout: Identity, Campus Experiences, And The Political Behaviors Of Latinx Youth, Isabella Fierro

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Latinx youth are increasingly the focus of American politics and campaigns. They are a passionate and ever-growing segment of what is predicted to be the largest ethnic group of eligible voters in 2020. However, this population consistently produces low rates of turnout in national elections. This thesis aims to understand how the campus experiences of Latinx undergraduates may influence their political behaviors in light of recent events. Political behaviors are assessed by political views and political participation in both electoral and nonelectoral activities. Using survey data from the Higher Education Research Institute, the study first investigates changes in students' political ...


A Historical Analysis Of The Democratic Primary Debate Requirements: An Approach For Understanding The Democratic National Committee’S 2020 Rules Change, Joshua E. Charap Apr 2020

A Historical Analysis Of The Democratic Primary Debate Requirements: An Approach For Understanding The Democratic National Committee’S 2020 Rules Change, Joshua E. Charap

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

In February 2019, the Democratic National Committee (DNC) created a set of comprehensive rules governing the qualifications for participating in the 2020 primary debates. The rules, the first of their kind, were the result of over a decade of primary debate mishaps and disagreements. Historically, it was not difficult for candidates to qualify for primary debates. There were usually fewer than eight candidates on the stage and the debates did not play a large role in the primary winnowing process. But as the number of candidates rose, and in light of the Republican’s experience in 2016, the Democrats moved ...


Unintended Consequences: Effects Of Foreign Direct Investment In Resource Extraction On Ethnic Conflict, Daniel S. Matthews Apr 2020

Unintended Consequences: Effects Of Foreign Direct Investment In Resource Extraction On Ethnic Conflict, Daniel S. Matthews

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Over the past 70 years civil wars have become the most common form of war. Much time and thought has been devoted to understand why subnational groups fight. Additionally, scholars have long analyzed the so-called “resource curse”, whereby states with high levels of natural resources may tend to experience violence. As levels of globalized economic markets have proliferated in this time too, it is important to understand the relationship between foreign investment and war. Little research has been done on the interaction between resource extraction, foreign investment, and subnational conflict, especially using social identity formation as an analytical tool. This ...


Diverging Neighbors In The Near Abroad: The Sources Of Conflicting Relations With Russia In Armenia And Georgia, Jake H. Fallek Apr 2020

Diverging Neighbors In The Near Abroad: The Sources Of Conflicting Relations With Russia In Armenia And Georgia, Jake H. Fallek

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

When Armenia and Georgia exited the Soviet Union in 1991, massive popular majorities in both countries voted for independence in nationwide referenda. Over thirty-years later, Armenia and Georgia have chartered two radically distinctive pathways for their states within the near abroad. Tbilisi has become a reliable opponent of Russia within the post-Soviet space as it pursues integration into NATO and the European Union. Yerevan, by contrast, is closely associated with Russia, and has joined the Russian-led Eurasian Economic Union. This thesis employs a comparative framework to evaluate the sources behind this divergence. The research identifies three determining variables behind this ...


A Divided Continuum: The Logic Of Russian Escalation Against Post-Soviet States, Alexander Rabin Apr 2020

A Divided Continuum: The Logic Of Russian Escalation Against Post-Soviet States, Alexander Rabin

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

This thesis probes for patterns in the escalation of Russian interventions against neighboring post-Soviet states after the Cold War. It then seeks to explain the causation of such patterns. I conclude that the factors influencing the intensity levels of Russian interventions can be understood within a periodized framework. After the USSR’s collapse, Russia’s limited economic capacity prevented it from intensifying its interventions against neighboring ex-Soviet states. An increase in economic power at the turn of the century then shifted Russia’s intervention calculus. Russia is most likely to escalate to a significant intensity level when its economy is ...


