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2006

Cognition

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Characterizing Students’ Thinking: Algebraic Inequalities And Equations, Kien H. Lim Nov 2006

Characterizing Students’ Thinking: Algebraic Inequalities And Equations, Kien H. Lim

Kien H Lim

This paper presents the findings of a study that explores the viability of using students’ act of anticipating as a means to characterize the way students think while solving problems in algebra. Two types of anticipating acts were identified: predicting a result and foreseeing an action. These acts were characterized using Harel’s framework, which involves the concepts of mental act, way of understanding, and way of thinking. Categories for characterizing acts of predicting and foreseeing were identified and developed based on thirteen 11th graders’ responses to problems involving algebraic inequalities and equations. The quality of students’ acts of predicting ...


What Determines Adult Cognitive Skills? Impacts Of Pre-Schooling, Schooling And Post-Schooling Experiences In Guatemala, Jere R. Behrman, John F. Hoddinott, John A. Maluccio, Erica Soler-Hampejsek, Emily L. Behrman, Reynaldo Martorell, Manuel Ramirez-Zea, Aryeh D. Stein Oct 2006

What Determines Adult Cognitive Skills? Impacts Of Pre-Schooling, Schooling And Post-Schooling Experiences In Guatemala, Jere R. Behrman, John F. Hoddinott, John A. Maluccio, Erica Soler-Hampejsek, Emily L. Behrman, Reynaldo Martorell, Manuel Ramirez-Zea, Aryeh D. Stein

PSC Working Paper Series

Most investigations of the importance of and the determinants of adult cognitive skills assume that (a) they are produced primarily by schooling and (b) schooling is statistically predetermined. But these assumptions may lead to misleading inferences about impacts of schooling and of pre-schooling and post-schooling experiences on adult cognitive skills. This study uses an unusually rich longitudinal data set collected over 35 years in Guatemala to investigate production functions for adult (i) reading-comprehension and (ii) nonverbal cognitive skills as dependent on behaviorally-determined pre-schooling, schooling and post-schooling experiences. Major results are: (1) Schooling has significant and substantial impact on adult reading ...


Age-Related Functional Recruitment For Famous Name Recognition: An Event-Related Fmri Study, Kristy A. Nielson, Kelli Douville, Michael Seidenberg, John L. Woodard, Sarah K. Miller, Malgorzata Franczak, Piero Antuono, Stephen M. Rao Oct 2006

Age-Related Functional Recruitment For Famous Name Recognition: An Event-Related Fmri Study, Kristy A. Nielson, Kelli Douville, Michael Seidenberg, John L. Woodard, Sarah K. Miller, Malgorzata Franczak, Piero Antuono, Stephen M. Rao

Psychology Faculty Research and Publications

Recent neuroimaging research shows that older adults exhibit recruitment, or increased activation on various cognitive tasks. The current study evaluated whether a similar pattern also occurs in semantic memory by evaluating age-related differences during recognition of Recent (since the 1990s) and Enduring (1950s to present) famous names. Fifteen healthy older and 15 healthy younger adults performed the name recognition task with a high and comparable degree of accuracy, although older adults had slower reaction time in response to Recent famous names. Event-related functional MRI showed extensive networks of activation in the two groups including posterior cingulate, right hippocampus, temporal lobe ...


The Impact Of Nutrition During Early Childhood On Education Among Guatemalan Adults, John A. Maluccio, John F. Hoddinott, Jere R. Behrman, Reynaldo Martorell, Agnes R. Quisumbing, Aryeh D. Stein Aug 2006

The Impact Of Nutrition During Early Childhood On Education Among Guatemalan Adults, John A. Maluccio, John F. Hoddinott, Jere R. Behrman, Reynaldo Martorell, Agnes R. Quisumbing, Aryeh D. Stein

PSC Working Paper Series

Early childhood nutrition is thought to have important effects on education, broadly defined to include various forms of learning. We advance beyond previous literature on the effect of early childhood nutrition on education in developing countries by using unique longitudinal data begun during a nutritional experiment during early childhood with educational outcomes measured in adulthood. Estimating an intent-to-treat model capturing the effect of exposure to the intervention from birth to 36 months, our results indicate significantly positive, and fairly substantial, effects of the randomized nutrition intervention a quarter century after it ended: increased grade attainment by women (1.2 grades ...


Fighting Amnesia As A Guerilla Activity: Poetics For A New Mode Of Being Human, Karen M. Gagne Jun 2006

Fighting Amnesia As A Guerilla Activity: Poetics For A New Mode Of Being Human, Karen M. Gagne

Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge

Radically anti-colonial workers must work towards the dismantling of the disciplinary boundaries of academia. This means rejecting the artificial separations between the humanities and the sciences, between the activist and the scholar, and between the purely Western mind/body/spirit split. By keeping these boundaries intact, we fail to see that it is only through poetry (art) that humans can have access to whole modes of cognition that were penned up as a result of the colonial/enslavement process and the rise of Western Man. Autopoesis is crucial for bringing about a new mode of being human (an "After Man ...


