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Monitoring Responses By Use Of Five-Color Flow Cytometry In Subsets Of Peripheral T Cells Obtained From Cattle Inoculated With A Killed Mycobacterium Avium Subsp Paratuberculosis Vaccine, Ratree Platt, James A. Roth, Ryan L. Royer, Charles O. Thoen Dec 2006

Monitoring Responses By Use Of Five-Color Flow Cytometry In Subsets Of Peripheral T Cells Obtained From Cattle Inoculated With A Killed Mycobacterium Avium Subsp Paratuberculosis Vaccine, Ratree Platt, James A. Roth, Ryan L. Royer, Charles O. Thoen

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Objective—To monitor by use of 5-color flow cytometry the antigen-specific responses of subsets of peripheral T cells in cattle inoculated with a killed Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) vaccine and to compare results with those for 2 established cell-mediated immunity assays.

Animals—45 female Holstein cattle with negative results for MAP in skin tests conducted at time of inoculation with MAP.

Procedures—Cattle were allocated to 4 groups. Cattle of group 1 (n = 12) were 0 to 3 months old and inoculated with a killed MAP vaccine. The 10 cattle of group 2 were the same age as those ...


Complete Dna Sequence, Comparative Genomics, And Prevalence Of An Inchi2 Plasmid Occurring Among Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Isolates, Timothy J. Johnson, Yvonne Wannemuehler, Jennifer A. Scaccianoce, Sara J. Johnson, Lisa K. Nolan Nov 2006

Complete Dna Sequence, Comparative Genomics, And Prevalence Of An Inchi2 Plasmid Occurring Among Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Isolates, Timothy J. Johnson, Yvonne Wannemuehler, Jennifer A. Scaccianoce, Sara J. Johnson, Lisa K. Nolan

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

We have sequenced a large plasmid that occurs among avian pathogenicEscherichia coli isolates. This plasmid, pAPEC-O1-R, is a 241,387-bp IncHI2 plasmid which is cotransmissible via bacterial conjugation with a ColBM virulence plasmid, encodes resistance to eight antimicrobial agents, and appears to occur at low rates among extraintestinal E. coli isolates.


Acquisition Of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Plasmids By A Commensal E. Coli Isolate Enhances Its Abilities To Kill Chicken Embryos, Grow In Human Urine, And Colonize The Murine Kidney, Jerod A. Skyberg, Timothy J. Johnson, James R. Johnson, Connie Clabots, Catherine M. Logue, Lisa K. Nolan Nov 2006

Acquisition Of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Plasmids By A Commensal E. Coli Isolate Enhances Its Abilities To Kill Chicken Embryos, Grow In Human Urine, And Colonize The Murine Kidney, Jerod A. Skyberg, Timothy J. Johnson, James R. Johnson, Connie Clabots, Catherine M. Logue, Lisa K. Nolan

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

We have found an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) plasmid, pAPEC-O2-ColV, which contains many of the genes associated with APEC virulence and also shows similarity in content to a plasmid and pathogenicity island of human uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). To test the possible role of this plasmid in virulence, it was transferred by conjugation along with a large R plasmid, pAPEC-O2-R, into a commensal avian E. coli strain. The transconjugant was compared to recipient strain NC, UPEC strain HE300, and donor strain APEC O2 using various assays, including lethality for chicken embryos, growth in human urine, and ability to cause ...


Characterization Of Monoclonal Antibodies To Avian Escherichia Coli Iss, Aaron M. Lynne, Steven L. Foley, Lisa K. Nolan Sep 2006

Characterization Of Monoclonal Antibodies To Avian Escherichia Coli Iss, Aaron M. Lynne, Steven L. Foley, Lisa K. Nolan

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Colibacillosis accounts for annual multimillion dollar losses in the poultry industry, and control of this disease is hampered by limited understanding of the virulence mechanisms used by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). Previous work in our laboratory has found that the presence of the increased serum survival gene (iss) is strongly associated with APEC but not commensal E. coli, making iss and the protein it encodes (Iss) candidate targets of colibacillosis-control procedures. Previously, we produced monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Iss to be used as a reagent in studies of APEC virulence and colibacillosis pathogenesis. Unfortunately, the utility of these MAbs ...


