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Dietary Strategies To Reduce Air Emissions From Laying Hen Operations , Wei Wu-Haan Jan 2006

Dietary Strategies To Reduce Air Emissions From Laying Hen Operations , Wei Wu-Haan

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effectiveness of feeding a reduced emission diet (R) containing 6.9% of a gypsum-zeolite mixture and slightly reduced crude protein (CP) to 21-, 38-, and 59-wk old Hy-line W36 hens (trial 1, 2, and 3, respectively) on hen performance, emissions of NH3, H2S, NO, NO2, CO2 , CH4, non-methane total hydrocarbon, and apparent digestibility compared to feeding a commercial diet (C), and to compare different methods of estimating nutrient excretion from laying hens in environmental chambers. At each age, 640 hens were allocated randomly to one of eight environmental chambers for ...


Use Of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 And Vitamin E And Manipulation Of Dietary Calcium To Improve Tenderness Of Beef , Kristen Marie Carnagey Jan 2006

Use Of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 And Vitamin E And Manipulation Of Dietary Calcium To Improve Tenderness Of Beef , Kristen Marie Carnagey

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Tenderness is one of the most important quality characteristics of beef. Inconsistent tenderness of beef costs the U.S. beef industry millions of dollars annually. Therefore, a practical method of improving tenderness could increase consumer satisfaction and willingness to purchase beef, which could lead to increased profits to producers. Calpain, the enzyme responsible for postmortem proteolysis, is calcium-dependent; so, increasing intracellular calcium concentrations presumably will result in increased proteolysis and, subsequently, more tender beef. We hypothesized that 500 mg of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH D3) administered as a single oral bolus seven days before harvest would increase calcium concentrations in plasma ...


Use Of Qtl Identified In Breed Crosses For Genetic Improvement In Pigs, Napapan Piyasatian Jan 2006

Use Of Qtl Identified In Breed Crosses For Genetic Improvement In Pigs, Napapan Piyasatian

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Strategies for the exploitation of multiple QTL identified in breed crosses for genetic improvement of livestock were examined through marker-assisted introgression (MAI) and marker-assisted selection (MAS). Evaluation of the effectiveness of alternate strategies for MAI and MAS were carried out using stochastic computer simulation. In general, introgression of multiple QTL and maintaining the frequency of the donor's allele at 50% requires large population sizes that are not feasible in livestock. An alternate selection approach for MAI of multiple QTL was developed for a breeding program of limited size, without requiring the selected candidates to be heterozygous at all loci ...


Investigating Uncured No Nitrate Or Nitrite Added Processed Meat Products , Jeffrey Joseph Sindelar Jan 2006

Investigating Uncured No Nitrate Or Nitrite Added Processed Meat Products , Jeffrey Joseph Sindelar

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Samples of different commercial brands (4 uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added and one nitrite-added) of three product types (frankfurters, hams and bacons) were evaluated for color, pigment content, pH, lipid oxidation, residual nitrate and nitrite quantity, and consumer acceptance. All samples contained residual nitrate and residual nitrite except for Brands B and D bacons (<1 ppm nitrite). A large variation in severity of lipid oxidation existed between product types within brands with frankfurters reporting the highest levels. Color measurements indicated the majority of products and brands were similar to the control. Consumer sensory ratings determined that variation existed;The effects of varying levels of vegetable juice powder (VJP) and incubation times (MIN-HOLD) on quality characteristics and sensory properties of emulsified frankfurter-style cooked (EFSC) sausages and hams over a 90-day storage period were investigated. Four EFSC sausage treatments (TRT) (TRT1: 0.20% VJP, 30 MIN-HOLD; TRT2: 0.20% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD; TRT3: 0.40% VJP, 30 MIN-HOLD; TRT4: 0.40% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD) and a sodium nitrite-added (156 mg/kg) control (C) were identified for this study. No differences for lipid oxidation between any TRTs and C or over time were identified. No differences (P>0.05) for Commission International D'Edairerage (CIE) L* values were found between TRTs. CIE a* and reflectance ratio values revealed TRTs 2, 4 and C were redder and had better cured color than TRTs 1 and 3 at Day 0. Trained sensory intensity ratings determined that all ...


Use Of Linkage Disequilibrium For Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping In Livestock , Honghua Zhao Jan 2006

Use Of Linkage Disequilibrium For Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping In Livestock , Honghua Zhao

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The goal of quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in livestock is to find genes underlying traits of economic importance for genetic improvement through marker assisted selection (MAS). The studies presented in this thesis address several important issues in QTL detection and fine mapping using candidate gene analysis and linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping using high density genotyping. Tests for candidate genes in F2 populations for QTL mapping were developed and evaluated. Results show that the extensive between-breed LD that is present in a cross can result in significant associations for candidate genes at considerable distances from the QTL. Tests that removed ...


Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis In Angus Cattle , José Eduardo Rodríguez Jan 2006

Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis In Angus Cattle , José Eduardo Rodríguez

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis is a contagious ocular disease that affects cattle worldwide. It is considered the most significant ocular disease in cattle. The economic impact of the disease has been well documented. The available treatments have yet to show their effectiveness in the prevention and/or control of the disease. The objectives of this study were twofold, to evaluate the effects of IBK incidence and severity on production traits such as weaning weight, yearling weight, and carcass traits and to estimate variance components associated with IBK. Our results support previous findings on the effects of IBK on weaning weight. The ...


