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Development And Testing Of A Fan Monitoring System Using Induction Operated Current Switches, Ross Muhlbauer, Timothy A. Shepherd, Hong Li, Robert T. Burns, Hongwei Xin Aug 2006

Development And Testing Of A Fan Monitoring System Using Induction Operated Current Switches, Ross Muhlbauer, Timothy A. Shepherd, Hong Li, Robert T. Burns, Hongwei Xin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Emissions of gaseous compounds and particulate matter are the product of the pollutant concentrations and air exhausted from the fans of mechanically ventilated animal confinement buildings. Direct methods of monitoring exhaust fan operation (i.e., mercury tilt, limit or whisker, and vibration switches) have been reported to have limitations due to mechanical failure and/or the effect of the environment (dust, wind, moisture). Another method involves monitoring the control relay status at the fan system control box. A problem could occur at the fan but not in the signal at the control box, thereby giving a false operational signal. The ...


Methodology For Analysis Of Intensive Swine Production Facility Design, Juliano C.A. Severo, Fernando C. Baêta, Ilda F.F. Tinôco, Antonio C.G. Tibiriçá, Irene Menegali, Maria C.C. Guimarães, Hongwei Xin, Angela R. Green Jul 2006

Methodology For Analysis Of Intensive Swine Production Facility Design, Juliano C.A. Severo, Fernando C. Baêta, Ilda F.F. Tinôco, Antonio C.G. Tibiriçá, Irene Menegali, Maria C.C. Guimarães, Hongwei Xin, Angela R. Green

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

This work was aimed on using Systematic Layout Planning (SLP) methodology to assist in planning of intensive swine production facilities. First, data were collected by local systematic observation. These data were used to make a diagnostic assessment of major existing problems in a swine production system by studying the relationship between production fluxes (of animals, people, feed, equipment and wastes) and the existing layout. Data acquisition, based on the production fluxes, occurred between August and October 2004 in three swine farms of Vale do Piranga region, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, because this region has the state’s second largest concentration ...


Use Of Co 2 Concentrations Or Co 2 Balance To Estimate Ventilation Rate Of Modern Commercial Broiler Houses, Hongwei Xin, Hong Li, Robert T. Burns, Lara B. Moody, Steven J. Hoff, Richard S. Gates, Douglas G. Overhults, John W. Earnest Jr. Jul 2006

Use Of Co 2 Concentrations Or Co 2 Balance To Estimate Ventilation Rate Of Modern Commercial Broiler Houses, Hongwei Xin, Hong Li, Robert T. Burns, Lara B. Moody, Steven J. Hoff, Richard S. Gates, Douglas G. Overhults, John W. Earnest Jr.

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Ventilation rate (VR) is one of the two key elements for quantifying aerial emissions from animal production facilities. Direct measurement of building VR can be challenging and impractical under certain circumstances, e.g., naturally ventilated animal housing. This study delineates VR of broiler houses with build-up litter as estimated via CO2 balance or building CO2 concentration. The indirectly derived VR compared favorably with the directly measured VR. Specifically, integration time of 30 min or longer leads to non-significant differences in VR between the indirect and the direct methods (P>0.2). Omission of CO2 generation by the litter from total ...


Reduction Of Ammonia Emission From Stored Poultry Manure Using Additives: Zeolite, Al+Clear, Ferix-3 And Plt, Hong Li, Hongwei Xin, Robert T. Burns, Yi Liang Jul 2006

Reduction Of Ammonia Emission From Stored Poultry Manure Using Additives: Zeolite, Al+Clear, Ferix-3 And Plt, Hong Li, Hongwei Xin, Robert T. Burns, Yi Liang

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Manure storage can be a significant source of ammonia emission that impacts the environment. Ammonia emission from manure storage can be controlled by using physical, chemical and/or biological methods. Five treatment agents, including zeolite, liquid Al+Clear (aluminum sulfate), granular Al+Clear (aluminum sulfate), and granular Ferix-3 (ferric sulfate), and PLT (sodium hydrogen sulfate) were topically applied to stored fresh layer manure. Each agent was tested at three application rates, i.e., low, medium and high. Manure was stored in 19-litter Teflon-lined vessels under a constant ambient temperature of 23 oC with a constant airflow of 3 liter per ...


