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Enforcing Foreign Summary/Default Judgments: The Damoclean Sword Hanging Over Pro Se Canadian Corporate Defendants? Case Comment On U.S.A. V. Shield Development, Antonin I. Pribetic Sep 2006

Enforcing Foreign Summary/Default Judgments: The Damoclean Sword Hanging Over Pro Se Canadian Corporate Defendants? Case Comment On U.S.A. V. Shield Development, Antonin I. Pribetic

ExpressO

Following the 2003 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Beals v. Saldanha, where the “real and substantial connection” test is otherwise met (i.e. consent-based jurisdiction, presence-based jurisdiction or assumed jurisdiction) the only available defences to a domestic defendant seeking to have a Canadian court refuse enforcement of a foreign judgment are fraud, public policy and natural justice. The 2005 Ontario decision in United States of America v. Shield Development Co., presents an opportunity to critically analyze the defence of natural justice through a juxtaposition of American and Canadian procedural law. The thesis is that procedural justice mandates that “form ...


Light From The Trees: The Story Of Minors Oposa And The Russian Forest Cases , Oliver Austin Houck Aug 2006

Light From The Trees: The Story Of Minors Oposa And The Russian Forest Cases , Oliver Austin Houck

ExpressO

This article describes two lawsuits in the late twentieth century that changed their countries in ways from which there will be no return. One took place in the Philippines, emerging from the reign of Fernando Marcos, and the other in Russia, following a near century of communist rule. They have two things in common. They declared the rights of their citizens to challenge, and reverse, government decisions. And they were about the environment, more particularly, trees. What we learn is that notions of environmental protection, citizen enforcement and judicial review have traveled the world and that, in differing legal systems ...


Reconceptualising Legal Education After War, Christopher P. Waters Aug 2006

Reconceptualising Legal Education After War, Christopher P. Waters

ExpressO

This paper considers the impact of war on legal education and assesses the contributions of legal education to post-conflict reconstruction and reconciliation.


The Social Obligation Of Property Ownership: A Comparison Of German And U.S. Law, Rebecca Lubens Aug 2006

The Social Obligation Of Property Ownership: A Comparison Of German And U.S. Law, Rebecca Lubens

ExpressO

Although both Germany and the United States have strong market-based economies characterized by rigorous protection of private property rights, the two countries have different conceptions of land ownership based on distinct notions of the individual’s place in society. Whereas property protection under the U.S. Constitution emphasizes individual freedom, German law explicitly considers the individual’s place in and relationship to the social order in defining ownership rights. The property clause in the German Grundgesetz (The Basic Law, the German constitution) contains an affirmative social obligation alongside its positive guarantee of ownership rights. The U.S. Constitution, on the ...


Data Privacy, Data Piracy: Can India Provide Adequate Protection For Electronically Transferred Data?, Vinita Bali Aug 2006

Data Privacy, Data Piracy: Can India Provide Adequate Protection For Electronically Transferred Data?, Vinita Bali

ExpressO

As the wave of outsourcing to India swells, there is growing concern about the inadequacies of the India legal system in protecting data being transferred to it from other nations for the purpose of processing. India has a smattering of laws that scantily address the issue of data privacy. Under pressure from the business processing industry in India, as well as from the European Union and other nations, it is but a matter of time before India adopts a slate of laws that address the issue of data protection. Once these laws are enacted, the main issue that remains is ...


British National Parks For North Americans: What We Can Learn From A More Crowded Nation Proud Of Its Countryside, Federico Cheever Aug 2006

British National Parks For North Americans: What We Can Learn From A More Crowded Nation Proud Of Its Countryside, Federico Cheever

ExpressO

England and Wales contain twelve national parks coverings more than 10 percent of their landscape. Although these parks are managed as national resources, the vast majority of the land within their borders is privately owned. Although they are managed to preserve their natural qualities, they contain farms, towns and roughly 300,000 people. They contain nothing North Americans would consider wilderness. Although recognized national assets, nationally funded, they are administered by boards made up largely of local representatives. Since passage of the National Parks and Access to Countryside Act of 1949, the British have managed to develop a national park ...


