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Signed, Sealed, Delivered, And ?: The Correlation Between Policy Areas, Signing, And Legal Ratification Of Organization Of American States’ Treaties By Member States., Alexandra R. Harrington Dec 2006

Signed, Sealed, Delivered, And ?: The Correlation Between Policy Areas, Signing, And Legal Ratification Of Organization Of American States’ Treaties By Member States., Alexandra R. Harrington

ExpressO

Abstract: Signed, Sealed, Delivered, and ?: The Correlation Between Policy areas, Signing, and Legal Ratification of Organization of American States’ Treaties by Member States.

Like any organization, the Organization of American States’ ability to affect lasting policy changes through treaties is only as strong as the will of the federal legislative bodies of its member states. No matter how lofty or well-meaning the OAS’s goals in any area or matter addressed by a treaty, or the number of OAS member states which sign onto a treaty reflecting these goals, under the OAS Charter, and the federal constitutions of most member ...


The Un: A Situation Report, Benjamin Zawacki Dec 2006

The Un: A Situation Report, Benjamin Zawacki

ExpressO

The UN: A Situation Report is a review of two recent books on the past, present, and future of the UN; in short, of its relevance in a changing and uni-polar world at the end of Kofi Annan’s two terms as Secretary-General. The books’ focus is both on the organization’s successes and failures, and its efforts at self-reform in the face of near-constant criticism. They are reviewed as individually divergent in quality but as a formidable “situation report” when read in tandem. Paul Kennedy’s The Parliament of Man, save for its first of three parts, is generally ...


Realism And Transnationalism: Competing Visions For International Security, Nathan A. Canestaro Dec 2006

Realism And Transnationalism: Competing Visions For International Security, Nathan A. Canestaro

ExpressO

This paper is a multidisciplinary study of two competing theories of states’ motives and behavior in international relations, realism and transnationalism. The first theory, realism, suggests that states are constantly competing for security and power within an anarchical international system incapable of preventing aggression or conflict. A competing philosophy, transnationalism, (also known as liberalism) suggests that cooperation, not competition, is the defining characteristic of international relations and that democratization and global economic interdependence reduce the benefits of interstate conflict and encourage long-term cooperation.

This paper seeks to explain the apparent disparity of states competing for power in security matters while ...


European Private Law: A Plea For A Spontaneous Legal Order, Jan M. Smits Dec 2006

European Private Law: A Plea For A Spontaneous Legal Order, Jan M. Smits

ExpressO

This contribution focuses on European integration through private law. After a sketch of the existing European acquis in the field of the law of contract, tort and property, the question is discussed whether there is a need for harmonisation in view of the goals the European Union set itself. Subsequently, the question of how to design a future European private law is answered. In the field of contract law, the European Commission now follows a two-track policy: it intends to draft a ‘Common Frame of Reference’ (‘CFR’) as well as furthering the debate on the possibility of an optional code ...


Mnc Liability For International Human Rights Violations Under The Alien Tort Claims Act., Frank Christian Olah Dec 2006

Mnc Liability For International Human Rights Violations Under The Alien Tort Claims Act., Frank Christian Olah

ExpressO

This paper seeks to elucidate the fundamental sources of ATCA jurisprudence that have modernized the act into the weapon it has become for foreign human rights plaintiffs. It also attempts to describe some of the forms of liability asserted against MNCs, paying special attention to the competing forms of aiding & abetting liability as conceptualized in the Unocal case. Part II of this paper will provide a brief and concise review of the three cases every ATCA corporate defendant should know: Filartiga, Kadic and Sosa. These cases lay the groundwork for human rights litigation against MNCs under the ATCA’s modern ...


Taking Judicial Notice Of Genocide? The Problematic Law And Policy Of The Karemera Decision, Ralph Mamiya Dec 2006

Taking Judicial Notice Of Genocide? The Problematic Law And Policy Of The Karemera Decision, Ralph Mamiya

ExpressO

On June 16, 2006, the Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda issued a decision in Prosecutor v. Karemera taking judicial notice of the fact that genocide occurred in Rwanda in 1994. This decision startled many court observers. While no internationally respected commentator would today question whether the Rwanda genocide took place, should such an event be judicially noticed without evidence? This paper examines that question, arguing that the ICTR Appeals Chamber’s expansive use of judicial notice in Karemera was both illogical and unwise. Genocide, whether as an historical fact or legal charge, fails to meet the ...