In The Path Of The Flood: Exploring Carbon-Intensive Employment And Coastal Geography As Motivators Of U.S. Climate Change Denial, Mark E. Steiner Apr 2020

In The Path Of The Flood: Exploring Carbon-Intensive Employment And Coastal Geography As Motivators Of U.S. Climate Change Denial, Mark E. Steiner

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

This thesis uses multivariate regressions of the ANES 2016 Dataset to test whether working in a carbon-intensive industry affects belief in climate change. It also uses the same dataset to test whether living in an area that would see increased flooding and displacement under a climate change scenario can affect the same attitudes. Additionally, it presents crosstabulations of climate skeptics and non-skeptics by party preference, education, and turnout habits. I find that working in a carbon-intensive industry does not reduce a respondent’s likelihood to report belief in climate science. Similarly, living in a coastal area that is likely to ...


The Shortfalls Of Health Care Crowdfunding In Addressing The Needs Of The Underserved, Kevin Yang Apr 2020

The Shortfalls Of Health Care Crowdfunding In Addressing The Needs Of The Underserved, Kevin Yang

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Because the cost of health care is increasing, more Americans are relying on crowdfunding to finance their health care expenses. Health care crowdfunding occurs when people seek donations through online crowdfunding platforms to pay for their health care costs. This thesis seeks to use theories in charitable giving and health care crowdfunding to understand if crowdfunding dollars are going to the people who need them most. Low-income individuals in non-Medicaid expansion states and patients with chronic diseases are not adequately covered by the private insurance market, thus they require the most need. However, donors evaluate need subjectively and are more ...


Zooming Past Motor-Voter: An Analysis Of How Automatic Voter Registration Policies Impact Voter Turnout In The United States, Ketaki Gujar Apr 2020

Zooming Past Motor-Voter: An Analysis Of How Automatic Voter Registration Policies Impact Voter Turnout In The United States, Ketaki Gujar

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

In the 1990s, the National Voter Registration Act (NVRA) mandated that motor vehicle agencies process voter registration applications in a policy known as motor-voter. From motor- voter emerged automatic voter registration, or AVR, wherein eligible voters are registered to vote automatically from a transaction with certain state-designated agencies. In 2016, Oregon became the first state to implement an automatic voter registration policy, though a number of states have since followed. In this paper, I analyze the impact of AVR on rates of voter turnout and rates of voter registration, making this paper among the first to identify the effect of ...


Economic Recovery In The Euro Area: The Asymmetrical Recoveries Of Greece, Ireland And Portugal Following The Late 2000s European Debt Crisis, Zachary A. Jacobs Apr 2020

Economic Recovery In The Euro Area: The Asymmetrical Recoveries Of Greece, Ireland And Portugal Following The Late 2000s European Debt Crisis, Zachary A. Jacobs

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

The late 2000s financial crisis within the euro area had distinct effects on different member states of the polity despite a shared monetary policy and supranational organizational structure. Certain countries like Greece suffered a prolonged (and ongoing) economic crisis while others, Portugal and Ireland as discussed in this thesis, had periods of crisis but returned to normalcy after some time. Commitment to certain policies at the national level cannot fully explain the speed of these recoveries; Portugal and Ireland, for instance, had different levels of commitment to and popular willingness to endure austerity measures. All three countries will be discussed ...


Support For Authoritarianism: The Case Of Augusto Pinochet, Alina Mizrahi Jan 2020

Support For Authoritarianism: The Case Of Augusto Pinochet, Alina Mizrahi

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Why do people support repressive and authoritarian leaders? In many Latin American countries, as well as other countries around the world, people vote for and support leaders who have infringed on their human rights. In 1973, Augusto Pinochet staged a coup in Chile and seized power for over sixteen years. Although Pinochet’s regime was brutal and repressive, numerous Chilean citizens still profess their support for him. This paper investigates the variables that predict support for Pinochet in Chile. This is done using surveys carried out in 1988, 1991, and 1999 by the Centro de Estudios Públicos in Chile. The ...


Origins Of Secession, Aiden A. Gonzalez Jan 2020

Origins Of Secession, Aiden A. Gonzalez

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Using a variety of methods, both qualitative and quantitative, I show in this work that secessionist movements across four case studies have three primary characteristics: concerns over status, material welfare, and the viability of the potentially new and independent state.