The Right To Roam, Jerry L. Anderson Aug 2006

The Right To Roam, Jerry L. Anderson

ExpressO

In 2000, Britain enacted a “right to roam” in the Countryside and Rights of Way Act (CRoW). At first glance, CRoW appears to be a dramatic curtailment of the landowner’s traditional right to exclude: it opens up all private land classified as “mountain, moor, heath, or down” to the public for hiking and picnicking. Yet, when viewed in the light of history, CRoW may be seen as partially restoring to the commoner rights lost during the enclosure period, when the commons system ended. CRoW also represents a return to a functional rather than spatial form of land ownership, allowing ...


The Tiger Awakens: The Tumultuous Transformation Of India’S Patent System And The Rise Of Indian Pharmaceutical Innovation, Janice M. Mueller Aug 2006

The Tiger Awakens: The Tumultuous Transformation Of India’S Patent System And The Rise Of Indian Pharmaceutical Innovation, Janice M. Mueller

University of Pittsburgh School of Law Working Paper Series

India developed a world-class generic drug manufacturing industry by excluding pharmaceutical products from patent protection in 1972. In 2005, India reintroduced pharmaceutical patenting in order to comply with its obligations as a WTO member. For an emerging superpower still mired in poverty and public health crises, the change did not come quickly or without controversy. This Article provides the first major comparative analysis of India’s new patents regime. Based on the author’s data gathering and interviews in India, the Article evaluates the regime’s first eighteen months. It critiques the new law and the capacity of India’s ...


Why Justice Scalia Should Be A Constitutional Comparativst . . . Sometimes, David C. Gray Aug 2006

Why Justice Scalia Should Be A Constitutional Comparativst . . . Sometimes, David C. Gray

ExpressO

The burgeoning literature on transjudicialism and constitutional comparativism generally reaffirms the familiar lines of contest between textualists and those more inclined to read the Constitution as a living document. As a consequence, it tends to be politicized, if not polemic. This essay begins to shift the debate toward a more rigorous focus on first principles. In particular, it argues that full faith to the basic commitments of originalism, as advanced in Justice Scalia’s writings, opinions, and speeches, requires domestic courts to consult contemporary foreign sources when interpreting universalist language found in the Constitution. While the essay does not propose ...


Is Ec Trade Policy Up To Par?: A Legal Analysis Over Time - Rome, Marrakesh, Amsterdam, Nice, And The Constitutional Treaty, Rafael Leal-Arcas Aug 2006

Is Ec Trade Policy Up To Par?: A Legal Analysis Over Time - Rome, Marrakesh, Amsterdam, Nice, And The Constitutional Treaty, Rafael Leal-Arcas

ExpressO

This article is an attempt to a thorough chronological analysis of the European Community’s (EC) existing law and policy in the field of international trade law since the beginning of the European Economic Community. It deals with the evolution of the EC’s common commercial policy competence through the years, starting with the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), moving on to the necessary changes brought by the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement, signed in Marrakesh in 1994, until the days of the European Union (EU) Constitutional Treaty, with a view to enabling the EC with a coherent trade ...


Multistable Figures: Sexual Orientation Visibility And Its Effects On The Experiences Of Sexual Minorities In The Courts, Todd Brower Aug 2006

Multistable Figures: Sexual Orientation Visibility And Its Effects On The Experiences Of Sexual Minorities In The Courts, Todd Brower

ExpressO

A multistable figure is a cognitive illusion in which a single drawing contains multiple, competing images. On first viewing a person will see one image, but not the other – it usually requires additional information to trigger the viewer’s awareness of the second image. However, once you know about the disparate figures in the illustration, you cannot erase that knowledge from your mind and see a sole image as you did originally. This inability to ignore information and its effect on subsequent experience has parallels in lesbians’ and gay men’s treatment in the courts.

Courts today are deeply involved ...