Analysis Of The Influence Of Soil Roughness, Surface Crust And Soil Moisture On Spectral Reflectance, Amy L. Kaleita, Geetika Dilawari Jul 2006

Analysis Of The Influence Of Soil Roughness, Surface Crust And Soil Moisture On Spectral Reflectance, Amy L. Kaleita, Geetika Dilawari

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Soil moisture is an important component of numerous systems, influencing crop development, and runoff and infiltration partitioning, among other things. However, due to its spatial and temporal variability, it is difficult to estimate soil moisture consistently using conventional techniques such as gravimetric sampling, which is point-based and time-consuming. Therefore, to overcome this drawback in soil moisture estimation and mapping, and to facilitate its measurement spatially and temporarily, remote sensing is a promising technique. Measurement of soil surface reflectance in the visible and near infrared (VIS/NIR) may be used for this purpose. However, soil reflectance within this spectral range is ...


Determination Of Thermal Properties Of Compost Bulking Materials By Using Various Methods, Heekwon Ahn, Tom J. Sauer, Thomas L. Richard, Thomas D. Glanville Jul 2006

Determination Of Thermal Properties Of Compost Bulking Materials By Using Various Methods, Heekwon Ahn, Tom J. Sauer, Thomas L. Richard, Thomas D. Glanville

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Thermal properties of compost bulking materials affect temperature and biodegradation during the composting process. Well determined thermal properties of compost feedstocks will therefore contribute to practical thermodynamic approaches. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of 12 compost bulking materials were determined in this study. Specific heat was measured by a differential scanning calorimeter. Transient heat dissipation and steady-state gradient methods were used for thermal conductivity and diffusivity measurements. Thermal properties were determined at varying bulk density, particle size, and water content. Thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity showed a linear relationship with moisture content and bulk density, thermal ...


Evaluating A Drainage Model Using Soil Hydraulic Parameters Derived By Various Methods, Zhiming Qi, Matthew J. Helmers, Ranvir Singh Jul 2006

Evaluating A Drainage Model Using Soil Hydraulic Parameters Derived By Various Methods, Zhiming Qi, Matthew J. Helmers, Ranvir Singh

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Soil hydraulic parameters are often indispensable input in hydrological modeling. The required input parameters can be obtained by measuring soil texture, bulk density, organic matter content, soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity. To minimize soil measurements, information is needed on how well hydrologic models perform with varying levels of soil hydraulic parameters. The objective of this study is to determine which level of soil information would be sufficient to use with DRAINMOD in predicting subsurface drainage volumes. Three groups of parameters were obtained by various methods: 1) determining the soil texture and bulk density (BD) data from the Soil Survey ...


Fusion Of Remotely Sensed Imagery And Minimal Ground Sampling For Soil Moisture Mapping, Amy L. Kaleita Jul 2006

Fusion Of Remotely Sensed Imagery And Minimal Ground Sampling For Soil Moisture Mapping, Amy L. Kaleita

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

A methodology for mapping surface soil moisture content across an agricultural field from optical remote sensing and limited ground sampling is developed. This study uses remotely sensed spectral measurements of soil reflectance in a single visible wavelength and historical measurements of volumetric soil moisture within the top 6 cm, in conjunction with a single ground measurement. Results indicate that combining reflectance and ground measurements can yield more detailed maps of soil moisture than ground measurement alone.


Tolerance Of Atmospheric Ammonia By Laboratory Mice, Angela R. Green, Christopher M. Wathes, Theo G.M. Demmers, J. Macarthur-Clark, Hongwei Xin Jul 2006

Tolerance Of Atmospheric Ammonia By Laboratory Mice, Angela R. Green, Christopher M. Wathes, Theo G.M. Demmers, J. Macarthur-Clark, Hongwei Xin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

A novel preference chamber with four inter-connected compartments was designed and built to test the tolerance of atmospheric ammonia by laboratory mice. The preference chamber incorporated a novel tracking system using an infra-red sensor at each end of each tunnel, which monitored all journeys through the tunnels and their direction. An experiment was successfully undertaken with four batches, each of four mice. Each batch was housed in the chamber for 4 days and given the choice between ammonia concentrations of nominally 0, 25, 50 and 100 ppm after initial familiarization. The results showed that there were two motivations acting on ...


Environmental Impacts Of Emergency Livestock Mortality Composting—Leachate Release And Soil Contamination, Thomas D. Glanville, Heekwon Ahn, Thomas L. Richard, Jay D. Harmon, Donald L. Reynolds, Sevinc Akinc Jul 2006

Environmental Impacts Of Emergency Livestock Mortality Composting—Leachate Release And Soil Contamination, Thomas D. Glanville, Heekwon Ahn, Thomas L. Richard, Jay D. Harmon, Donald L. Reynolds, Sevinc Akinc

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

A 3-year study was conducted in Iowa to evaluate the feasibility of using composting for emergency disposal of cattle mortalities. During the study, 49 metric tons of 450 kg cattle carcasses were composted in 27 replicated unturned windrow test units constructed during three different seasons of the year. Each test unit contained 1.8 metric tons of carcasses enveloped in one of 5 different materials: corn silage, ground cornstalks, straw/manure, leaves, or a soil/compost blend. Due to their water absorbing capacity and ability to evaporate absorbed water, the volume of leachate released into the soil was generally less ...