China‘S Censorship And Cultural Power--Necessarily At Odds?, Juliette S. Miller Jan 2020

China‘S Censorship And Cultural Power--Necessarily At Odds?, Juliette S. Miller

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

This thesis looks at the censorship practices of the CCP in regards to cultural power. I analyze in depth, Confucius Institutes and the field of Contemporary Art as case studies for cultural power. This paper suggests that our current ways of thinking about censorship and soft power are limited in explaining what is happening with Chinese cultural power. I contend that the CCP is focused on building a global presence and cultural security through its censorship practices. This does degrade China’s ability to accrue soft power, but it should not be understood as a failure on behalf as the ...


No Sympathy For The Folk Devil: How Presidential Speechmaking In The War On Terror And The War On Drugs Utilized Threat And Anxiety To Manipulate And Persuade The American Public, Erin E. Farrell May 2019

No Sympathy For The Folk Devil: How Presidential Speechmaking In The War On Terror And The War On Drugs Utilized Threat And Anxiety To Manipulate And Persuade The American Public, Erin E. Farrell

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

This thesis analyzes how presidential speeches in the War on Terror (2001 through the present) and the War on Drugs (1964 through the present) defined the out-group, characterized a righteous American in-group, and aided in the creation of atmospheres of escalating fear and anxiety to gain support for specific policy ends. To observe and quantify these trends of fear and crisis, out-group isolation, and in-group emphasis, the author uses quantitative and qualitative content analysis. The results reflect a higher concentration of rhetoric espousing punitive policymaking, characterization of the out-group in each era as immoral, violent, and ubiquitous, and a definition ...


Salvation Or Suffering? Analyzing The Impact Of Un Peacekeeping Operations On Health And Safety Of Women In Post-Conflict Environments, Alicia Y. Hariri May 2019

Salvation Or Suffering? Analyzing The Impact Of Un Peacekeeping Operations On Health And Safety Of Women In Post-Conflict Environments, Alicia Y. Hariri

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Drawing from the experiences of the United Nations Peacekeeping Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) and United Nations Peacekeeping Mission in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL), this study examines the impact of UN peacekeeping operations on the health and safety of women and girls in post-conflict environments. By combining findings from the four indicators of access to the provision of health care, state of maternal health, disarmament of women and girls, and the prevalence of sexual exploitation and abuse, this study will illustrate that neither mission led to disproportionately better outcomes for women and girls following mission deployment.


Ain’T We Women? Assessing The Place Of Women Of Color In Campaign Training Programs, Catherine Monk Apr 2019

Ain’T We Women? Assessing The Place Of Women Of Color In Campaign Training Programs, Catherine Monk

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

While descriptive representatives enhance democratic legitimacy and deliver substantive results to their constituents, women remain underrepresented in American politics. Recent literature regarding electoral politics has concluded that this is because women do not run for office. Scholars identify many reasons for this candidacy gap including the lack of an institutional support structure and barriers on the campaign trail. In this thesis, I argue that women of color face additional barriers not addressed by traditional literature. I use in-depth interviews with the founder of a campaign training program, and a review of their recruitment and training materials, to examine how the ...


The Cost Of The Cup: A Case Study On The Political And Economic Impacts Of Hosting Mega Sporting Events, George J. Avdellas Apr 2019

The Cost Of The Cup: A Case Study On The Political And Economic Impacts Of Hosting Mega Sporting Events, George J. Avdellas

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

In the modern world, sports have become a new form of geopolitical signaling. Countries who are entrusted with hosting mega sporting events, from the Olympic Games to the World Cup are seen as capable and competent nations. For developing nations, these games can bring political legitimacy, as it shows that their respective teams can not only compete in global events, but their governments can host safe, secure, and well run events.

In this thesis, I will be examining South Africa’s process in bidding, building and hosting the 2010 World Cup and the subsequent political and economic effects. South Africa ...


Partisan Issue Linkages In Presidential Campaign Speeches: A Case Study Of Abortion, Ashutosh Mishra Apr 2019

Partisan Issue Linkages In Presidential Campaign Speeches: A Case Study Of Abortion, Ashutosh Mishra

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

This study examined how presidential candidates used partisan issue linkages to discuss their abortion views over the 2008, 2012, and 2016 elections. It qualitatively examined 64 speeches, town halls, and interviews in which candidates spoke about abortion to identify trends in their rhetoric. It also measured the frequencies with which candidates used partisan messages, specific vocabulary, and issue linkages. As candidates employed stronger and more partisan issue linkages across these three elections, they transformed abortion from a stand-alone issue to one entrenched in a partisan policy package. The development of Planned Parenthood as a symbol for pro-choice positions in 2012 ...