An Empirical Investigation Of The Cognitions Of Corporate Entrepreneurs, Andrew C. Corbett, Heidi M. Neck Jun 2006

An Empirical Investigation Of The Cognitions Of Corporate Entrepreneurs, Andrew C. Corbett, Heidi M. Neck

Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research

Studies that examine cognition imply that entrepreneurs think differently than other people: most often these studies have suggested that entrepreneurs think in a way that is distinct from managers in large corporations. Furthermore, patterns found in cognition research suggest that entrepreneurs think the same when considering whether to start a new venture. Our study of innovation-based corporation entrepreneurship initiatives suggest that it is the cognition-environment nexus that is most important, not simply the manner in which entrepreneurs think. Our study indicates that entrepreneurs and managers think alike with respect to identifying opportunities and starting new ventures but organization environments differentiate ...


Medial Prefrontal Dissociations During Processing Of Trait Diagnostic And Nondiagnostic Person Information, Jason P. Mitchell, Jasmin Cloutier, Mahzarin R. Banaji, C Neil Macrae Jun 2006

Medial Prefrontal Dissociations During Processing Of Trait Diagnostic And Nondiagnostic Person Information, Jason P. Mitchell, Jasmin Cloutier, Mahzarin R. Banaji, C Neil Macrae

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Previous research has suggested that perceivers spontaneously extract trait-specific information from the behaviour of others. However, little is known about whether perceivers spontaneously engage in the same depth of social-cognitive processing for all person information or reserve such processing specifically for information that conveys diagnostic clues about another person's dispositions. Moreover, a question remains as to whether the processing of such nondiagnostic information can be affected by perceivers’ explicit goal to consider another's dispositions or not. To examine processing of diagnostic and nondiagnostic social information as a function of perceivers’ explicit social-cognitive goals, participants underwent functional magnetic resonance ...


Risky Decision Making Assessed With The Gambling Task In Adults With Hiv, David J. Hardy, Charles H. Hinkin, Steven A. Castellon, Andrew J. Levine, Mona N. Lam May 2006

Risky Decision Making Assessed With The Gambling Task In Adults With Hiv, David J. Hardy, Charles H. Hinkin, Steven A. Castellon, Andrew J. Levine, Mona N. Lam

Psychology Faculty Works

Decision making was assessed using a laboratory gambling task in 67 adults with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV+) and in 19 HIV-seronegative (HIV−) control participants. Neurocognitive test performance across several domains was also analyzed to examine potential cognitive mechanisms of gambling task performance. As predicted, the HIV+ group performed worse on the gambling task, indicating greater risky decision making. Specifically, the HIV+ group selected more cards from the “risky” or disadvantageous deck that included relatively large payoffs but infrequent large penalties. The control group also selected such risky cards but quickly learned to avoid them. Exploratory analyses also indicated that ...


Cognitive-Vestibular Interactions: A Review Of Patient Difficulties And Possible Mechanisms, Douglas Hanes, Gin Mccollum Jan 2006

Cognitive-Vestibular Interactions: A Review Of Patient Difficulties And Possible Mechanisms, Douglas Hanes, Gin Mccollum

Gin McCollum

Cognitive deficits such as poor concentration and short-term memory loss are known by clinicians to occur frequently among patients with vestibular abnormalities. Although direct scientific study of such deficits has been limited, several types of investigations do lend weight to the existence of vestibular-cognitive effects. In this article we review a wide range of studies indicating a vestibular influence on the ability to perform certain cognitive functions. In addition to tests of vestibular patient abilities, these studies include dual-task studies of cognitive and balance functions, studies of vestibular contribution to spatial perception and memory, and works demonstrating a vestibular influence ...


What You See Is Not What You Get: Product Architecture And Corporate Strategy, Sheen Levine, Johannes M. Pennings Jan 2006

What You See Is Not What You Get: Product Architecture And Corporate Strategy, Sheen Levine, Johannes M. Pennings

Management Papers

Weaving insights from the study of technology, operations, and organizational theory, we examine factors that underlie decisions about product product architecture. The general principles that determine the composition and interdependency between the components that make a product have largely been relegated to the engineering literature. However, our preliminary results from a Wharton-SMU study of product architecture in the imagining industry suggest several overlooked factors that play an important role in determining product architecture and consequently – firm performance. We suggest that product architecture decisions are far from being the exclusive domain of engineers. Using a sample of firms and products from ...