Sensor Fusion For Roll And Pitch Estimation Improvement Of An Agricultural Sprayer Vehicle, Lav R. Khot, Lie Tang, Brian L. Steward, Shufeng Han Jul 2006

Sensor Fusion For Roll And Pitch Estimation Improvement Of An Agricultural Sprayer Vehicle, Lav R. Khot, Lie Tang, Brian L. Steward, Shufeng Han

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Sensor fusion technique has been commonly used for improving the navigation of autonomous agricultural vehicles by means of combining complimentary sensors mounted on such vehicles for the position and attitude angle measurements. In this research, sensor fusion via an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) was used to integrate the attitude angle estimates from the Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and Terrain Compensation Module (TCM) sensor to improve the roll and pitch angle measurements of a self propelled sprayer. The fusion algorithm was also developed to improve the three-dimensional positioning of the sprayer, in particular the elevation measurements of a GPS receiver mounted ...


Use Of Iodoform To Improve Lactic Acid Production In The Biomass Ensilage Conversion System, Patrick Thomas Murphy, Kenneth J. Moore, Thomas L. Richard, Carl J. Bern, Thomas J. Brumm Jul 2006

Use Of Iodoform To Improve Lactic Acid Production In The Biomass Ensilage Conversion System, Patrick Thomas Murphy, Kenneth J. Moore, Thomas L. Richard, Carl J. Bern, Thomas J. Brumm

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Iodoform, an iodine-containing compound used in antiseptic applications, has been found to be effective at selectivity inhibiting certain microbial populations. Application of iodoform in a hybrid fermentation system was investigated to determine the potential for increased lactic acid production by inhibiting undesirable microbes which can metabolize lactic acid. Iodoform treatment rates of 0, 0.03, 0.06, 0.11, and 0.23 g/kg dry matter (DM) were applied to a swine manure-corn stover substrate, containing 60 % manure, adjusted to 65 % moisture on a wet basis and ensiled for 0, 1, 7, and 21 days. A hemicellulase-cellulase enzyme mixture was ...


A Novel Approach To Cafo Odor Assessment: Odorant Field Collection By Sorbent Tube / Thermal Reconstitution In The Laboratory, Donald W. Wright, David K. Eaton, Lawrence T. Nielsen, Fred W. Kuhrt, Jacek A. Koziel, Lingshuang Cai, Yin-Cheung Lo, David B. Parker, Zena L. Perschbacher-Buser Jul 2006

A Novel Approach To Cafo Odor Assessment: Odorant Field Collection By Sorbent Tube / Thermal Reconstitution In The Laboratory, Donald W. Wright, David K. Eaton, Lawrence T. Nielsen, Fred W. Kuhrt, Jacek A. Koziel, Lingshuang Cai, Yin-Cheung Lo, David B. Parker, Zena L. Perschbacher-Buser

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Historically, odor emission monitoring of high density livestock operations has been limited to direct, whole-air assessment utilizing remote site sampling by plastic bags, human sensory panelists and dynamic dilution olfactometry. On-going efforts by these authors are directed at enabling the translation of these sensory ‘only’ monitoring protocols to instrument ‘primarily, with sensory oversight’ alternatives. This current work attempts to address the latter requirement for sensory oversight and the associated need for improved methods of remote site whole-air sample collection. Published works by these authors as well as others places in serious question the appropriateness of the use of plastic bags ...


Infrared Thermography Evaluation Of Commercially Available Infrared Heat Lamps, Jeremiah D. Davis, Ron D. Macdonald, Hongwei Xin Jul 2006

Infrared Thermography Evaluation Of Commercially Available Infrared Heat Lamps, Jeremiah D. Davis, Ron D. Macdonald, Hongwei Xin

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

The objectives of this study were i) to comparatively characterize the radial temperature distribution of six commercially available heat lamps (100W to 250W) at different heights (45-66 cm or 18-26 in) when used with a commercially available plastic lamp fixture and ii) to evaluate the operation of a commercially available power controller used with the 175SYL heat lamp at a 51-cm (20-in) height for three power settings of 100, 125 and 175W.

Heat lamps with the same power output do not necessarily produce the same temperature profiles along the heated surface. Lamp lens prescriptions greatly affect the shape of the ...


