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Comparative and Foreign Law

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The World Beyond Seaworld: A Comparative Analysis Of International Law Protecting Cetacea In Captivity, Casey M. Weed Jun 2018

The World Beyond Seaworld: A Comparative Analysis Of International Law Protecting Cetacea In Captivity, Casey M. Weed

Ocean and Coastal Law Journal

Over the past few decades, the public has become more and more aware of the inhumane and incredibly harsh treatment of marine mammals being kept in captivity, specifically for entertainment purposes. Anger and outrage reached a heighted level after the CNN documentary, Blackfish, was released in 2013, as the film brought increased awareness to viewers across the country. However, the issue of marine mammals in captivity reaches far deeper than the SeaWorld controversy of recent years; in fact, the issue spans even beyond the United States. This article therefore analyzes the laws which allow for such captivity to take place ...


Toward Distributive Justice In Offshore Natural Resources Development: Iceland And Norway In The Jan Mayen, Anita L. Parlow Jan 2018

Toward Distributive Justice In Offshore Natural Resources Development: Iceland And Norway In The Jan Mayen, Anita L. Parlow

Ocean and Coastal Law Journal

As pressures of globalization and advances in technology accelerate, more and more remote, coastal, and small communities are left financially stranded and disempowered. Many communities located at the historic periphery of global markets and trade routes are, often paradoxically, marginalized from the benefits of globalized trade, even while their more accessible natural resources have moved far closer to the center of global markets. The powerful political institutions of nation states combined with growing transnational businesses are driving a combination of boosts in national economies, explosions in technology, and fewer international restrictions on capital. This three-pronged dynamic is reshaping the structure ...


Shareholder Exit Signs On Us And Eu Highways, Raluca Papadima Sep 2016

Shareholder Exit Signs On Us And Eu Highways, Raluca Papadima

Raluca Papadima

This article discusses legal exit rights (referred to in the United States as appraisal rights and in civil law Europe as withdrawal rights), in the United States, France and Romania. We selected these three countries because they are representative of strong, average and respectively weak capital markets, with varying levels of shareholder activism and litigation (high, normal and respectively low). Additionally, the selection of these countries enabled us to compare the structure of legal exit rights in the United States and in Europe and, within Europe, between two politically, economically and culturally sister countries (France and Romania) which should be ...


Afghan Juvenile Code In Practice: Assessing Against International Juvenile Law, Christopher W. Carlson Jr. Sep 2016

Afghan Juvenile Code In Practice: Assessing Against International Juvenile Law, Christopher W. Carlson Jr.

Indonesian Journal of International and Comparative Law

This Article assesses and compares Afghanistan’s juvenile procedures with the systems and norms advocated by the United Nations (“UN”). The Afghan Juvenile Code of 2005 is compared with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child’s four key guidelines. The four guidelines include: (1) imprisonment of juveniles “shall be used only as a measure of last resort”; (2) any such imprisonment shall be “for the shortest appropriate period of time”; (3) juveniles who are in prison shall be “separated from adults”; and (4) they shall have the right to maintain “family contact.” These guidelines serve as a ...


Revisiting The Notion Of Full Protection And Security Of Foreign Direct Investments In Post-Gadhafi Libya: Two Governments, Tribal Violence, Militias, And Plenty More, Nasser A. Alreshaid Apr 2016

Revisiting The Notion Of Full Protection And Security Of Foreign Direct Investments In Post-Gadhafi Libya: Two Governments, Tribal Violence, Militias, And Plenty More, Nasser A. Alreshaid

Nasser A Alreshaid

The escalating violence and deteriorating conditions in today’s Libya have questioned the very likelihood of the survival of foreign investments there. Deemed an oil-producing hub, many oil concessions have been granted to foreign investors in Libya. The challenge that follows is how to legally ensure the full protection and security of investors. This notion is tested in the post-Gadhafi Libya situation in the context of a two-government state, where militias with extremist ideologies in most instances, defy an internationally recognized government and take control over Libyan territories. Such territories contain oil terminals, which leads to a partial or complete ...