Working Toward Democracy: Thurgood Marshall And The Constitution Of Kenya, Mary L. Dudziak Dec 2006

Working Toward Democracy: Thurgood Marshall And The Constitution Of Kenya, Mary L. Dudziak

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

This Article is a work of transnational legal history. Drawing upon new research in foreign archives, it sheds new light on the life of Thurgood Marshall, exploring for the first time an episode that he cared very deeply about: his work with African nationalists on an independence constitution for Kenya. The story is paradoxical, for Marshall, a civil rights legend in America, would seek to protect the rights of white landholders in Kenya who had gained their land through discriminatory land laws, but were soon to lose political power. In order to understand why Marshall would take pride in entrenching ...


Charting Developments Concerning Punitive Damages: Is The Tide Changing?, John Y. Gotanda Nov 2006

Charting Developments Concerning Punitive Damages: Is The Tide Changing?, John Y. Gotanda

Working Paper Series

This essay discusses a number of developments outside of the United States concerning punitive damages, which may ultimately signal a change in the way other countries view American awards of such damages.

To date, courts in many countries have refused to recognize and enforce American punitive damages awards on the ground that they violate the host country’s public policy. In most civil law countries, such as France and Germany, penal damages can only be ordered in criminal proceedings; a civil award of such damages has been viewed as contrary to ordre public. In common law countries, while punitive damages ...


A Complete Property Right Amendment, John H. Ryskamp Oct 2006

A Complete Property Right Amendment, John H. Ryskamp

ExpressO

The trend of the eminent domain reform and "Kelo plus" initiatives is toward a comprehensive Constitutional property right incorporating the elements of level of review, nature of government action, and extent of compensation. This article contains a draft amendment which reflects these concerns.


Hostile Takeovers And Hostile Defenses: A Comparative Look At U.S. Board Deference And The European Effort At Harmonization, Tyler A. Theobald Oct 2006

Hostile Takeovers And Hostile Defenses: A Comparative Look At U.S. Board Deference And The European Effort At Harmonization, Tyler A. Theobald

ExpressO

The United States and the European Union have taken very different approaches in dealing with tender offers, especially in respect to the amount of power the board of directors has to block an unwanted takeover attempt. The United States has no single set of guiding principles regarding most of substantive corporate law and the field of tender offers is no different. The European Union, on the other hand, has very recently passed legislation that not only attempts to harmonize the corporate takeover laws of all its member states, but seeks to restrict the power of the board of directors. The ...


Do Foreigners Need Title Insurance In Mexico? - An Analysis Of U.S. Title Insurance And Mexican Real Estate Law, Jeffrey G. Boman Oct 2006

Do Foreigners Need Title Insurance In Mexico? - An Analysis Of U.S. Title Insurance And Mexican Real Estate Law, Jeffrey G. Boman

ExpressO

This paper analyzes the title insurance industry in the United States and comparable institutions in Mexico. It begins with an overview of the history of title in both counties, followed by a description of their respective real estate systems. Finally, a summary of the laws that affect holding title to property in Mexico reveals that, although title insurance may provide other benefits for foreign investors, it provides duplicitous coverage for property in Mexico.


The Conditional Effects Of Ideology And Institutional Structure On Judicial Voting In State Supreme Courts, Jeff L. Yates, Paul Brace, Brent Boyea Oct 2006

The Conditional Effects Of Ideology And Institutional Structure On Judicial Voting In State Supreme Courts, Jeff L. Yates, Paul Brace, Brent Boyea

ExpressO

Two enormously influential perspectives on courts offer fundamentally different predictions about court outcomes and the effects of judge ideology on those outcomes. Well-known to political scientists studying courts, the ideological voting (IV) literature argues that judge ideology is a strong predictor of court outcomes and that those outcomes should be proximate to the policy preferences of courts. Less known to political scientists but highly influential, the law and economics perspective (LE) focuses on settlement behavior of litigants who try to minimize costs and thus estimate likely outcomes in court, and settle simpler cases pre-trial. In this case selection process litigants ...