Quantum Theories Of Consciousness, Imants Barušs Jan 2006

Quantum Theories Of Consciousness, Imants Barušs

Psychology

The assumption is often made in conventional cognitive science that consciousness is a computational process resulting from macroscopic neural activity as described by classical physics. That assumption has been questioned both because it has been unsuccessful in explaining consciousness and because it is based on outdated ideas about the nature of matter. More contemporary quantum theories may be more successful for understanding cognition. For example, Mari Jibu, Kunio Yasue, and Yasushi Takahashi have proposed a theory of memory as a spinor field underlying cortical dipoles in which quantum mechanical tunnelling instantiates memory decay and in which the creation of Goldstone ...


Confronting Conventional Thinking: The Heuristics Problem In Feminist Legal Theory, Nancy Levit Jan 2006

Confronting Conventional Thinking: The Heuristics Problem In Feminist Legal Theory, Nancy Levit

Nancy Levit

The thesis of The Heuristics Problem is that the societal problems about which identity theorists are most concerned often spring from and are reinforced by thinking riddled with heuristic errors. This article first investigates the ways heuristic errors influence popular perceptions of feminist issues. Feminists and critical race theorists have explored the cognitive bias of stereotyping, but have not examined the ways probabilistic errors can have gendered consequences. Second, The Heuristics Problem traces some of the ways cognitive errors have influenced the development of laws relating to gender issues. It explores instances in judicial decisions in which courts commit heuristic ...


The Effects Of Nutrition On The Cognitive Skills Of Students From Kindergarten Through Third Grades, Rebecca Lorentz Jan 2006

The Effects Of Nutrition On The Cognitive Skills Of Students From Kindergarten Through Third Grades, Rebecca Lorentz

Capstone Projects and Master's Theses

This research explores the positive relationships between good nutrition and the cognitive skills of students in kindergarten through third grade. This paper discusses how certain nutrients have been found to improve skills such as memory retention, spatial relationships, and pattern skills. Since these are necessary skills of early childhood academics, parents, educators, and the students themselves will benefit from learning more about how nutrition affects those skills.


Conceptualizing Hoarding Behavior Among Elderly Women: A Mixed-Methods Approach, Susan Jan Murdock Jan 2006

Conceptualizing Hoarding Behavior Among Elderly Women: A Mixed-Methods Approach, Susan Jan Murdock

Theses and Dissertations

Hoarding in the community involves substantial cluttering and impaired functioning, often exposing the hoarder to extensive health and safety risks. This research, based on Functionalism social theory, explores the three elements of hoarding—relentless acquisition, intense possessiveness of objects, and a reluctance to discard possessions—as a sociocultural phenomenon. The mixed methods methodology entailed a quantitative study involving a survey completed by 134 adult protective services workers throughout Virginia and a qualitative study of five randomly-selected adult protective services workers who volunteered for in-depth interviews.Findings revealed that adult protective services workers come in contact with very severe cases of ...


A Longitudinal Investigation Of Cognitive Predictors Of Self-Care Behaviors In Youth With Type I Diabetes, Michelle Marie Greene Jan 2006

A Longitudinal Investigation Of Cognitive Predictors Of Self-Care Behaviors In Youth With Type I Diabetes, Michelle Marie Greene

Theses and Dissertations

Cross-sectional research of youth with type I diabetes has demonstrated that rote and working memory predict blood glucose monitoring (BGM) and carbohydrate consumption, respectively; however, to date, no longitudinal follow-up studies exist. Rote and working memory subtests from well-standardized memory measures, along with a problem-solving and executive functioning measures were administered to 118 youth with type I diabetes, aged 9-16 in two waves of data collection (mean interval = 2.07 years). Diabetes care behaviors were assessed through the 24-hour Diabetes Interview. This study was the first to document longitudinal prediction of BGM by rote memory and fat consumption by working ...


Factors Influencing Health Status In Community-Dwelling Older Adults, Janet Jestina Byam-Williams Jan 2006

Factors Influencing Health Status In Community-Dwelling Older Adults, Janet Jestina Byam-Williams

Theses and Dissertations

This descriptive, correlational study was based on Pender's Health Promotion Model (Pender, Murdaugh, & Parsons, 2002). The purpose was to examine factors influencing health status in community-dwelling, older white and black adults. The following research question was addressed by the study: What are the relationships among the individual characteristics (age, gender, race, education, and income); the behavior-specific cognitions and affect (perceived self-efficacy, perceived barriers, and interpersonal influences); and the behavioral outcomes (health-promoting behaviors), and health status in community-dwelling whites and blacks 65 years of age and older? The convenience sample of 113 participants from four congregate meal sites in Central Virginia represented 46% of the young-old (aged 65 to 74 years); 83% females, 76% blacks, and 43% less than high school educated. Twenty-one percent had an annual household income of $4,999 or less, and 31% reported having an income between ...