Occurrence Of Pathogenicity Island Iapec-O1 Genes Among Escherichia Coli Implicated In Avian Colibacillosis, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Timothy J. Johnson, Chitrita Debroy, Lisa K. Nolan Sep 2006

Occurrence Of Pathogenicity Island Iapec-O1 Genes Among Escherichia Coli Implicated In Avian Colibacillosis, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Timothy J. Johnson, Chitrita Debroy, Lisa K. Nolan

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Colibacillosis caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is a leading cause of economic loss to the poultry industry worldwide. The ability of APEC to cause disease is determined by certain virulence markers, some of which are located on pathogenicity islands (PAIs). We recently described one such PAI in an APEC O1:K1 strain (APEC-O1). This PAI, termed PAI IAPEC-O1, carries the genes of the pap operon, a region similar to the tiainvasion determinant of enterotoxigenic E. coli; ireA, a gene that encodes an iron-responsive element; and a novel 1.5-kb region, ORF 54. Here, the occurrence of ...


Edema Disease Caused By A Clone Of Escherichia Coli O147, Amy F. Helgerson, Vijay Sharma, Amie M. Dow, Regina Schroeder, Karen Post, Nancy A. Cornick Sep 2006

Edema Disease Caused By A Clone Of Escherichia Coli O147, Amy F. Helgerson, Vijay Sharma, Amie M. Dow, Regina Schroeder, Karen Post, Nancy A. Cornick

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Edema disease is a systemic disease of weaned pigs caused by host-adapted strains of Escherichia coli, most commonly belonging to serogroup O138, O139, or O141. In the late 1990s, E. coli O147 strains containing the virulence genes f18,sta, stb, and stx2 were recovered from outbreaks of edema disease in the United States. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to determine that the majority of these strains (34/43) were closely related to one another. Subsequent analysis by multilocus restriction typing confirmed the PFGE results and indicated that the cluster of edema disease strains were only distantly related to ...


Recombinant Nipah Virus Vaccines Protect Pigs Against Challenge, Hana M. Weingartl, Yohannes Berhane, Jeff L. Caswell, Sheena Loosmore, Jean-Christophe Audonnet, James A. Roth, Markus Czub Aug 2006

Recombinant Nipah Virus Vaccines Protect Pigs Against Challenge, Hana M. Weingartl, Yohannes Berhane, Jeff L. Caswell, Sheena Loosmore, Jean-Christophe Audonnet, James A. Roth, Markus Czub

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Nipah virus (NiV), of the family Paramyxoviridae, was isolated in 1999 in Malaysia from a human fatality in an outbreak of severe human encephalitis, when human infections were linked to transmission of the virus from pigs. Consequently, a swine vaccine able to abolish virus shedding is of veterinary and human health interest. Canarypox virus-based vaccine vectors carrying the gene for NiV glycoprotein (ALVAC-G) or the fusion protein (ALVAC-F) were used to intramuscularly immunize four pigs per group, either with 108 PFU each or in combination. Pigs were boosted 14 days postvaccination and challenged with 2.5 × 105 PFU ...


Complete Dna Sequence Of A Colbm Plasmid From Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Suggests That It Evolved From Closely Related Colv Virulence Plasmids, Timothy J. Johnson, Sara J. Johnson, Lisa K. Nolan Aug 2006

Complete Dna Sequence Of A Colbm Plasmid From Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Suggests That It Evolved From Closely Related Colv Virulence Plasmids, Timothy J. Johnson, Sara J. Johnson, Lisa K. Nolan

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), an extraintestinal pathogenic E. colicausing colibacillosis in birds, is responsible for significant economic losses for the poultry industry. Recently, we reported that the APEC pathotype was characterized by possession of a set of genes contained within a 94-kb cluster linked to a ColV plasmid, pAPEC-O2-ColV. These included sitABCD, genes of the aerobactin operon, hlyF, iss, genes of the salmochelin operon, and the 5′ end ofcvaB of the ColV operon. However, the results of gene prevalence studies performed among APEC isolates revealed that these traits were not always linked to ColV plasmids. Here, we ...


In Vivo Transduction Of An Stx-Encoding Phage In Ruminants, Nancy A. Cornick, Amy F. Helgerson, Volker Mai, Jennifer M. Ritchie, David W. K. Acheson Jul 2006

In Vivo Transduction Of An Stx-Encoding Phage In Ruminants, Nancy A. Cornick, Amy F. Helgerson, Volker Mai, Jennifer M. Ritchie, David W. K. Acheson

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

We assessed the ability of a kanamycin-marked Stx phage to move into a commensal, ovine Escherichia coli strain in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract. Transduction was detected in 19/24 sheep tested, resulting in the recovery of 47 transductants. Subtherapeutic doses of the quinolone antibiotic enrofloxacin did not increase the rate of transduction.


