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Energy Expenditure In Lean And Obese Women: The Role Of Posture Allocation , Darcy Larae Johannsen Jan 2006

Energy Expenditure In Lean And Obese Women: The Role Of Posture Allocation , Darcy Larae Johannsen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Obesity occurs when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure over an extended period of time. Low resting metabolic rate (RMR), or expending less energy at rest than persons of equivalent body size, is considered a risk factor for weight gain leading to obesity. However, because obese persons tend to have greater lean mass (LM) as well as fat mass (FM) than do lean individuals, absolute RMR tends to be higher, rendering the detection of initial impairments in RMR difficult. Purposes of this study were to determine resting energy expenditure (REE) in lean and obese women who were matched for LM and ...


Comparison Of Soy-Flour Hydrolysates For Wood Adhesive Systems , John F. Schmitz Jr. Jan 2006

Comparison Of Soy-Flour Hydrolysates For Wood Adhesive Systems , John F. Schmitz Jr.

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Soy-protein-based adhesives have not been used extensively in wood products since the 1960's because of poor performance, stability, and water-resistance issues compared to petroleum-based adhesives. The early soy-protein adhesives were made from defatted flours and were dispersed in alkaline solutions to denature proteins and make more polar amino acid groups available for adhesion bonding. Recent research has focused on soy flour adhesives due to increased phenol prices and environmental concerns related to the use and exposure to formaldehyde. Soy protein isolates can be modified in highly caustic alkaline solutions to reduce viscosity and improve adhesive properties, but the price ...


Thermal Tolerance Of Acid Adapted And Non-Adapted Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Salmonella Enterica In Ground Beef , Manpreet Singh Jan 2006

Thermal Tolerance Of Acid Adapted And Non-Adapted Escherichia Coli O157:H7 And Salmonella Enterica In Ground Beef , Manpreet Singh

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

D-values of acid adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were determined in meat serum and ground beef stored at 4 and -20°C as an indicator of thermal tolerance. Pathogens were acid adapted by growing in Tryptic Soy Broth with 1% glucose (TSB+1%G). Five-strain cocktail of both bacteria were grown and inoculated meat serum was heated to 58, 62, and 65°C, while inoculated ground beef was heated to 62 and 65°C on day 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 (4°C), and on day 1, 30, 60, 90, and 120 (-20°C). Higher (P<0.05) D-values were observed for acid adapted E. coli O157:H7 in meat serum at 58, 62, and 65°C; and for acid adapted Salmonella at 58 and 62°C, but no difference (P>0 ...


Frying Performance Of Soybean Oils With Reduced Linolenate Content And Methods To Monitor Deteriorative Changes , Jose Arnaldo Gerde Jan 2006

Frying Performance Of Soybean Oils With Reduced Linolenate Content And Methods To Monitor Deteriorative Changes , Jose Arnaldo Gerde

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The performance during frying of three expeller-pressed physically refined soybean oils with different contents of linolenic acid (ULL, 1.5%; LL, 2.6%; control, 5.2%) was tested. French fries were fried in a commercial-like setting for 6 hr/day during 23 consecutive days. There were no significant differences in color or in polar material content. The amount of conjugated dienoic acids was higher in the control than in both ULL and LL oils throughout the frying process. Free fatty acid levels were not different among the oils until day 14, after which ULL was higher than the control for ...


Methanobactin: A Potential Novel Biopreservative For Use Against The Foodborne Pathogen Listeria Monocytogenes , Clinton Lewis Johnson Jan 2006

Methanobactin: A Potential Novel Biopreservative For Use Against The Foodborne Pathogen Listeria Monocytogenes , Clinton Lewis Johnson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous, pathogenic foodborne bacterium, typically associated with post-processing contamination of ready-to-eat meats. Control of this pathogen has been a research topic for years, with more recent work investigating the use of novel naturally-produced antimicrobials. Methanobactin is a novel, chromopeptide recently isolated from the methanotroph, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. Its recent characterization has placed it in a new class of compounds now known as chalkophores, which are analogous to iron-binding siderophores. While it is thought to possibly serve multiple physiological roles involving copper metabolism in this bacterium, nothing is known regarding its potential as an antimicrobial. Our research ...


Mechanisms Of Lipid Peroxidation In Meats From Different Animal Species , Byungrok Min Jan 2006

Mechanisms Of Lipid Peroxidation In Meats From Different Animal Species , Byungrok Min

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the elements that make differences in the oxidative stability of meats from different animal species and (2) to determine the major catalysts of lipid peroxidation in meat and meat products. The most important difference in the susceptibility of meat from different animal species to lipid peroxidation was the balance between anti- and pro-oxidative factors in meat. Raw and cooked ground beef were the most susceptible to lipid peroxidation, followed by chicken thigh meat, pork, and chicken breast meat. The high storage stability of chicken breast meat was attributed to a very ...