Through The Looking Glass: Runaway Productions And "Hollywood Economics", Adrian H. Mcdonald Oct 2006

Through The Looking Glass: Runaway Productions And "Hollywood Economics", Adrian H. Mcdonald

ExpressO

This paper uses the issue of runaway production as a looking glass into the complex world of Hollywood economics and politics. As such, a broad overview of Hollywood's business practices, history, and technology are discussed so the reader can understand how runaway production (a major issue itself) is one piece of the Hollywood puzzle. Specifically, this paper attempts to study runaway productions from the Law and Economics approach described in Judge Richard Posner's text on the subject. Events in 2006 illustrate the continuing importance of runaway productions and CEIDR's August 2006 report is discussed in this paper ...


Reforming Mexico’S Labor Law For Independent Labor Unions, Mischa H. Karplus Oct 2006

Reforming Mexico’S Labor Law For Independent Labor Unions, Mischa H. Karplus

ExpressO

Reforming Mexico’s Labor Law for Independent Labor Unions analyzes the legal difficulties Mexican independent labor unions face in establishing themselves and proposes a legislative solution. The methodology used examines the institutionalized behaviors of the administrative labor boards and businesses, which prevent the formation of independent labor unions. The discretion that Mexican labor law affords the labor boards and businesses explains, in large measure, the obstacles facing independent labor unions. Having analyzed the relevant legal framework this article proposes specific legislation to strengthen these independent labor unions. Within the context of a developing country, Reforming Mexico’s Labor Law for ...


Combating Terrorism In Bosnia-Herzegovina: Explaining And Assessing Article 201 Of The Bosnian Criminal Code, Henry M. Lovat Oct 2006

Combating Terrorism In Bosnia-Herzegovina: Explaining And Assessing Article 201 Of The Bosnian Criminal Code, Henry M. Lovat

ExpressO

This paper explores the legal measures that have been enacted in Bosnia-Herzegovina (BiH) to counter the threat of terrorism, focusing particularly on the international and domestic political context in which the reform of the Bosnian criminal code was carried out, on the apparent origins of Article 201 of the BiH criminal code in the European Union Framework Decision on Combating Terrorism of June 2002 and on the strengths and weaknesses of this definition in the Bosnian context. The paper argues firstly that the events of 9/11, while certainly of significance, were less salient to the definition of terrorism adopted ...


From Origin To Delta: Changing Landscape Of Modern Constitutionalism, Jiunn-Rong Yeh, Wen-Chen Chang Oct 2006

From Origin To Delta: Changing Landscape Of Modern Constitutionalism, Jiunn-Rong Yeh, Wen-Chen Chang

ExpressO

This article deals with the question of whether and to what extent the two forces of democratization and globalization have altered our understandings of constitutionalism. We attempt to theorize a changing landscape of constitutionalism that includes transitional and transnational perspectives and examine respectively their features, functions and characteristics. First, we analyze respective developments of transitional and transnational constitutionalism by identifying their features, perspectives, functions, and characteristics. Then we examine to what extent and in what ways the developments in transitional and transnational constitutionalism pose challenges to our traditional understanding of modern constitutional laws. Finally, we shall picture a new constitutional ...


The Role Of International Human Rights Law In The American Decision To Abolish The Juvenile Death Penalty, William A. Feldman Oct 2006

The Role Of International Human Rights Law In The American Decision To Abolish The Juvenile Death Penalty, William A. Feldman

ExpressO

This article focuses on the recent (2005) decision of the United States Supreme Court in Roper v. Simmons, declaring the juvenile death penalty unconstitutional. The article discusses the impact of international law, particularly human rights law, on the decision of the Court, and speculates about the influence of international law on future decisions.


Through The Looking Glass: What A Comparison With The New Polish Legal Framework Of Arbitration Reveals About The U.S. Legal Framework Of Arbitration, Adam J. Sulkowski Sep 2006

Through The Looking Glass: What A Comparison With The New Polish Legal Framework Of Arbitration Reveals About The U.S. Legal Framework Of Arbitration, Adam J. Sulkowski

ExpressO

In Poland, domestic and international arbitrations are regulated by the Civil Procedure Code. A completely new set of regulations concerning arbitration went into effect in October, 2005. A comparison of the Polish and American legal frameworks of arbitration reveals many similarities and a few key differences. The differences involve the powers of arbitrators to decide upon their own jurisdiction, the arbitrability of employment disputes and the consequences of failure to consider applicable national law. Comparing how similar cases would be resolved under the new Polish standards and U.S. standards raises the question of how U.S. standards evolved and ...