Immune Response To Recombinant Escherichia Coli Iss Protein In Poultry, Aaron M. Lynne, Steven L. Foley, Lisa K. Nolan Jun 2006

Immune Response To Recombinant Escherichia Coli Iss Protein In Poultry, Aaron M. Lynne, Steven L. Foley, Lisa K. Nolan

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Colibacillosis accounts for significant losses to the poultry industry, and control efforts are hampered by limited understanding of the mechanisms used by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) to cause disease. We have found that the presence of the increased serum survival gene (iss) is strongly associated with APEC but not with commensal E. coli, makingiss, and the protein it encodes (Iss), candidate targets of colibacillosis control procedures. To assess the potential of Iss to elicit a protective response in chickens against APEC challenge, Iss fusion proteins were produced and administered subcutaneously to four groups of 2-wk-old specific-pathogen-free leghorn chickens ...


Fitness Of Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter And Salmonella, Qijing Zhang, Orhan Sahin, Patrick F. Mcdermott, Sophie Payot Jun 2006

Fitness Of Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter And Salmonella, Qijing Zhang, Orhan Sahin, Patrick F. Mcdermott, Sophie Payot

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Campylobacter and Salmonella are the most commonly reported bacterial causes of human foodborne infections, and increasing proportions of these pathogens become resistant to medically important antimicrobial agents, imposing a burden on public health. Acquisition of resistance to antibiotics affects the adaptation and evolution of Salmonella and Campylobacter in various environments. Many resistance-conferring mutations entail a biological fitness cost, while others (e.g. fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter) have no cost or even enhanced fitness. In Salmonella, the fitness disadvantage due to antimicrobial resistance can be restored by acquired compensatory mutations, which occur both in vitro and in vivo. The compensated or ...


Antimicrobial Susceptibility And Characterization Of Salmonella Isolates From Processed Bison Carcasses, Qiongzhen Li, Jerod A. Skyberg, Mohamed K. Fakhr, Julie S. Sherwood, Lisa K. Nolan, Catherine M. Logue Apr 2006

Antimicrobial Susceptibility And Characterization Of Salmonella Isolates From Processed Bison Carcasses, Qiongzhen Li, Jerod A. Skyberg, Mohamed K. Fakhr, Julie S. Sherwood, Lisa K. Nolan, Catherine M. Logue

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Seventeen Salmonella enterica serovar Hadar isolates recovered from bison were found to possess a range of virulence genes and resistance to tetracycline, gentamicin, sulfamethoxazole, and streptomycin simultaneously. A 1-kb class 1 integron containing the aadA1 gene was identified in all isolates. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis found that all isolates were closely related, indicating the possibility of cross-contamination during processing.


Anesthetic Efficacy Of Tricaine Methanesulfonate, Metomidate And Eugenol: Effects On Plasma Cortisol Concentration And Neutrophil Function In Fathead Minnows (Pimephales Promelas Rafinesque, 1820), Dušan Palić, Dawn M. Herolt, Claire B. Andreasen, Bruce W. Menzel, James A. Roth Apr 2006

Anesthetic Efficacy Of Tricaine Methanesulfonate, Metomidate And Eugenol: Effects On Plasma Cortisol Concentration And Neutrophil Function In Fathead Minnows (Pimephales Promelas Rafinesque, 1820), Dušan Palić, Dawn M. Herolt, Claire B. Andreasen, Bruce W. Menzel, James A. Roth

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Anesthetic efficacy, plasma cortisol concentration, and two parameters of neutrophil function (oxidative burst and degranulation of primary granules) were compared among three anesthetics in the fathead minnow: tricaine methanesulfonate (MS 222), metomidate hydrochloride (MTMD), and eugenol (EUG). The optimum anesthetic concentration was determined as: MS 222 75 mg L− 1, EUG 30 mg L− 1 and MTMD 4 mg L− 1. Handling and crowding stress was induced in fish with (SA) and without (S) anesthetic. Plasma cortisol concentration was measured at 0, 30, 90, and 240 min after stress and found to increase at 30 min post-stress in S and ...