Increasing Dark Green Leafy, Yellow/Orange, Cruciferous Vegetables, Tomatoes, And Physical Activity In A Low-Income Population: An Evaluation Of A Critical Thinking Approach , Ingrid Richards-Adams Jan 2006

Increasing Dark Green Leafy, Yellow/Orange, Cruciferous Vegetables, Tomatoes, And Physical Activity In A Low-Income Population: An Evaluation Of A Critical Thinking Approach , Ingrid Richards-Adams

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Intakes of dark green leafy, yellow/orange, cruciferous vegetables, and tomatoes (target vegetables), and involvement in physical activity have been shown to be protective actions against chronic diseases. Low-income individuals generally consume lower amounts of these target vegetables, engage in less physical activities, and experience higher incidences of chronic diseases. The study evaluated the effectiveness of a critical thinking approach in increasing (a) knowledge, (b) positive attitudes, (c) critical thinking skills of low-income parents related to vegetable offerings and physical activity, (d) the number of target vegetables low-income parents offer their children, and (e) the amount of time spent on ...


Evaluation Of Extruded-Expelled Low-Fat Soybean Flour In Flour Blends And The Effects On Bread And Dough Development , Toshiba Lynne Traynham Jan 2006

Evaluation Of Extruded-Expelled Low-Fat Soybean Flour In Flour Blends And The Effects On Bread And Dough Development , Toshiba Lynne Traynham

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The research detailed in this document focuses on the performance of a partially defatted soybean flour called low-fat soybean flour (LSF). This soybean flour type has not received widespread application as a food ingredient. This has resulted from a lack of information available on the performance of LSF in a variety of food systems. Based upon its compositional and functional properties, LSF has shown potential for use in a flour blend. Past studies have focused on the usage of flour blends containing wheat flour partially replaced by an oilseed or legume flour. Wheat-soy flour blends have mostly been studied for ...


Antimicrobial Action Of Selected Plant-Derived Compounds Against Listeria Monocytogenes , Natalia A. Weinsetel Jan 2006

Antimicrobial Action Of Selected Plant-Derived Compounds Against Listeria Monocytogenes , Natalia A. Weinsetel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Listeria monocytogenes causes listeriosis, a disease that can be fatal to immunocompromised individuals. Due to the number of outbreaks, recalls, and deaths linked to the consumption of contaminated ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, the United States government issued a directive for the control of L. monocytogenes in the production of RTE meats including the use of a post-lethality treatment and/or the addition of a growth inhibitor. Several methods to inhibit pathogenic bacteria in RTE foods are currently utilized. One method actively being studied involves the use of natural plant products as food antimicrobials. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of plant-derived ...


Starch Biogenesis: Relationship Between Starch Structures And Starch Biosynthetic Enzymes , Li Li Jan 2006

Starch Biogenesis: Relationship Between Starch Structures And Starch Biosynthetic Enzymes , Li Li

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research is to gain understanding on starch biogenesis by studying starch granule formation and development. The objectives of this research were to modify the structure of cyanobacteria glycogen by replacing the endogenous glycogen synthase gene with a plant starch synthase and to study starch granule formation by creating a plant starch biosynthetic system in a cyanobacterium, and to investigate the development of starch granules in maize endosperm during maturation of the maize kernel;A potato starch synthase III (PSSIII) was expressed in Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutants without glycogen synthase I (M1) or glycogen synthase II ...


Soybean Sphingolipid Content As Affected By Palmitate Content And By Seed Development Stage , Liping Wang Jan 2006

Soybean Sphingolipid Content As Affected By Palmitate Content And By Seed Development Stage , Liping Wang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Sphingolipids (SL) are both structural and functional lipids with potential health benefits. To determine the relationship between palmitate and SL contents, methods for column separation and quantification using high-performance liquid chromatography - evaporative light scattering detector were developed for glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and ceramide (Cer) in 15 soybeans lines in which palmitate content ranged from 3.7 to 40.3%. Significant differences were observed among lines for GlcCer (83.4-397.6 nmol/g) and Cer (8.4-20.7 nmol/g) contents on a dry weight basis (dwb). But these contents were not significantly affected by the palmitate content of soybeans seeds. To ...


Barriers To Participating In A Community-Based Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction Program , Jody Catherine Gatewood Jan 2006

Barriers To Participating In A Community-Based Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction Program , Jody Catherine Gatewood

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Quantitative and qualitative analysis were used to examine barriers to attending the Iowa WISEWOMAN program, and making health behavior changes. Subjects (N=161) represented three levels of program participation---full, minimum, and none. Scales of food security, barriers to attendance and health behavior change, and self-efficacy for nutrition and physical activity were administered via survey. Minimum and no exposure participants perceived significantly more barriers to attendance than the full exposure participants (p<0.05); barriers to health behavior change and self-efficacy for nutrition and physical activity were not significantly different among the groups.;Forty-seven subjects also participated in focus groups. Perceived lack of time was found to be a major barrier to both health behavior change and attending health promotion programs. Subjects mentioned lack of time as a barrier to physical activity, healthy eating, and attending WISEWOMAN sessions. Health promotion programs must identify and address perceived barriers of target audiences for program success.