From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, Yehezkel Margalit Jan 2016

From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

In 1985, when Kim Cotton became Britain’s first commercial surrogate mother, Europe was exposed to the issue of surrogacy for the first time on a large scale. Three years later, in 1988, the famous case of Baby M drew the attention of the American public to surrogacy as well. These two cases implicated fundamental ethical and legal issues regarding domestic surrogacy and triggered a fierce debate about motherhood, child-bearing, and the relationship between procreation, science and commerce. These two cases exemplified the debate regarding domestic surrogacy - a debate that has now been raging for decades. Contrary to the well-known ...


Catholic Social Teaching, The Right To Immigrate And The Right To Regulate Borders: A Proposed Solution For Comprehensive Immigration Reform Based Upon Catholic Social Principles, Chad G. Marzen, William Woodyard Jan 2016

Catholic Social Teaching, The Right To Immigrate And The Right To Regulate Borders: A Proposed Solution For Comprehensive Immigration Reform Based Upon Catholic Social Principles, Chad G. Marzen, William Woodyard

Chad G. Marzen

In the past decade, policymakers from various perspectives have discussed and debated proposals to reform America’s immigration system. This article discusses not only the history of the Catholic legal and intellectual tradition’s contribution to social teaching on the issue of immigration, but emphasizes the development of two strands of Catholic thought: the right to immigrate, and the right to regulate borders. Applying the Catholic legal and intellectual tradition, this article provides a proposal for immigration reform that incorporates key tenets of Catholic social thought.


Legal Transplantation Or Legal Innovation? Equity-Crowdfunding Regulation In Taiwan After Title Iii Of The U.S. Jobs Act, Chang-Hsien Tsai Dec 2015

Legal Transplantation Or Legal Innovation? Equity-Crowdfunding Regulation In Taiwan After Title Iii Of The U.S. Jobs Act, Chang-Hsien Tsai

Chang-hsien (Robert) TSAI

Crowdfunding has caused a worldwide revolution in early-stage startup financing during recent years.  In the United States, the expansion of for-profit crowdfunding platforms to fund small businesses and startups prompted Congress to pass the game-changing law on equity crowdfunding, Title III of the JOBS Act in 2012 (“CROWDFUND Act”).  While its specific rules and regulations as adopted by the SEC takes effect this year, the substance of the JOBS Act as a whole is geared more towards the goal of capital formation, over the historically promoted goal of investor protection.  The use of equity crowdfunding has extended over to Taiwan ...


Laying Down The "Brics": Enhancing The Portability Of Awards In International Commercial Arbitration, Benjamin C. Mccarty Dec 2015

Laying Down The "Brics": Enhancing The Portability Of Awards In International Commercial Arbitration, Benjamin C. Mccarty

Benjamin C McCarty

The drafters of the 1958 New York Convention intended Article V(2)(b) to be interpreted narrowly, and while most pro-arbitration national courts do maintain narrowly defined areas of public policy that are sufficient for refusal of the recognition and enforcement of a foreign arbitral award, this is not always the case. Developing states and jurisdictions that maintain corrupt or inefficient judicial systems have shown a greater willingness to invoke the public policy exception for a broader, amorphous variety of reasons. This phenomenon has created a sense of unpredictability among international investors, arbitrators, and business executives as to the amount ...


Framing The Responsibility To Protect Doctrine As A Means Of Legal And Moral Intervention With Universal Jurisdiction Legal Obligations Of The Responsibility To Protect Doctrine And Universal Civil Jurisdiction In The Syrian Civil War Crisis, David Satnarine Nov 2015

Framing The Responsibility To Protect Doctrine As A Means Of Legal And Moral Intervention With Universal Jurisdiction Legal Obligations Of The Responsibility To Protect Doctrine And Universal Civil Jurisdiction In The Syrian Civil War Crisis, David Satnarine

David Satnarine

No abstract provided.


Democracy And Torture, Patrick A. Maurer Oct 2015

Democracy And Torture, Patrick A. Maurer

Patrick A Maurer

September 11th spawned an era of political changes to fundamental rights. The focus of this discussion is to highlight Guantanamo Bay torture incidents. This analysis will explore the usages of torture from a legal standpoint in the United States.


