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Addressing Fluorogenic Real-Time Qpcr Inhibition Using The Novel Custom Excel File System ‘Focusfield2-6gallupqpcrset-Uptool-001’ To Attain Consistently High Fidelity Qpcr Reactions, Jack M. Gallup, Mark R. Ackermann Dec 2006

Addressing Fluorogenic Real-Time Qpcr Inhibition Using The Novel Custom Excel File System ‘Focusfield2-6gallupqpcrset-Uptool-001’ To Attain Consistently High Fidelity Qpcr Reactions, Jack M. Gallup, Mark R. Ackermann

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss fluorogenic real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) inhibition and to introduce/define a novel Microsoft Excel-based file system which provides a way to detect and avoid inhibition, and enables investigators to consistently design dynamically-sound, truly LOG-linear qPCR reactions very quickly. The qPCR problems this invention solves are universal to all qPCR reactions, and it performs all necessary qPCR set-up calculations in about 52 seconds (using a pentium 4 processor) for up to seven qPCR targets and seventytwo samples at a time - calculations that commonly take capable investigators days to finish. We have ...


Depletion Of Alveolar Glycogen Corresponds With Immunohistochemical Development Of Cd208 Antigen Expression In Perinatal Lamb Lung, David K. Meyerholz, James A. Degraaf, Jack M. Gallup, Alicia Kathleen Olivier, Mark R. Ackermann Nov 2006

Depletion Of Alveolar Glycogen Corresponds With Immunohistochemical Development Of Cd208 Antigen Expression In Perinatal Lamb Lung, David K. Meyerholz, James A. Degraaf, Jack M. Gallup, Alicia Kathleen Olivier, Mark R. Ackermann

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

CD208 DC lysosomal-associated protein is a marker of activated human dendritic cells; however, recently it was described as a marker of adult type II pneumocytes in many species including humans and sheep. Our hypothesis was that CD208 is developmentally regulated in lung pneumocytes. Lamb lungs at varying stages of development were stained immunohistochemically for CD208 and with Nile red (a fluorescent stain for lamellar bodies of type II cells) along with pulmonary markers of maturation (glycogen stores and surfactant protein A [SP-A] expression) or proliferation (Ki-67). CD208 staining and Nile red were localized to rare pneumocytes in young fetal lambs ...


Characteristics Of A Cognitive Tool That Helps Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving, Jared A. Danielson, Eric M. Mills, Pamela J. Vermeer, Vanessa A. Preast, Karen M. Young, Mary M. Christopher, Jeanne W. George, R. Darren Wood, Holly Bender Sep 2006

Characteristics Of A Cognitive Tool That Helps Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving, Jared A. Danielson, Eric M. Mills, Pamela J. Vermeer, Vanessa A. Preast, Karen M. Young, Mary M. Christopher, Jeanne W. George, R. Darren Wood, Holly Bender

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

Three related studies replicated and extended previous work (J.A. Danielson et al. (2003),Educational Technology Research and Development, 51(3), 63–81) involving the Diagnostic Pathfinder (dP) (previously Problem List Generator [PLG]), a cognitive tool for learning diagnostic problem solving. In studies 1 and 2, groups of 126 and 113 veterinary students, respectively, used the dP to complete case-based homework; groups of 120 and 199, respectively, used an alternative method. Students in the dP groups scored significantly higher (p = .000 and .003, respectively) on final exams than those in control groups. In the third study, 552 veterinary students responding ...


Monocytic/Macrophagic Pneumonitis After Intrabronchial Deposition Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor In Neonatal Lambs, David K. Meyerholz, Branka Grubor, Tatjana Lazic, Jack M. Gallup, Marcia M.A. De Macedo, Paul B. Mccray Jr., Mark R. Ackermann Sep 2006

Monocytic/Macrophagic Pneumonitis After Intrabronchial Deposition Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor In Neonatal Lambs, David K. Meyerholz, Branka Grubor, Tatjana Lazic, Jack M. Gallup, Marcia M.A. De Macedo, Paul B. Mccray Jr., Mark R. Ackermann

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

Preterm and young neonates are prone to inadequate surfactant production and are susceptible to respiratory distress syndrome characterized by alveolar damage and hyaline-membrane formation. Glucocorticoid therapy is commonly used in preterm and young infants to enhance lung maturation and surfactant synthesis. Recently, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was suggested to be a novel therapeutic agent for lung maturation that lacked adverse effects in mice. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of incremental concentration (0.0005, 0.005, and 0.05 mg/ml) and duration (16, 24, and 32 hours) of recombinant human VEGF after bronchoscopic instillation ...


Collectins And Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Of The Respiratory Epithelia, Branka Grubor, David K. Meyerholz, Mark R. Ackermann Sep 2006

Collectins And Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Of The Respiratory Epithelia, Branka Grubor, David K. Meyerholz, Mark R. Ackermann

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

The respiratory epithelium is a primary site for the deposition of microorganisms that are acquired during inspiration. The innate immune system of the respiratory tract eliminates many of these potentially harmful agents preventing their colonization. Collectins and cationic antimicrobial peptides are antimicrobial components of the pulmonary innate immune system produced by respiratory epithelia, which have integral roles in host defense and inflammation in the lung. Synthesis and secretion of these molecules are regulated by the developmental stage, hormones, as well as many growth and immunoregulatory factors. The purpose of this review is to discuss antimicrobial innate immune elements within the ...