Redefining The Right To Be Let Alone: Privacy Rights And The Constitutionality Of Technical Surveillance Measures In Germany And The United States, Nicole E. Jacoby Aug 2006

Redefining The Right To Be Let Alone: Privacy Rights And The Constitutionality Of Technical Surveillance Measures In Germany And The United States, Nicole E. Jacoby

ExpressO

U.S. and German courts alike long have struggled to find the proper balance between protecting the privacy rights of criminal suspects and granting law enforcement officials the adequate tools to fight crime. The highest courts in each country have produced different paradigms for determining where the public sphere ends and the private sphere begins. In a series of cases, the U.S. Supreme Court has inquired whether a criminal defendant had a reasonable expectation of privacy when the state conducted a warrantless search of the suspect’s person, premises, or belongings. Germany’s Federal Constitutional Court, in contrast, has ...


Our Sovereign Body: Narrating The Fiction Of Sovereign Immunity In The Supreme Court: Part I-A English Stories, Marc L. Roark Aug 2006

Our Sovereign Body: Narrating The Fiction Of Sovereign Immunity In The Supreme Court: Part I-A English Stories, Marc L. Roark

ExpressO

This is part I-A of a Book I am working towards on the narratives and fictions of sovereign immunity. The goal in this part is to look before the American republic and towards the background in which American Sovereignty came to be shaped by -- the feudal notion of the sovereign; the Lockean response, and the Blackstonean doctrine. The first part looks at the legal fictions surrounding the kingship, their sources and their effects. The Second part looks to the specific ways of treating the sovereign in law, namely viewing King as Property owner or patriarch, Trustee, and Constitution.


Our Sovereign Body: Narrating The Fiction Of Sovereign Immunity In The Supreme Court, Marc L. Roark Aug 2006

Our Sovereign Body: Narrating The Fiction Of Sovereign Immunity In The Supreme Court, Marc L. Roark

ExpressO

This is the introduction to a book I am preparing on the Normative and Narrative aspects of the U.S. Sovereign Immunity Doctrine. The introduction sets up the problem of a doctrine that is not exactly coherent with the national narrative.


The Politics Of Memory/Errinerungspolitik And The Use And Propriety Of Law In The Process Of Memory Construction, Vivian Grosswald Curran Aug 2006

The Politics Of Memory/Errinerungspolitik And The Use And Propriety Of Law In The Process Of Memory Construction, Vivian Grosswald Curran

University of Pittsburgh School of Law Working Paper Series

The post-Second World War trial for the crime against humanity from the start assumed pedagogical proportions, with the tribunals involved conscious that their legal verdicts would represent historical pronouncement and national values. The newly defined crime has been asked to institutionalize far more than the traditional task of adjudicating the guilt or innocence of the defendant. The trials themselves are meant to define the past, create and crystallize national memory, and illuminate the foundations of the future. I suggest that, by placing a burden on law that it is not designed to bear, we risk deforming law and legal principle ...


The Headscarf As Threat? A Comparison Of German And American Legal Discourses, Robert A. Kahn Aug 2006

The Headscarf As Threat? A Comparison Of German And American Legal Discourses, Robert A. Kahn

ExpressO

In this article I compare how American and German judges conceptualize the harm the headscarf poses to society. My examples are the 2003 Ludin case, in which the German Federal Constitutional Court held that the civil service, in the absence of state regulation, could not reject a woman from a civil service teaching position solely because she would not remove her headscarf while teaching; and State v. Freeman, in which a Florida court held that a woman could not pose for a drivers license wearing a garment (the niqab) that covered all of her face except her eyes. While judges ...


The Right To Swing? , Milan Markovic Aug 2006

The Right To Swing? , Milan Markovic

ExpressO

An analysis of the Supreme Court of Canada's decision in Labaye v. the Queen that held that the activities occurring in a Montral swingers club could not be classified as indecent. I posit that Labaye is best understood as concerning sexual liberty (as described in Lawrence v. Texas and other cases) and not as an indecency case.


The Equivalence Approach To Securities Regulation, Tzung-Bor Wei Jul 2006

The Equivalence Approach To Securities Regulation, Tzung-Bor Wei

ExpressO

Abstract

In the past, academics and regulators debated two competing approaches to international securities regulation, namely “harmonization” and “regulatory competition.” More recently, a third approach to securities regulation has emerged – the “equivalence” approach. Under this model, a host country exempts foreign firms from certain host country rules when the firms’ home country rules are sufficiently similar, or “equivalent.” Many regulators have come to embrace equivalence, which is rapidly becoming a key principle in international finance.