Transplanting Contractual Terms: The Influence Of The Common Law In The Civil Law Of Contracts, A View From The Periphery, Dario Laguado Oct 2015

Transplanting Contractual Terms: The Influence Of The Common Law In The Civil Law Of Contracts, A View From The Periphery, Dario Laguado

Dario Laguado

This paper suggests a model of contractual innovation that takes into account the bottom-up transplant of legal devices from the core to the periphery. This model properly weighs the tension and differences between places of production and places of reception and the process of misreading that goes along with the transplant. It serves to explain the innovation that has been produced as a result of the influence of common law contracts in Colombia and South America. Evidence shows that this model can be generally applied to the process of transplantation in many jurisdictions around the world. The main features of ...


How Far Out Of Step Is The Supreme Court Of The United States?, Brian Christopher Jones Aug 2015

How Far Out Of Step Is The Supreme Court Of The United States?, Brian Christopher Jones

Brian Christopher Jones

This piece compares the United States Supreme Court (SCOTUS) and the UK Supreme Court (UKSC) regarding three major areas of interest: court communications, cameras in the courtroom, and judicial selection. Ultimately, it finds that, compared to their neighbour across the pond, the US Supreme Court is deeply out of step. This, coupled with other problems for SCOTUS, could ultimately hurt their legitimacy and constitutional review authority.


Infringement As Unfair Competition: A Blueprint For Global Governance?, Sean Pager, Eric Priest Aug 2015

Infringement As Unfair Competition: A Blueprint For Global Governance?, Sean Pager, Eric Priest

Sean Pager

INFRINGEMENT AS UNFAIR COMPETITION: A BLUEPRINT FOR GLOBAL GOVERNANCE?

Sean A. Pager Michigan State University College of Law

Eric Priest University of Oregon School of Law

ABSTRACT

This Article examines a new approach to address persistent regulatory failures in global supply chains. In a series of recent cases, unfair competition actions have been brought in U.S. court against foreign manufacturers who infringe software overseas under the theory that the cost savings from infringement confers an unfair advantage in U.S. markets. While this theory has been advanced in the intellectual property context, the same approach could work to target ...


The Rule Of Law And Ethical Integrity: Does Haiti Need A Code Of Legal Ethics?, Kate Bloch, Roxane Edmond-Dimanche Aug 2015

The Rule Of Law And Ethical Integrity: Does Haiti Need A Code Of Legal Ethics?, Kate Bloch, Roxane Edmond-Dimanche

University of Hawai'i Law Review

Abstract

The Rule of Law and Ethical Integrity: Does Haiti Need a Code of Legal Ethics?

When concerns about impunity and devastating poverty are facts of life, as they are in Haiti, lawyers face enormous obstacles in their efforts to uphold the rule of law and protect human rights. At the heart of many of these obstacles lie ethical challenges. For example, bribery of judicial officials is a crime and undermines the rule of law. But, what if a lawyer understands that pre-trial detention in the local prison generally involves grievous violations of inmates’ basic human rights, and bribery represents ...


The Beginning Of The End Of Internet Freedom, Dawn C. Nunziato Aug 2015

The Beginning Of The End Of Internet Freedom, Dawn C. Nunziato

Georgetown Journal of International Law

It was long assumed that the Internet would bring about greater opportunities for free expression than any other medium. In recent years, however, the Internet has increasingly become a tool of censorship, as scores of countries around the world have imposed nationwide filtering regimes to block their citizens’ access to various types of Internet speech that they deem harmful. Instead of trending toward greater freedom, the Internet is now trending toward greater censorship and control, as many countries – including democracies such as the United Kingdom -- are seeking to exercise greater and greater control over this medium. Today, more than forty ...


Chinese Tort Law Between Tradition And Transplants, Hao Jiang Esq. Aug 2015

Chinese Tort Law Between Tradition And Transplants, Hao Jiang Esq.

Hao Jiang Esq.

No abstract provided.


Perceptions And Reality: The Enforcement Of Foreign Arbitral Awards In China, Julian Ku, Roger Alford, Bei Xiao Aug 2015

Perceptions And Reality: The Enforcement Of Foreign Arbitral Awards In China, Julian Ku, Roger Alford, Bei Xiao

UCLA Pacific Basin Law Journal

This Article represents the most recent comprehensive effort to assess China’s record in the enforcement of arbitration awards issued outside of China. This Article fills two gaps in academic literature on China’s treatment of foreign arbitral awards. First, unlike studies that rely mainly on anecdotal evidence, this study reviews and analyzes the reasoning of leading Chinese judicial opinions interpreting and applying China’s obligations under the New York Convention. Second, unlike prior empirical studies of Chinese courts’ enforcement rates, this study also surveys global arbitration practitioners to find out information about their experiences enforcing foreign arbitral awards in ...


