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Antimicrobial Properties Of Syringopeptin 25a And Rhamnolipids, Prerak T. Desai May 2006

Antimicrobial Properties Of Syringopeptin 25a And Rhamnolipids, Prerak T. Desai

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The increasing bacterial resistance to available antibiotics requires the search for new antibacterial compounds to be broadened. This study investigated the antimicrobial properties of two secondary metabolites from fluorescent pseudo monads -- syringopeptin 25A, a lipodepsipeptide produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, and a rhamnolipid mixture produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The rate of antimicrobial action was determined by monitoring the rate of uptake of propidium iodide during exposure to the compounds. Inhibition was also confirmed by the microbroth dilution method to determine the MI Cs. Both the compounds inhibited growth of Gram-positive organisms, including Mycobacterium smegmatis, staphylococci, and listeria. Inhibition of ...


Catalase Activity Mediates The Inhibitory Actions Of 24,25 Dihydroxyvitamin D3, Sven L. Peery May 2006

Catalase Activity Mediates The Inhibitory Actions Of 24,25 Dihydroxyvitamin D3, Sven L. Peery

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The steroid hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] rapidly stimulates the uptake of phosphate in isolated chick intestinal cells , while the steroid 24,25- dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24,25(OH)2D3] inhibits the rapid stimulation by l,25(OH)2D3. Earlier work in this laboratory has indicated that a cellular binding protein for the 24,25(OH)2D3 is the enzyme catalase. Since binding resulted in decreased catalase activity and increased H2O2 production, studies were undertaken to determine if pro-oxidant conditions mimicked the inhibitory actions of ...


Smoking, Anemia, And Risk Of Oral Clefts In Utah, Melinda Michelle Moss May 2006

Smoking, Anemia, And Risk Of Oral Clefts In Utah, Melinda Michelle Moss

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cigarette smoke contains sufficient carbon monoxide to induce maternal and fetal hypoxia. Hypoxia is a known teratogen, and consequently maternal smoking has been the focus of many studies on adverse birth outcomes, including cleft lip and palate. Current literature of epidemiological studies on smoking and clefts suggests a modest but statistically significant increase in risk of clefting associated with maternal smoking. A biological condition that may also contribute to hypoxia is anemia. Data from the Utah Child and Family Health Study was used to assess the effects of hypoxia-inducing conditions, maternal smoking, anemia, and their interaction, on the risk of ...


Use Of Natural Antioxidants To Control Oxidative Rancidity In Cooked Meats, Mihir Vasavada May 2006

Use Of Natural Antioxidants To Control Oxidative Rancidity In Cooked Meats, Mihir Vasavada

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The research in this dissertation focused on determining antioxidant effects of various natural antioxidants in cooked meat systems. Milk mineral (MM), spices, and raisin paste were used in cooked meat systems to verify their potential antioxidant properties.

The MM study determined the antioxidant activity of 1.5% MM added to uncured cooked beef meatballs, and possible additive effects of MM in combination with 20-ppm or 40-ppm sodium nitrate in cooked beef sausages . There was no additive inhibition of lipid oxidation in samples containing 20-ppm or 40-ppm sodium nitrite plus 1.5% MM. Cooked meat yield was not different between control ...


Historical Biogeography Of North American Nightsnakes And Their Relationships Among The Dipsadines: Evidence For Vicariance Associated With Miocene Formations Of Northwestern Mexico, Daniel G. Mulcahy May 2006

Historical Biogeography Of North American Nightsnakes And Their Relationships Among The Dipsadines: Evidence For Vicariance Associated With Miocene Formations Of Northwestern Mexico, Daniel G. Mulcahy

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

I used a Hierarchical approach to study historical biogeography in a group of colubrid snakes found in western North America. I combined small regions of mtDNA sequence data from a large number of individuals, with complete mt-genomic data. First, I investigated the relationships among leptodeirines-a presumed subgroup of dipsadines includeng nightsnakes (Pseudoleptodeira, Eridiphas, and Hypsiglena) - using ~1.5 Kb of data (cob and nad4). The relationships differed among parsimony, likelihood, and bayesian analyses. All analyses supported the monophyly of the nightsnakes; however, none supported the monophyly of the leptodeirines. Instead, these data supported a new hypothesis that the dipsadines were ...


Tapirs And Rhinoceroses In Captivity: An Examination Of The North American Captive Populations And Their Husbandry, Lisa A. Nordstrom May 2006

Tapirs And Rhinoceroses In Captivity: An Examination Of The North American Captive Populations And Their Husbandry, Lisa A. Nordstrom

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A..11 species of Tapiridae and Rhinocerotidae are threatened or endangered in the wild. Captive populations have been established for most of these species, but successful management has proved challenging. Effective ex situ conservation strategies, however, rely on the ability of zoological institutions to maintain and breed these endangered species. In this study, I examined the captive environment to identify the factors associated with reproduction, mortality, and health of rhinos and tapirs. Zoological institutions in the North American region that currently housed rhinos and/or tapirs were surveyed in 2003. Attaining an approximately 90% response rate, I compiled information on ...