Vegetative Filter Education And Assessment In The State Of Iowa, Steven K. Mickelson, Matthew J. Helmers, Kapil Arora, Manveen Basal Jul 2006

Vegetative Filter Education And Assessment In The State Of Iowa, Steven K. Mickelson, Matthew J. Helmers, Kapil Arora, Manveen Basal

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Vegetative filter is one of the agricultural best management practices that helps reduce the deterioration of the surface waters. These filters use natural processes to remove a portion of the sediment and other pollutants carried by runoff before the water enters a water-body. The project aims at gathering elevation data in field-scale vegetative filters with the help of Geographic Positioning Systems (GPS) and analyzes the flow accumulation with the help of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The overall vision and objectives for this project include (1) To determine the effectiveness of VFS by visual field observation and validation by flow mapping ...


Neural Approach Of Sub-Pixel Rice Landuse Classification For Optimized Irrigation Scheduling, Manoj Karkee, Brian L. Steward, Lie Tang Jul 2006

Neural Approach Of Sub-Pixel Rice Landuse Classification For Optimized Irrigation Scheduling, Manoj Karkee, Brian L. Steward, Lie Tang

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Irrigation scheduling optimization is carried out in the context of a complex system of agricultural practices and crop calendars. Remote sensing is being used for the monitoring of crop development, crop health, and cropping practices. However, this is possible only if the resolution is sufficiently high to classify patches of different types of crops and cropping practices. MODIS imagery is essential for national or regional scale studies, but has a spatial resolution of 1 km and thus results in sub-pixel mixing of different land covers. In the case of rice farms, one pixel may consist of some proportions of rice ...


Decision Support For Nitrogen Management In Tile-Drained Agriculture, Philip Heilman, Robert W. Malone, Liwang Ma, Jerry L. Hatfield, Lajpat R. Ahuja, J. Ayen, Kevin P. Boyle, Rameshwar S. Kanwar Jul 2006

Decision Support For Nitrogen Management In Tile-Drained Agriculture, Philip Heilman, Robert W. Malone, Liwang Ma, Jerry L. Hatfield, Lajpat R. Ahuja, J. Ayen, Kevin P. Boyle, Rameshwar S. Kanwar

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Farmers will adopt alternative management systems to improve water quality more readily if they understand how those management alternatives affect the release of contaminants, crop yields, and ultimately, their net income. We propose a method to address these issues by integrating observed data from field experiments, a comprehensive simulation model, review by local experts, and application through a decision support system by technically trained conservationists. An example for reducing nitrogen loading from tile-drained corn and soybean production in Iowa demonstrates the approach. Fourteen years of observed data from 30 research plots on the Northeast Research and Demonstration Farm near Nashua ...


Fusion Of Optical And Insar Dems: Improving The Quality Of Free Data, Manoj Karkee, Michiro Kusanagi, Brian L. Steward Jul 2006

Fusion Of Optical And Insar Dems: Improving The Quality Of Free Data, Manoj Karkee, Michiro Kusanagi, Brian L. Steward

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

An approach to DEM fusion was developed to improve the overall accuracy of DEMs and applied to two public products: Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) DEM and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) DEM. The relative ASTER DEM was co-registered to the SRTM coordinates and converted to the near absolute DEM by shifting the histogram to the average elevation of the SRTM DEM. The voids in one DEM were then filled through interpolation using the slope and aspect from the other DEM and using the elevation of surrounding pixels. Finally, the higher frequency components of the Optical DEM and ...


Multiple Gps Measurements For Digital Elevation Model, Samsuzana A. Aziz, Brian L. Steward, Lie Tang, Manoj Karkee Jul 2006

Multiple Gps Measurements For Digital Elevation Model, Samsuzana A. Aziz, Brian L. Steward, Lie Tang, Manoj Karkee

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Accurate representation of field topography is required for implementation of precision conservation management practices. Topographic data for the development of agricultural field digital elevation models (DEM) can be acquired using GPS-equipped farm vehicles during field operations. Repeated measurements of elevation data from multiple field operations may improve DEM accuracy over time. However, repeated topographic measurements would consequently increase the volume of data required to be stored, processed and manipulated unless the amount of data passed on between measurement intervals is reduced. For farmers to utilize topographic information effectively and efficiently, processes must be developed to analyze and manage topographic data ...