This paper studies the concept of equivalence. It begins by defining “equivalence,” highlighting that different regulators manipulate the term to give it contrasting meanings. Moving ...


How The Other Half Lives (Revisited): Twenty Years Since Midler V. Ford - A Global Perspective On The Right Of Publicity, Alain Lapter Jul 2006

How The Other Half Lives (Revisited): Twenty Years Since Midler V. Ford - A Global Perspective On The Right Of Publicity, Alain Lapter

ExpressO

For celebrities, name and image are, arguably, two of their most valuable assets. From headlining a movie, to starring in a commercial, to endorsing a product, a celebrity’s persona is potentially worth thousands to millions of dollars. However, this intangible commodity’s worth is often siphoned off by those who appropriate a celebrity’s name or image without authorization or remuneration, thus potentially decreasing the property’s value. In order to stifle this unjust enrichment, celebrities greatly desire the absolute right to control the commercial exploitation of their name and likeness.

In this article, I examine the current state ...


Damages In Lieu Of Performance Because Of Breach Of Contract, John Y. Gotanda Jul 2006

Damages In Lieu Of Performance Because Of Breach Of Contract, John Y. Gotanda

Working Paper Series

In contract disputes between transnational contracting parties, damages are often awarded to compensate a claimant for loss, injury or detriment resulting from a respondent’s failure to perform the agreement. In fact, damages may be the principal means of substituting for performance or they may complement other remedies, such as recision or specific performance.

Damages for breach of contract typically serve to protect one of three interests of a claimant: (1) performance interest (also known as expectation interest); (2) reliance interest; or (3) restitution interest. The primary goal of damages in most jurisdictions is to fulfil a claimant’s performance ...


Governance Of Brazilian Pension Funds, Luciana Pires Dias Jul 2006

Governance Of Brazilian Pension Funds, Luciana Pires Dias

ExpressO

This paper analyzes theoretically and empirically the governance of pension funds in Brazil. It first demonstrates that the law allows sponsors (employers) to write contracts (by-laws) governing the relationships between the sponsors, the managers and the participants (employees) of the pension funds. It also explains that, from an agency theory perspective, this legal framework favors non-optimal governance structures, since sponsors do not bear the financial consequences of the contracts they create. As predicted, the empirical evidence reported in this thesis shows that sponsors use this authority to create contracts that minimize monitoring and maximize control over business decisions to the ...


Developing Development Theory: Law & Development Orthodoxies And The Northeast Asian Experience, John K.M. Ohnesorge Jul 2006

Developing Development Theory: Law & Development Orthodoxies And The Northeast Asian Experience, John K.M. Ohnesorge

ExpressO

None of the orthodox theories about law and economic development produced in recent decades has been based on a study of the "miracle" economies of Northeast Asia, nor have any of these orthodoxies seriously been tested against the Northeast Asian experience of law and development. This article conducts such a test, finding that none of these orthodoxies fares well when its claims are tested against the Northeast Asian experience. Rather than using Northeast Asia's experience to produce yet another orthodoxy, however, this article instead proposes rethinking how we understand the task of legal technical assistance, a rethinking which is ...


Untying The Knot: An Analysis Of The English Divorce And Matrimonial Causes Court Records, 1858-1866, Danaya C. Wright Jun 2006

Untying The Knot: An Analysis Of The English Divorce And Matrimonial Causes Court Records, 1858-1866, Danaya C. Wright

ExpressO

This paper is an analysis of the petitions, answers, affidavits, and court docket for the first nine years of the English divorce and matrimonial causes court. It examines in detail the child custody, alimony, gender, and class components of the court’s first nine years. After analyzing the petitions and court docket along gender lines for the different causes of action (divorce, separation, annulment, and restitution of conjugal rights), and their success rate by gender and by age of the marriage, it then breaks down marriages by age and speculates on a variety of causes for the different results and ...


Bond Repudiation, Tax Codes, The Appropriations Process And Restitution Post-Eminent Domain Reform, John H. Ryskamp Jun 2006

Bond Repudiation, Tax Codes, The Appropriations Process And Restitution Post-Eminent Domain Reform, John H. Ryskamp

ExpressO

This brief comment suggests where the anti-eminent domain movement might be heading next.


