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2006

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Risk

Pharmacology

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Smoking, Anemia, And Risk Of Oral Clefts In Utah, Melinda Michelle Moss May 2006

Smoking, Anemia, And Risk Of Oral Clefts In Utah, Melinda Michelle Moss

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cigarette smoke contains sufficient carbon monoxide to induce maternal and fetal hypoxia. Hypoxia is a known teratogen, and consequently maternal smoking has been the focus of many studies on adverse birth outcomes, including cleft lip and palate. Current literature of epidemiological studies on smoking and clefts suggests a modest but statistically significant increase in risk of clefting associated with maternal smoking. A biological condition that may also contribute to hypoxia is anemia. Data from the Utah Child and Family Health Study was used to assess the effects of hypoxia-inducing conditions, maternal smoking, anemia, and their interaction, on the risk of ...