Theories Of Supranationalism In The Eu, Rafael Leal-Arcas Sep 2006

Theories Of Supranationalism In The Eu, Rafael Leal-Arcas

ExpressO

Supranationalism has been a topic of analysis from various points of view when trying to understand the process of European integration. This article aims at presenting the major theories of supranationalism when discussing the ongoing process of European integration. Three main theories are examined: 1) normative versus decisional supranationalism; 2) theories of partial integration, and 3) legal theories of economic integration (such as the neo-liberal economic policy, the European Community (EC) as a special-purpose association of functional integration, as well as the theory of the supranational and intergovernmental dual structure of the EC).


Tribal-State Gaming Compacts And Revenue Sharing Provisions: Are The States Upping The Ante? , Richard L. Skeen Sep 2006

Tribal-State Gaming Compacts And Revenue Sharing Provisions: Are The States Upping The Ante? , Richard L. Skeen

ExpressO

In the ten years following, the Supreme Court’s ruling in the Seminole Tribe v. Florida, Indian Gaming has grown to over a $19 billion a year industry, in 26 States, involving over 241 Approved Class III Tribal Gaming Ordinances. States have been eager to get a piece of this ever-increasing pie. Some commentators have predicted that States will be reluctant to enter into new compacts or renew existing compacts, however, other’s have indicated that States will continue to demand a percentages of Gaming revenues.

This comment addresses the central issue of whether the Tribal-State compacts entered into subsequent ...


Empire Has Its Own Hurdles: Exploring The Nature Of Exceptionalism And Its Consequences For International Law And Multilateral Decision-Making, Saptarishi Bandopadhyay Sep 2006

Empire Has Its Own Hurdles: Exploring The Nature Of Exceptionalism And Its Consequences For International Law And Multilateral Decision-Making, Saptarishi Bandopadhyay

ExpressO

While it is increasingly becoming a platitude that exceptionalism exists in international law, little is being said about the nature, degrees of this exceptionalism and their differential consequences on the international legal system.

In my effort to bridge what I see as an oversight, this paper will seek to show how contemporary exceptionalist practices are creating a fault in the international legal order which will in turn provide a basis for others to argue for an overall reformulation of rules i.e. actions in contravention of the multilateral international legal framework would no longer need to be justified by manipulative ...


Legal Consciousness And Contractual Obligations, Kojo Yelpaala Sep 2006

Legal Consciousness And Contractual Obligations, Kojo Yelpaala

ExpressO

The Article on “Legal Consciousness and Contractual Obligations” will explore and offer an explanation of the origins of the moral foundations for contractual obligations beyond conventional analysis. Building on themes and threads across many disciplines and theories, it seeks to identify and locate certain unities and common elements that explain human consciousness in exchange relations across cultures. The term contract is used in its non-technical and most inclusive sense to cover agreements, promises, undertakings and other forms of consensus whether or not supported by consideration. Viewed within this broad conceptual framework, where do human beings get the idea that they ...


The Death Of The Doha Round. What Next For Services Trade?, Rafael Leal-Arcas Sep 2006

The Death Of The Doha Round. What Next For Services Trade?, Rafael Leal-Arcas

ExpressO

With the indefinite suspension of the WTO multilateral trade negotiations in July 2006 by WTO Director-General Pascal Lamy, the world trading system must now find ways and means to unblock what is perceived as a danger to the world order. This article analyzes the legal and policy implications of the currently fatal Doha Round for the two main developed WTO Members, i.e., the U.S. and the EC, and the most relevant developing countries of the WTO. The specific focus of attention will be mainly on services trade. Thoughts on alternative ways to move forward in the multilateral trading ...


Article 17 And The Scope Of Trademark Protection Afforded Under The Trips Agreement, Katja G. Weckstroem Sep 2006

Article 17 And The Scope Of Trademark Protection Afforded Under The Trips Agreement, Katja G. Weckstroem

ExpressO

The protection of trademarks, when it raises a conflict with the protection of geographical indications is one of the most contested issues on the international trade and intellectual property arena. In European Communities - Protection of Trademarks and Geographical Indications for Agricultural Products and Foodstuffs a WTO panel was faced with this issue. The panel report gives some insight into what international trademark law mandates as well as some pointers on how conflicts between different IP rights should be solved. This article attempts a deeper analysis of the coexistence of rights in the framework of the TRIPS Agreement that will inevitably ...