Differential Expression Of Ovine Innate Immune Genes By Preterm And Neonatal Lung Epithelia Infected With Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Kenji Kawashima, David K. Meyerholz, Jack M. Gallup, Branka Grubor, Tatjana Lazic, Howard D. Lehmkuhl, Mark R. Ackermann Jul 2006

Differential Expression Of Ovine Innate Immune Genes By Preterm And Neonatal Lung Epithelia Infected With Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Kenji Kawashima, David K. Meyerholz, Jack M. Gallup, Branka Grubor, Tatjana Lazic, Howard D. Lehmkuhl, Mark R. Ackermann

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

Preterm infants have increased susceptibility to severe manifestations of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. The cause(s) for this age-dependent vulnerability is/are not well-defined, but alterations in innate immune products have been implicated. In sheep, RSV disease severity has similar age-dependent characteristics and sheep have several related innate molecules for study during pulmonary infection including surfactant protein A (SP-A), surfactant protein D (SP-D), sheep beta defensin 1 (SBD1), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). However, the in vivo cellular gene expression as a response to RSV infection is poorly understood. In this study, the effect ...


Genomic Features Of Bordetella Parapertussis Clades With Distinct Host Species Specificity, Mary M. Brinig, Karen B. Register, Mark R. Ackermann, David A. Relman Jan 2006

Genomic Features Of Bordetella Parapertussis Clades With Distinct Host Species Specificity, Mary M. Brinig, Karen B. Register, Mark R. Ackermann, David A. Relman

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

Background

The respiratory pathogen Bordetella parapertussis is a valuable model in which to study the complex phenotype of host specificity because of its unique two-species host range. One subset of strains, including the sequenced representative, causes whooping cough in humans, while other strains infect only sheep. The disease process in sheep is not well understood, nor are the genetic and transcriptional differences that might provide the basis for host specificity among ovine and human strains.

Results

We found 40 previously unknown genomic regions in an ovine strain of B. parapertussis using subtractive hybridization, including unique lipopolysaccharide genes. A microarray survey ...


Expression Of Select Immune Genes (Surfactant Proteins A And D, Sheep Beta Defensin 1, And Toll-Like Receptor 4) By Respiratory Epithelia Is Developmentally Regulated In The Preterm Neonatal Lamb, David K. Meyerholz, Kenji Kawashima, Jack M. Gallup, Branka Grubor, Mark R. Ackermann Jan 2006

Expression Of Select Immune Genes (Surfactant Proteins A And D, Sheep Beta Defensin 1, And Toll-Like Receptor 4) By Respiratory Epithelia Is Developmentally Regulated In The Preterm Neonatal Lamb, David K. Meyerholz, Kenji Kawashima, Jack M. Gallup, Branka Grubor, Mark R. Ackermann

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

Preterm infants experience enhanced susceptibility and severity to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Terminal airway epithelium is an important site of RSV infection and the extent of local innate immune gene expression is poorly understood. In this study, expression of surfactant proteins A and D (SP-AD), sheep beta defensin 1 (SBD1), and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA were determined in whole lung homogenates from lambs. SP-AD and TLR4 mRNA expression increased (p<0.05) from late gestation to term birth. In addition, gene expression of LCM-retrieved type II pneumocytes (CD208+), adjacent epithelium (CD208−) and bronchial epithelium demonstrated that bronchiole-alveolar junction epithelium (combined CD208+/−) had significant (p<0.05) developmental increases in SP-AD, SBD1 and TLR4 mRNA, whereas CD208+ cells had statistically significant increases only with SP-A mRNA. Using immunofluorescence, SP-AD antigen distribution and intensity were also greater with developmental age. These studies show reduced SBD1, SP-AD, and TLR4 expression in the preterm lung and this may underlie enhanced RSV susceptibility.


Images Of Emerging And Exotic Diseases Of Animals, Steven D. Sorden, Claire B. Andreasen Jan 2006

Images Of Emerging And Exotic Diseases Of Animals, Steven D. Sorden, Claire B. Andreasen

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

The chapter contains annotated color images of emerging diseases and exotic diseases in wild and domesticated animals.


Immunomodulatory Effects Of Beta-Glucan On Neutrophil Function In Fathead Minnows (Pimephales Promelas Rafinesque, 1820), Dušan Palić, Claire B. Andreasen, Dawn M. Herolt, Bruce W. Menzel, James A. Roth Jan 2006

Immunomodulatory Effects Of Beta-Glucan On Neutrophil Function In Fathead Minnows (Pimephales Promelas Rafinesque, 1820), Dušan Palić, Claire B. Andreasen, Dawn M. Herolt, Bruce W. Menzel, James A. Roth

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

Stimulatory effects of yeast b-1,3–1,6-glucans on neutrophils have long been recognized, but effects of glucans on degranulation of primary granules in fish neutrophils have not been previously reported. Neutrophil function was monitored during in vitro and in vivo application of glucans to non- (NS), acute- (AS) and chronically stressed (CS) fish. b-Glucan proved to be a strong and quick (80%, 2 min) stimulant of degranulation. Dietary glucan increased degranulation in NS fish, and prevented a decrease in AS fish. Degranulation in CS fish returned to NS levels 3 days after the glucan diet was fed. Fathead minnows ...