Revisiting Austin V. Loral: A Study In Economic Duress, Contract Modification And Framing, Meredith R. Miller Jan 2006

Revisiting Austin V. Loral: A Study In Economic Duress, Contract Modification And Framing, Meredith R. Miller

Scholarly Works

Austin v. Loral, 29 N.Y.2d 124 (1971), is a favorite among Contracts casebooks because the New York Court of Appeals held that it was a "classic" example of economic duress. It involved Austin, a small gear part manufacturer, who had entered into a subcontract to provide gear parts to Loral, a publicly-traded defense industry supplier. Loral had a contract with the U.S. government to supply radar sets, to be used in the U.S. efforts in Vietnam. Midway through performance of the subcontract, Austin apparently refused to continue to deliver the gear parts unless Loral acceded to ...


Study Of The Cognitive Functioning Of Medicated And Non-Medicated Elementary School-Aged Children Diagnosed With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Janet Friedman Jan 2006

Study Of The Cognitive Functioning Of Medicated And Non-Medicated Elementary School-Aged Children Diagnosed With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Janet Friedman

PCOM Psychology Dissertations

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a serious disability that has been shown to adversely affect cognition, affect, and behavior. Research using traditional measures of cognitive functioning, such as intelligence tests has shown that children diagnosed with ADHD perform poorly on cognitive measures of processing speed, and on working memory in particular (Kerns, Mclnerney & Wilde, 2001; Weiler, Bernstein, Bellinger & Waber, 2000). Mahone, et al. (2003), note that reviews involving the Wechsler Scales for children suggest that Full Scale IQ scores (FSIQ) on the WISC-III average 5 to 6 points lower than scores in the WISC-R. It was hypothesized that changes on revised subtests of the WISC-III Performance Scale may place ADHD children at a disadvantage if their performance on these subtests is compared to their performance on analogous WISC-R subtests. Mahone, et al. (2003) theorize that increased executive demands resulted in lower FSIQ scores and call for further analysis upon future Wechsler revisions. Although results are equivocal, research suggests that psychostimulant medication may ameliorate ADHD cognitive deficiencies that adversely impact working memory and processing speed. Brown and Borden (1989) suggest that stimulant drug improvement occurs primarily on rote or simple tasks, but measures emphasizing the processing of higher-order information may be less influenced. Barkley (1998) indicates that the impact of drugs upon behavior and concentration was most salient, with performance on intelligence tests unaffected by medication. However, most of these studies extrapolated IQ scores either from short forms or from several subtests of the Wechsler scales. Research using more traditional measures of cognitive functioning (e.g., standardized intelligence tests), and focusing on long-term effects of cognitive performance (Gillberg, et aI., 1997; Livingston, Mears, Marshall, Gray & Haak, 1996; Mahone, et aI., 2003), suggests that results depend on the measures and methods used. As part of the initial validation of the revised WISC-IV, an ADHD group was compared to a matched control group. Additional research called for investigations ...


Longitudinal Trends In Postpartum Mental Health, Cognition And Steroid Hormones, Chandler R Marrs Jan 2006

Longitudinal Trends In Postpartum Mental Health, Cognition And Steroid Hormones, Chandler R Marrs

UNLV Retrospective Theses & Dissertations

The temporal association between psychiatric and cognitive disturbances during pregnancy and postpartum is clear in the literature. However, associations between these disturbances and puerperal hormones are equivocal. The present study followed nine primigravid women from late pregnancy through one year postpartum to investigate trends in psychiatric and cognitive disturbances relative to postpartum hormone changes. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological instruments at 37 weeks of pregnancy, at 10 days and four-, eight- and twelve-months postpartum and provided salivary specimen from which dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone, estradiol and estriol concentrations were quantified. Results showed psychiatric disturbances and cognitive decrements in late ...


Using Fmri To Explore Interactivity And Cognition: A Methodological Case Study, Barney Dalgarno, Gregor Kennedy, Susan J. Bennett Jan 2006

Using Fmri To Explore Interactivity And Cognition: A Methodological Case Study, Barney Dalgarno, Gregor Kennedy, Susan J. Bennett

Faculty of Education - Papers (Archive)

Recent educational models of computer-based interactivity stress the important role of a learner’s cognition. It has been suggested that interactive learning tasks carried out in the context of an authentic, problem-based scenario will result in deeper, elaborative cognitive processing leading to greater conceptual understanding of the material presented. Research methods that have been used to investigate cognition and learning have traditionally included self-report questionnaires, focus groups, interviews and think-aloud protocols and, more recently in computer-based settings, interaction log file or ‘audit trail’ analysis. While all of these techniques help researchers understand students’ learning processes, all are limited in that ...