China-Australia Free Trade Agreement New Icing On An Old Cake-An Opportunity For Fair Trade?, Benedict Sheehy, Jackson N. Maogoto Sep 2006

China-Australia Free Trade Agreement New Icing On An Old Cake-An Opportunity For Fair Trade?, Benedict Sheehy, Jackson N. Maogoto

ExpressO

The on-going challenge in economic development and globalization, particularly for developing countries, is the issue of development and equality in society. The issue becomes particularly problematic when confronted in matters of international trade. Often misnamed anti-globalization activists and pro-globalization activists fail to take note of the underlying assumptions that lead them to conflict—namely, the actual costs and benefits to society that result from their particular positions. In essence, both activists are searching for ways to improve the lives of people in the domestic context and to minimize the damage to their society and environment. China’s impressive economic record ...


Polycephalous Anatomy Of The Ec In The Wto: An Analysis Of Law And Practice, Rafael Leal-Arcas Sep 2006

Polycephalous Anatomy Of The Ec In The Wto: An Analysis Of Law And Practice, Rafael Leal-Arcas

ExpressO

This article analyzes the unique legal position of the European Community (EC) in the world trading system. Its polycephalous anatomy derives from the fact that all 25 Member States of the EC are members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) along with the EC itself. This means that when referring to the EC, the whole as well as its parts are independent Members of the WTO. This has legal and political consequences related to the allocation of powers between the national and supranational levels that will be analyzed. The article explains what is meant by a “mixed agreement” and analyzes ...


Toward A New Economic Constitution: Judicial Disciplines On Trade Politics, Sungjoon Cho Sep 2006

Toward A New Economic Constitution: Judicial Disciplines On Trade Politics, Sungjoon Cho

ExpressO

This article first observes that protectionism is an icon of trade politics and thus likely to gather fresh momentum as a domestic election approaches. The paper then problematizes protectionism beyond mere seasonal election politics by revealing its fatal pathologies both to the United States and to the rest of the world. Protectionism basically caters to the special interest at the expense of the larger public interest, which may be coined as a Madisonian constitutional failure. It also deviates from global trading norms, which the United States hypocritically continues to preach adherence to for the rest of the world. This double ...


How To Sue Without Standing: The Constitutionality Of Citizen Suits In Non-Article Iii Tribunals, David Krinsky Sep 2006

How To Sue Without Standing: The Constitutionality Of Citizen Suits In Non-Article Iii Tribunals, David Krinsky

ExpressO

In recent years, the “injury-in-fact” standing requirement of Article III has frequently impeded attempts by concerned citizens and public interest groups to challenge government actions in federal court.

This article proposes a way in which “citizen suits”—lawsuits brought by plaintiffs who wish to challenge perceived illegalities that affect the public as a whole—can be given a federal forum. It argues that, with some limitations, Congress has authority to authorize pure citizen suits in Article I tribunals, and discusses the (surmountable) obstacles that such fora pose.

After discussing the constitutionality of citizen suits in Article I tribunals, the article ...


Toward An International Criminal Procedure: Due Process Aspirations And Limitations, Gregory S. Gordon Sep 2006

Toward An International Criminal Procedure: Due Process Aspirations And Limitations, Gregory S. Gordon

ExpressO

The breathtaking growth of international criminal law over the past decade has resulted in the prosecution of Balkan and Rwandan mass murderers, the development of a substantial body of atrocity law jurisprudence and the creation of a permanent International Criminal Court with jurisdiction over genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. The growth of international criminal procedure, unfortunately, has not kept pace. Among its shortcomings, critics have pointed to lengthy pre-trial detention without a real possibility of provisional release, the use of affidavits and transcripts instead of live witnesses at trial, the absence of juries, and the right of prosecutorial ...


A Defense Of Structural Injunctive Remedies In South African Law, Danielle E. Hirsch Sep 2006

A Defense Of Structural Injunctive Remedies In South African Law, Danielle E. Hirsch

ExpressO

This Article argues that the use of structural injunction remedies by South African courts is appropriate, and, in light of demonstrated government inaction, often necessary in order to give meaning to the protection of socio-economic rights, which is mandated by their Constitution. The Article draws upon numerous United States judicial decisions where structural injunctions have been successfully implemented to address systemic institutional inaction and violations of the equal protection and due process clauses of the United States Constitution. In numerous instances, the South African government has not acted to effectively give meaning to the socio-economic rights which were broadly declared ...