Adopting Subsequent Remuneration Right In Chinese Copyright Law, Xi Chen Aug 2015

Adopting Subsequent Remuneration Right In Chinese Copyright Law, Xi Chen

Xi Chen

One heavily and contentiously argued clause in Chinese Copyright Law amendments drafts focuses on the practicality of granting authors of audiovisual works the legal right to collect subsequent remunerations (SRR), when their works are reused in subsequent exploitations.

With the rapid increase of media channels for the Chinese movie industry, and other entertainment industries relying on a heavy usage of audiovisual work, authors demand that they should be entitled to the profit earned from derivative markets and other media channel beyond the first intended market. In order to balance the conflicting interest between the author and the producer, and to ...


Reviewing Arbitration Awards For Competition Law Violations: A Playbook For Courts Implementing The New York Convention, William Schubert Aug 2015

Reviewing Arbitration Awards For Competition Law Violations: A Playbook For Courts Implementing The New York Convention, William Schubert

William Schubert

This article discusses the risk that international arbitration awards violating national competition laws will be enforced without having received reasonable scrutiny either during arbitration or in the national courts.

The risk that competition law violations may be authorized under the guise of enforceable arbitration awards is real, and it is a major policy problem. It is quite easy, for example, to use the international arbitration framework to enforce agreements that authorize anticompetitive activity among competitors in jurisdictions unrelated to the arbitral award (i.e., without power to review it). The problem is that competition law violations in jurisdictions unrelated to ...


Developing An International Carbon Tax Regime, Steven Specht Aug 2015

Developing An International Carbon Tax Regime, Steven Specht

Steven Specht

As atmospheric CO2 remains in the range of 400 ppm, it is necessary to find new international coordination to deal with climate change. The best way forward is an international regime of harmonized domestic carbon taxes. By agreeing to a minimum amount of taxation on domestic, point-source producers, money can be set aside for adaptation costs and alternative means of energy production. Finally, such a plan will overcome the problem of non-participation of countries in agreements like the Kyoto Protocol. As this is a treaty dealing with economics and trade, countries can place taxes on imports of non-participatory countries under ...


International Trade V. Intellectual Property Lawyers: Globalization And The Brazilian Legal Profession, Vitor M. Dias Aug 2015

International Trade V. Intellectual Property Lawyers: Globalization And The Brazilian Legal Profession, Vitor M. Dias

Vitor M. Dias

No abstract provided.


The Final Impression Counts - Seeking Common Ground In Design Patent Infringement, Dana Beldiman, Paolo Beconcini Aug 2015

The Final Impression Counts - Seeking Common Ground In Design Patent Infringement, Dana Beldiman, Paolo Beconcini

Dana Beldiman

THE FINAL IMPRESSION COUNTS – Seeking Common Ground in Design Patent Infringement

Dana Beldiman*and Paolo Beconcini

Abstract

The visual appearance of products has become an asset of considerable economic value. Litigation surrounding it is increasingly common and has focused IP law on certain tensions that relate to the visual nature of IP assets.

One such area is design patent infringement. Policy mandates that comparison of two similar designs for purposes of evaluating infringement be performed by a notional purchaser, based on the overall impression of a design as whole. However, in performing the analysis courts are tempted to fall into ...


Perceptions And Reality: The Enforcement Of Foreign Arbitral Awards In China, Julian Ku, Roger Alford, Bei Xiao Aug 2015

Perceptions And Reality: The Enforcement Of Foreign Arbitral Awards In China, Julian Ku, Roger Alford, Bei Xiao

Julian Ku

This Article represents the most recent comprehensive effort to assess China’s record in the enforcement of arbitration awards issued outside of China. This Article fills two gaps in academic literature on China’s treatment of foreign arbitral awards. First, unlike studies that rely mainly on anecdotal evidence, this study reviews and analyzes the reasoning of leading Chinese judicial opinions interpreting and applying China’s obligations under the New York Convention. Second, unlike prior empirical studies of Chinese courts’ enforcement rates, this study also surveys global arbitration practitioners to find out information about their experiences enforcing foreign arbitral awards in ...