Highway Effects On Small Mammal Communities And Effectiveness Of A Deer-Vehicle Collision Mitigation Strategy, Silvia A. S. Rosa May 2006

Highway Effects On Small Mammal Communities And Effectiveness Of A Deer-Vehicle Collision Mitigation Strategy, Silvia A. S. Rosa

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

My work focused on the study of road effects and mitigation of negative impacts of roads on wildlife. Two different studies were conducted on Interstate 15, in southern Utah. My first study reported on road effects on small mammal communities. The results suggested that overall, there was no clear effect on small mammal populations relative to distance from the road. Most small mammal species did not appear to be negatively affected by the presence of the road. Instead, the road seemed to have either a neutral or a positive effect. The abundance and diversity of small mammals responded more markedly ...


The Integration Of The Nutrition Screening Tool With The Interdisciplinary Plan Of Care Form, Beth Hyatt May 2006

The Integration Of The Nutrition Screening Tool With The Interdisciplinary Plan Of Care Form, Beth Hyatt

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Literature Review

Undernutrition in the hospital setting has been shown to cause adverse outcomes. Screening for nutritional risk assists in the detection of undernutrition with subsequent early intervention to prevent further decline. While many nutrition screening tools exist, none are proven to detect undernutrition. Furthermore, many barriers exist for utilizing nurses as primarily responsible for screening patients for nutritional risk.

Background

A hospital reviewed the nutrition screening process and found that the form used and screening factors were insufficient to adequately detect undernutrition and appropriate referrals for dietitians.

Objectives

1) Determine if nursing compliance improved when the nutrition screening form ...


Addition Of Three Dietary Fibers In An Extruded Whey And Cornstarch Expanded Snack Food, Alisha M. Wood May 2006

Addition Of Three Dietary Fibers In An Extruded Whey And Cornstarch Expanded Snack Food, Alisha M. Wood

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Different fiber types were incorporated in an extruded expanded high-protein snack food. Three dietary fibers (powdered cellulose, wheat fiber, and oat fiber) were selected based on ease of extrusion, percent total dietary fiber, visible expansion, and commercial availability. A high-fiber, high-protein snack food containing whey protein, normal cornstarch, and pregelatinized waxy cornstarch was extruded using the three selected fibers. The fibers replaced the normal cornstarch at 30, 60, and 80% yielding extrudates with three fiber levels (18, 36, and 48%). Each treatment or combination of fiber type and extrudate fiber level was extruded in triplicate. A control with no fiber ...


Microbial Ecology Of An Animal Waste-Fueled Induced Blanket Reactor, Steven C. Curtis May 2006

Microbial Ecology Of An Animal Waste-Fueled Induced Blanket Reactor, Steven C. Curtis

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Use of an induced blanket reactor (IBR) to break down organic matter into methane is a financially attractive method to reduce the environmental impact of animal or industrial waste. In order to better understand the biological processes involved with the conversion of waste to biogas by an IBR, it is necessary to gain a better understanding of the microorganisms and their roles in the reactor. Molecular techniques based on the isolation of 16S rDNA were used in order to avoid the limitations posed by conventional culture-based techniques. Total DNA was extracted and amplified using universal primers specific to eubacteria and ...


Milk Intake In Early And Late Adulthood And Risk Of Osteoporotic Hip Fractures In Utah, Melanie Jean Slavens May 2006

Milk Intake In Early And Late Adulthood And Risk Of Osteoporotic Hip Fractures In Utah, Melanie Jean Slavens

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The relationship between milk intake and risk of osteoporotic fractures is uncertain. Associations between milk intake and milk avoidance in relation to osteoporotic hip fracture were examined in the Utah Study of Nutrition and Bone Health (USNBH), a statewide case-control study. Cases were ascertained at Utah hospitals treating 98 percent of hip fractures during 1997-2001 and included 1188 men and women aged 50-89 years. Age- and gender-matched controls were randomly selected from Utah driver's license and Medicare databases (N= 1324). In-person interviews were conducted and participants reported frequency of milk intake per week at age 18 and during pregnancy ...


Type 2 Diabetes And The Risk Of Osteoporotic Hip Fracture In Utah Men And Women, Megan Bunch May 2006

Type 2 Diabetes And The Risk Of Osteoporotic Hip Fracture In Utah Men And Women, Megan Bunch

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Prior studies have unequivocally established a consistent association between osteoporotic hip fracture risk and type 2 diabetes mellitus. One reason this association still remains unclear is primarily due to the limited amount of research conducted in this area. The Utah Study of Nutrition and Bone Health (USNBH) is a case-control study conducted in Utah during the period of 1997-2001 to determine risk factors for osteoporotic hip fracture. All study participants (n = 2590) were determined from Utah residents 50-90 years of age. Cases were determined from 18 Utah hospitals during 1997-2001. Age and gender-matched controls were randomly selected from the Utah ...


Remapping The Cliff Chipmunk (Neotamias Dorsalis) Distribution And Creating A Habitat Association Model In Southern Idaho, Masako Niwa May 2006

Remapping The Cliff Chipmunk (Neotamias Dorsalis) Distribution And Creating A Habitat Association Model In Southern Idaho, Masako Niwa

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The distribution of the cliff chipmunk in Idaho was previously considered to include only the Raft River Valley and the Goose Creek Basin. A pilot study was conducted in 2003 and 2004. Thirty-five cliff chipmunk presence locations and 124 absence locations were recorded. Habitat variables of elevation, slope, deviation from south, distance to water, and vegetation type were extracted for all of the absence and presence points by means of GIS analysis. The data were analyzed by implementing a classification tree, and a "GIS habitat association model" was created. The model was tested in 2005, and the overall model accuracy ...