Mechanisms Of Lipid Peroxidation In Meats From Different Animal Species , Byungrok Min Jan 2006

Mechanisms Of Lipid Peroxidation In Meats From Different Animal Species , Byungrok Min

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the elements that make differences in the oxidative stability of meats from different animal species and (2) to determine the major catalysts of lipid peroxidation in meat and meat products. The most important difference in the susceptibility of meat from different animal species to lipid peroxidation was the balance between anti- and pro-oxidative factors in meat. Raw and cooked ground beef were the most susceptible to lipid peroxidation, followed by chicken thigh meat, pork, and chicken breast meat. The high storage stability of chicken breast meat was attributed to a very ...


Molecular Dissection Of Genomic Regions Influencing Important Economic Traits In The Pig , Antonio Marcos Costa Do Amaral Ramos Jan 2006

Molecular Dissection Of Genomic Regions Influencing Important Economic Traits In The Pig , Antonio Marcos Costa Do Amaral Ramos

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Recently, numerous genes and genomic regions associated with pork quality were identified. There is great potential for the pig industry in using information from molecular markers for the improvement of pork quality traits, such as color, marbling and pH. Besides the traditional fresh pork market, the production of dry-cured pork products, like Country Hams, has also increased. We collected data on fresh and dry-cured Country Hams to investigate the relationships between these traits and to analyze the effect of genetic markers on fresh and dry-cured ham processing characteristics. Significant positive correlations between yield and firmness, color, pH and marbling were ...


Analysis Of Genomic Region(S) And Gene(S) Associated With Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture In The Dog , Vicki Lea Wilke Jan 2006

Analysis Of Genomic Region(S) And Gene(S) Associated With Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture In The Dog , Vicki Lea Wilke

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCLR) in the dog is the most common cause of hind limb lameness. When CCLR occurs it results in instability in the knee leading to progressive, debilitating arthritis and lameness. Particular breeds of dogs (e.g. Newfoundland) are predisposed to CCLR while other breeds (e.g. Greyhound) have dramatically reduced frequency of this disorder supporting a heritable basis for the CCLR trait. For this study, we first estimated the economic impact to veterinary clients for the medical and surgical management for CCLR at 1.3 billion in the U.S. in 2003. Next, we ...


The Effect Of Reduced Levels Of Inorganic And Organic Trace Mineral Supplementation On Performance, Carcass Traits, And Fecal Excretion Of Grow-Finish Swine , Matthew Lee Wolfe Jan 2006

The Effect Of Reduced Levels Of Inorganic And Organic Trace Mineral Supplementation On Performance, Carcass Traits, And Fecal Excretion Of Grow-Finish Swine , Matthew Lee Wolfe

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of reduced levels of inorganic and organic trace mineral supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics, and mineral excretion of grow-finish swine. Crossbred pigs were randomly assigned to the following treatments of reduced Cu, Fe, and Zn supplementation: TRT (1) 25% inorganic, TRT (2) 25% organic, TRT (3) 10% inorganic, and TRT (4) 10% organic. In general, pigs fed reduced levels of trace minerals excreted less Cu and Zn. The same can be said for pigs fed organic trace minerals. Organic trace minerals can be supplemented in place of inorganic forms to reduce fecal ...


Characterization And Interactions Of Tbx2 , Christian Nephi Paxton Jan 2006

Characterization And Interactions Of Tbx2 , Christian Nephi Paxton

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

T-box (Tbx) proteins are dynamically expressed throughout embryogenesis and appear to have significant roles in a number of developmental processes. The T-box family is characterized by a highly conserved DNA binding domain. Over twenty mammalian T-box proteins have been identified, many of which have the demonstrated ability to regulate transcription. Both activators and repressors of gene transcription have been described within this family, but how their functions are performed is largely unknown;Tbx2 is a powerful transcriptional repressor with functional roles identified in cardiogenesis and limb development. However the functional domain(s) of Tbx2 are poorly characterized. Tbx2 contains a ...


Comparison Of Calf-Fed Vs. Yearling-Fed Management For The Estimation Of Carcass Trait Genetic Parameters In Simmental Cattle, Richard G. Tait Jr. Jan 2006

Comparison Of Calf-Fed Vs. Yearling-Fed Management For The Estimation Of Carcass Trait Genetic Parameters In Simmental Cattle, Richard G. Tait Jr.

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Selection indexes for feedlot performance have been developed by U.S. beef breed associations to help commercial producers with multiple trait selection decisions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implications of backgrounding cattle after weaning on selection for feedlot profitability. Carcass data records for 11,011 animals and a three generation pedigree were obtained from the American Simmental Association database. Carcass traits of primary interest in this analysis were marbling score (MARB), 12th rib fat thickness (CFT), 12th rib ribeye area (CREA), and hot carcass weight (HCW). Estimated post weaning gain (EPWG) was determined using ...