Women Fighting Poverty In Cameroon: A Legal Perspective!, Geraldine Chin C K G Chin Jun 2006

Women Fighting Poverty In Cameroon: A Legal Perspective!, Geraldine Chin C K G Chin

ExpressO

Poverty in Sub Saharan Africa has many causes, which range from the impact of the Structural Adjustment Programs, the huge foreign debt and policies that encourage mismanagement of state resources. This growing poverty and underdevelopment has attracted the attention of the international community to pursue programs aimed at attaining the UN Millennium Development Goals, foreign debt relief and increased development aid. During the introduction of policies that brought about economic hardship, African women were not consulted and their voices were not heard. Yet it is these women who feel most of the impact of these policies. During the period of ...


Till Death Do Us Part: Marriage, Hiv/Aids And The Law In Zimbabwe, Slyvia Chirawu Jun 2006

Till Death Do Us Part: Marriage, Hiv/Aids And The Law In Zimbabwe, Slyvia Chirawu

ExpressO

Lying in Sub Saharan Africa, the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, Zimbabwe has grappled since 1985 to prevent and mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS. Statistics point out to one glaring factor- the disproportionate impact of HIV/AIDS on women and in the case of Zimbabwe married women. Laws, policies and practices in relation to marriage predispose married women to HIV/AIDS infection. The answer to protecting women does not lie entirely in the law but in transformative gender equality.

Zimbabwe has two types of recognized marriages and the third type , the unregistered customary law union is given limited ...


Squaring The Circle: Democratizing Judicial Review And The Counter-Constitutional Difficulty, Miguel Schor Jun 2006

Squaring The Circle: Democratizing Judicial Review And The Counter-Constitutional Difficulty, Miguel Schor

ExpressO

The Article argues that the polarization in the appointments process for the United States Supreme Court creates a problem that I call the counter-constitutional difficulty. A constitution is designed to put certain decisions off limits to the workings of ordinary politics. Laws can be made and changed by majoritarian mechanisms whereas a constitution can be made and changed only by supermajoritarian mechanisms. The United States Constitution, however, has an Achilles heel. The easiest way to amend the Constitution is by changing the membership of the Supreme Court given the rigors of Article V. A number of decisions by the Court ...


A Modern Disaster: Agricultural Land, Urban Growth, And The Need For A Federally Organized Comprehensive Land Use Planning Model, Jess M. Krannich Jun 2006

A Modern Disaster: Agricultural Land, Urban Growth, And The Need For A Federally Organized Comprehensive Land Use Planning Model, Jess M. Krannich

ExpressO

No abstract provided.


The Chameleon Effect: Beyond The Bonding Hypothesis For Cross-Listed Securities, Cally Jordan May 2006

The Chameleon Effect: Beyond The Bonding Hypothesis For Cross-Listed Securities, Cally Jordan

ExpressO

This paper is based on a presentation made at the New York Stock Exchange Conference on the Future of Global Equity Trading, March 12, 2004, Sarasota, FL.

Looking back, was it a momentary enthusiasm? The dramatic increase in cross-listed securities, particularly in the United States, was one of the remarkable phenomena of the 1990s capital markets. The bonding, or corporate governance, hypothesis was one of the more intriguing theories to surface to explain the phenomenon. Cross-listing, the hypothesis suggested, might be a bonding mechanism by which firms, incorporated in a jurisdiction with “weak protection” of minority shareholder rights or poor ...


The World Bank And The Ideology Of Reform In International Development Discourse, Joel M. Ngugi May 2006

The World Bank And The Ideology Of Reform In International Development Discourse, Joel M. Ngugi

ExpressO

Does the current development reform agenda, especially the one operationalized by the World Bank, is Ideological? If so, does it matter? These are the two questions that animate this article. In answering both questions in the affirmative, the article first demonstrates how the current development reform agenda is Ideological. It then discusses why and how it matters that the development reform agenda is Ideological. First, the article argues that Ideological rendering of the development reform agenda effectively weakens the ability of Third World countries to articulate their economic and foreign policies in ways that would benefit their citizenry the most ...