Wage Gender Disparities: Challenging Prevailing Assumptions, Theoretical Approache, Shlomit Yanisky-Ravid Professor Of Law Jul 2015

Wage Gender Disparities: Challenging Prevailing Assumptions, Theoretical Approache, Shlomit Yanisky-Ravid Professor Of Law

Shlomit Yanisky-Ravid Professor of Law

Women in the United States are, on average and consistently, earning less than their male peers. Sometimes, they are even paid less than the men they supervise. A common response concerns about the 23 cent gender wage gap for full-time year-round workers across occupations, is that it is simply a byproduct of the choices women make: choices to prefer family life and needs, work fewer hours, take on lower-paying jobs, or opt out of the workforce for longer periods of time than men. Under this view, the gender pay gap is not a result of sex discrimination but of women ...


Designing Trial Avoidance Procedures For Post-Conflict, Civil Law Countries: Is German Absprachen An Appropriate Model For Efficient Criminal Justice In Afghanistan?, Nasiruddin Nezaami Jul 2015

Designing Trial Avoidance Procedures For Post-Conflict, Civil Law Countries: Is German Absprachen An Appropriate Model For Efficient Criminal Justice In Afghanistan?, Nasiruddin Nezaami

Nasiruddin Nezaami

In Afghanistan, overflow of court dockets and lengthy trials persist despite recent reforms effected through a new Criminal Procedure Code. The new Code has solved some of the problems that existed prior to its ratification; however, it has failed to establish adequate trial avoidance procedures. This problem is further compounded by the dissatisfaction of parties with trial outcomes. This article suggests that Afghanistan could address both issues by adopting a mechanism similar to German Absprachen as an appropriate case disposing procedure, enabling party consensus, helping courts decrease their dockets, and reducing the length of trials. This analysis is not only ...


Trust And Good-Faith Taken To A New Level: An Analysis Of Inconsistent Behavior In The Brazilian Legal Order, Thiago Luis Sombra Jul 2015

Trust And Good-Faith Taken To A New Level: An Analysis Of Inconsistent Behavior In The Brazilian Legal Order, Thiago Luis Sombra

Thiago Luís Santos Sombra

With the changes in the paradigm of voluntarism developed under the protection of liberalism, the bases for legal acts have reached an objective dimension, resulting in the birth of a number of mechanisms of control of private autonomy. Among these mechanisms, we can point out the relevance of those reinforced by the Roman Law, whose high ethical value underlines one of its biggest virtues in the control of the exercise of subjective rights. The prohibition of inconsistent behavior, conceived in the brocard venire contra factum proprium, constitutes one of the concepts from the Roman Law renown for the protection of ...


Beyond The Written Constitution: A Short Analysis Of Warren Court, Thiago Luis Santos Sombra Jul 2015

Beyond The Written Constitution: A Short Analysis Of Warren Court, Thiago Luis Santos Sombra

Thiago Luís Santos Sombra

This essay propose an analysis about how Warren Court became one of the most particular in American History by confronting Jim Crow law, especially by applying the Bill of Rights. In this essay, we propose an analysis of how complex the unwritten Constitution is. Cases like Brown vs. Board of Education will be analyzed from a different point of view to understand the methods of the Court.


Semi-Presidentialism Under The Indian Constitution, Khagesh Gautam Jul 2015

Semi-Presidentialism Under The Indian Constitution, Khagesh Gautam

Khagesh Gautam

No abstract provided.


Cracking Down On Corporate Crime In Italy, Rosa Anna Ruggiero Prof. Jun 2015

Cracking Down On Corporate Crime In Italy, Rosa Anna Ruggiero Prof.

Rosa Anna Ruggiero Prof.

The paper describes the changes in the Italian system regarding corporate criminal liability. With the implementation of Legislative Decree No. 231 on June 8th, 2001, Italy aligned itself with other European countries (France, the United Kingdom, Holland, Denmark, Portugal, Ireland, Sweden, Finland), which already provided for the liability of corporate entities responsible for committing certain crimes. The previous gap in legislation had serious implications at an international level, especially in light of the objective of fostering cooperation in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice in the European Union - through, for example, the progressive alignment of Member States’ legislation. These ...