An Acquired Taste: Evolving Approaches To Nutrition Education In The United States, Callie Holtermann Mar 2019

An Acquired Taste: Evolving Approaches To Nutrition Education In The United States, Callie Holtermann

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

This thesis considers the effectiveness of three approaches to nutrition education in the United States: classroom lessons about nutrition, cooking classes, and a mandate for educators to improve the food environment. It brings interviews with eight Philadelphia-area nutrition educators into conversation with scholarly program evaluations in order to explore the impacts and outcomes of nutrition education policy change on students, educators, and communities. Especially given high rates of obesity, it is a goal of nutrition education to influence children’s behavior in a way that is conducive to healthy eating. The feedback of nutrition educators and scientific evaluations of each ...


Shift In The Suburbs: An Analysis Of Changing Vote Patterns In American Suburbs, 2000-2018, Jack D. Weisman Mar 2019

Shift In The Suburbs: An Analysis Of Changing Vote Patterns In American Suburbs, 2000-2018, Jack D. Weisman

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

In the 2016 Presidential Election, the movement of well-off, highly-educated suburbs towards the Democratic Party was one of the most significant yet undercovered stories. In this paper, I analyze the political changes in suburbs around five major cities (Boston, Charleston (SC), Cleveland, Los Angeles, and Minneapolis) both in 2016 and in elections dating back to 2000. I find that between 2000 and 2014, municipalities close to core cities with high percentages of college graduates became slightly but significantly more Democratic, with much of this movement taking place around 2004 and 2006. Comparing 2016 to previous elections, I find that proximity ...


Rifles And Reinforcement: The National Rifle Association’S Partisan Approach To Gun Ownership, August Gebhard-Koenigstein Mar 2019

Rifles And Reinforcement: The National Rifle Association’S Partisan Approach To Gun Ownership, August Gebhard-Koenigstein

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

The NRA has long been the dominant player in the battle over gun control. Scholars have attributed this dominance in large part to the NRA’s ability to mobilize its membership when necessary. Lacombe (2018) has written of the NRA’s cultivation of a politicized social identity around gun ownership that assists it in doing so. In this thesis, I show that the NRA has tied this gun owner identity to conservatism and to the Republican party. I find that the NRA’s homogenous membership composition advantages it in its strategy of developing a partisan politicized gun-owner identity among its ...


Social Media And The 2018 Midterms: An Analysis Of House Candidates' Twitter Posts, Jacob R. Ausubel Mar 2019

Social Media And The 2018 Midterms: An Analysis Of House Candidates' Twitter Posts, Jacob R. Ausubel

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

To date, relatively few academic studies have analyzed congressional candidates’ use of social media in the 2018 U.S. midterm elections. This paper contributes to the literature by conducting a textual analysis of 697 House candidates’ Twitter posts from between January 1st and November 6th 2018. The study focuses on seven key issues – the economy, gun policy, healthcare, immigration, Russia, the Supreme Court, and the Trump presidency – and assesses whether there was a fundamental difference in how Democratic and Republican candidates approached each one. The paper argues that there were partisan differences in social media use and presents two ...


The Dragon Stretches Its Wings: Assessing The Geopolitical And Economic Implications Of China’S Belt And Road Initiative In Pakistan And Kenya, Andrea Villarnovo Lopez Begleiter Mar 2019

The Dragon Stretches Its Wings: Assessing The Geopolitical And Economic Implications Of China’S Belt And Road Initiative In Pakistan And Kenya, Andrea Villarnovo Lopez Begleiter

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

In 2013 China launched what is now known as the Belt and Road Initiative. This multinational, trillion-dollar development project seeks to improve connections by land and sea between China and its economic partners in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and Europe. Since its launch, many countries have warned that Belt and Road is a thinly-veiled plot for China to advance its geopolitical and military interests. This paper uses Pakistan and Kenya as case studies to assess claims that China is using “debt-trap diplomacy” to accomplish its foreign policy agenda. Using a qualitative and holistic approach, this paper finds that contrary ...