Using Aerial Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imagery To Estimate Corn Plant Stand Density, Kelly R. Thorp, Brian L. Steward, Amy L. Kaleita, William David Batchelor Jul 2006

Using Aerial Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Imagery To Estimate Corn Plant Stand Density, Kelly R. Thorp, Brian L. Steward, Amy L. Kaleita, William David Batchelor

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Aerial hyperspectral remote sensing imagery was collected on three dates over three plots of corn. The imagery had a spatial resolution of 1 m and a spectral resolution of 3 nm between 471 nm and 828 nm. A machine vision corn plant population sensing system was also used to map every row of corn within the three plots, and a complete inventory of corn plants was generated as a rich ground reference dataset for remote sensing image analysis. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed to estimate corn plant stand density using reflectance in combinations of three wavebands, and R ...


Simulation Of Spatially Variable Precision Irrigation And Its Effects On Corn Growth Using Ceres-Maize, Kendall C. Dejonge, Amy L. Kaleita Jul 2006

Simulation Of Spatially Variable Precision Irrigation And Its Effects On Corn Growth Using Ceres-Maize, Kendall C. Dejonge, Amy L. Kaleita

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Few studies have been done considering the possibility of irrigation systems in Iowa or other humid regions. Recent technological progress in precision agriculture may allow irrigation in these areas to become more economically feasible. Crop models have emerged as a method to evaluate different crop management practices such as irrigation without costly and time-consuming onsite experiments. In this study, the CERES-Maize crop model was used in conjunction with APOLLO, a shell program developed at Iowa State University, to evaluate potential improved yield in a central Iowa cornfield on a spatially and temporally variable basis. Five years of historical yield and ...


On-Site Composting For Biocontainment And Safe Disposal Of Infectious Animal Carcasses And Manure In The Event Of A Bioterrorism Attack, Jiewen Guan, Brian Brooks, Lloyd Spencer, Paul Kitching, Thomas D. Glanville, Jacek A. Koziel, Donald L. Reynolds, Heekwon Ahn, Neslihan Akdeniz, Kim Stanford, Tim Mcallister, Douglas Inglis, Francis Larney, Xiying Hao Jun 2006

On-Site Composting For Biocontainment And Safe Disposal Of Infectious Animal Carcasses And Manure In The Event Of A Bioterrorism Attack, Jiewen Guan, Brian Brooks, Lloyd Spencer, Paul Kitching, Thomas D. Glanville, Jacek A. Koziel, Donald L. Reynolds, Heekwon Ahn, Neslihan Akdeniz, Kim Stanford, Tim Mcallister, Douglas Inglis, Francis Larney, Xiying Hao

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

The purpose of this project is to develop composting methods that can be applied on farms or at other sites to ensure the biocontainment of infected poultry or livestock carcasses and their manure in the event of a bioterrorism attack employing foreign animal disease viruses. The methods developed in this project will be efficient at destroying viruses and degrading carcasses to earth-like material. Methods will also be developed to detect and identify volatile organic compounds contained in off-gases produced during composting. An assessment will then be made of the key chemical categories and specific compounds in the gases released. Studies ...


Effects Of Nozzle Type And Carrier Application On The Control Of Leaf Spot Diseases Of Soybean, H. Mark Hanna, Alison E. Robertson, W. Mark Carlton, Robert E. Wolf Jan 2006

Effects Of Nozzle Type And Carrier Application On The Control Of Leaf Spot Diseases Of Soybean, H. Mark Hanna, Alison E. Robertson, W. Mark Carlton, Robert E. Wolf

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Midwestern soybean growers seek information on effective application of foliar fungicides that do not translocate throughout the plant. Field application treatments included using a two-orifice nozzle tip producing fine droplets at 187 l/ha (20 gal/ac) and 112 l/ha (12 gal/ac) and a single-orifice nozzle tip producing a coarse droplet size more typical of herbicide applications at 168 l/ha (18 gal/ac). In addition an air-assisted sprayer was used at one of the two sites of the trials. Measurements included droplet size, droplet coverage, and foliar disease severity in the top, middle, and lower parts of ...


Grain Residuals And Time Requirements For Combine Cleaning, H. Mark Hanna, Darren H. Jarboe, Graeme R. Quick Jan 2006

Grain Residuals And Time Requirements For Combine Cleaning, H. Mark Hanna, Darren H. Jarboe, Graeme R. Quick

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Emerging identity-preserved grain markets depend on avoidance of commingling grain at harvest. Knowledge of where grain resides in a combine, cleaning labor requirements, and resulting purity levels would assist producers. Measurements were made of grain and other material residing in different areas of rotary- and cylinder-type combines in replicated clean-outs during corn and soybean harvest and also in preliminary clean-outs during oat harvest. Concentration of the prior (i.e. commingled) grain was measured in the first grain harvested of the subsequent crop.

Total material remaining in the combine ranged from 84 to 186 lb, 61% of which was whole grain ...