Rhetorical Ruckus Or Supranational Legal Threat? A Comparative Analysis Of Far-Right Populism In Central And Eastern European Member States Of The European Union And Its Supranational Legal-Institutional Consequences, Stephen Imburgia Mar 2019

Rhetorical Ruckus Or Supranational Legal Threat? A Comparative Analysis Of Far-Right Populism In Central And Eastern European Member States Of The European Union And Its Supranational Legal-Institutional Consequences, Stephen Imburgia

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Many states around the globe, most particularly in Europe, have seen a resurgence of far-right populist parties in the years following the global financial crisis. In Central and Eastern Europe (C.E.E.), the domestic democratic backsliding exhibited by European Union Member States such as Hungary under the administration of Fidesz’s Viktor Orbán and Poland under the control of Law and Justice’s Mateusz Morawiecki have prompted many scholars and political observers to predict the worst for the European Union. However, while domestic sliding towards authoritarianism and a flouting of rhetorical norms is cause for alarm, the effect of ...


Rethinking Refugee Mobility: Passports As Pathways To Protection, Stephen G. Damianos Mar 2019

Rethinking Refugee Mobility: Passports As Pathways To Protection, Stephen G. Damianos

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Issues of migration and border management are a dominant part of political discourse, particularly in Europe where countries grapple with high-profile drownings in the Mediterranean Sea. These tragedies and subsequent discourse reflect a move towards restricted territorial access, governed by stringent policies and concerns of national security. Migration literature often focuses on the barriers that prevent forced migrants from safely and legally accessing territory, but less often considers the ability of institutions to overcome these barriers. This thesis seeks to understand the conditions that allow institutions to facilitate mobility through the issuance of travel documents. Employing a comparative case study ...


Media Distrust: Whose Confidence Was Lost?, Hunter Pearl Mar 2018

Media Distrust: Whose Confidence Was Lost?, Hunter Pearl

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

The news media is among the least-trusted institutions in the nation, with only 41% of Americans reporting a great deal or fair amount of trust in it (Swift 2017). This is a major change from the highly trusted media of the mid-20 th Century, although historically this independent, powerful, and widely respected media establishment is an anomaly. To analyze the causes of media distrust over the last forty years, I have demographically broken down results from a question asked by the General Social Survey since 1972. I tested these results, isolated through a regression analysis, against my predictions of potential ...


Unintended Consequences In Higher Education Finance Policy: Implications For Current Income-Share Agreement Legislative Efforts And Beyond, Patrick A. Zancolli Mar 2018

Unintended Consequences In Higher Education Finance Policy: Implications For Current Income-Share Agreement Legislative Efforts And Beyond, Patrick A. Zancolli

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Although the creation of a federal financial aid system in the United States has greatly expanded opportunity for students seeking postsecondary education, the higher education financing system faces a handful of problems in its current state. At the same time that the higher education financing system is facing these issues, an alternative to traditional student loans known as income-share agreements (ISAs) is gaining attention. There is currently a lack of federal legislation that provides a national framework for ISA providers and students to work within. Policymakers are considering this situation and attempting to address it in a way that properly ...


From The Table Of My Memory: Identity, Political Change, And Shakespeare In Mexico And Argentina, Helena Von Nagy Jan 2018

From The Table Of My Memory: Identity, Political Change, And Shakespeare In Mexico And Argentina, Helena Von Nagy

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

In Mexico and Argentina, the localization of Shakespeare marks the crystallization of a new nationalist, political identity rooted in a reshaped collective memory. The development of this identity and the role of memory form a new kind of national citizenship. This group citizenship gives an individual a connection to a nation established around the collective memory of events, or what I term the memory-nation. The localization of Shakespeare, then, marks the complete formation of a citizenship in a new memory-nation. In Mexico, the localization of Shakespeare and its use in cinema was part of a larger process of defining post-Revolutionary ...