Virulence Genotyping Of Salmonella Spp. With Multiplex Pcr, Jerod A. Skyberg, Catherine M. Logue, Lisa K. Nolan Mar 2006

Virulence Genotyping Of Salmonella Spp. With Multiplex Pcr, Jerod A. Skyberg, Catherine M. Logue, Lisa K. Nolan

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

The purpose of this study was to develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol useful in the virulence genotyping of Salmonella spp. with the idea that genotyping could augment current Salmonella characterization and typing methods. Seventeen genes associated with Salmonella invasion, fimbrial production, toxin production, iron transport, and intramacrophage survival were targeted by three PCR reactions. Most of these genes are required for full Salmonella virulence in a murine model, and many are also located onSalmonella pathogenicity islands (PAIs) and are associated with type III secretion systems (TTSSs). Once the success of procedures that used positive and negative ...


Descriptions Of Recent Incursions Of Exotic Animal Diseases, Jane Galyon, Anna R. Spickler, James A. Roth Jan 2006

Descriptions Of Recent Incursions Of Exotic Animal Diseases, Jane Galyon, Anna R. Spickler, James A. Roth

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

This overview describes recent incursion of exotic animal diseases. Important lessons can be learned from these examples. U.S. agriculture is very vulnerable to the introduction of a foreign animal disease. Outbreaks can occur when a pathogen is inadvertently introduced in contaminated material carried by an international traveler, or in imported animals or animal products. Foreign animal diseases could enter the U.S. vectored by wild animals, insects , or migratory birds or they could be intentionally introduced to cause severe economic problems or to target human health. Descriptions of recent outbreaks of foreign animal disease in various countries and the ...


The Pap Operon Of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Strain O1:K1 Is Located On A Novel Pathogenicity Island, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Timothy J. Johnson, Lisa K. Nolan Jan 2006

The Pap Operon Of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Strain O1:K1 Is Located On A Novel Pathogenicity Island, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Timothy J. Johnson, Lisa K. Nolan

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

We have identified a 56-kb pathogenicity island (PAI) in avian pathogenicEscherichia coli strain O1:K1 (APEC-O1). This PAI, termed PAI IAPEC-O1, is integrated adjacent to the 3′ end of the pheV tRNA gene. It carries putative virulence genes of APEC (pap operon), other E. coli genes (tia and ireA), and a 1.5-kb region unique to APEC-O1. The kps gene cluster required for the biosynthesis of polysialic acid capsule was mapped to a location immediately downstream of this PAI.


Dna Sequence Of A Colv Plasmid And Prevalence Of Selected Plasmid-Encoded Virulence Genes Among Avian Escherichia Coli Strains, Timothy J. Johnson, Kylie E. Siek, Sara J. Johnson, Lisa K. Nolan Jan 2006

Dna Sequence Of A Colv Plasmid And Prevalence Of Selected Plasmid-Encoded Virulence Genes Among Avian Escherichia Coli Strains, Timothy J. Johnson, Kylie E. Siek, Sara J. Johnson, Lisa K. Nolan

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

olV plasmids have long been associated with the virulence of Escherichia coli, despite the fact that their namesake trait, ColV production, does not appear to contribute to virulence. Such plasmids or their associated sequences appear to be quite common among avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) and are strongly linked to the virulence of these organisms. In the present study, a 180-kb ColV plasmid was sequenced and analyzed. This plasmid, pAPEC-O2-ColV, possesses a 93-kb region containing several putative virulence traits, including iss, tsh, and four putative iron acquisition and transport systems. The iron acquisition and transport systems include those encoding aerobactin ...


Pulmonary And Serum Antibody Responses Elicited In Zebu Cattle Experimentally Infected With Mycoplasma Mycoides Subsp. Mycoides Sc By Contact Exposure, Mamadou Niang, Mahamadou Diallo, Ousmane Cisse, Mamadou Kone, Modibo Doucoure, James A. Roth, Valérie Balcer-Rodrigues, Laurence Dedieu Jan 2006

Pulmonary And Serum Antibody Responses Elicited In Zebu Cattle Experimentally Infected With Mycoplasma Mycoides Subsp. Mycoides Sc By Contact Exposure, Mamadou Niang, Mahamadou Diallo, Ousmane Cisse, Mamadou Kone, Modibo Doucoure, James A. Roth, Valérie Balcer-Rodrigues, Laurence Dedieu

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

The purpose of the present study was to characterize the Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony (MmmSC)-specific humoral immune response at both systemic and local levels in cattle experimentally infected with MmmSC, for a better understanding of the protective immune mechanisms against the disease. The disease was experimentally reproduced in zebu cattle by contact. Clinical signs, postmortem and microbiological findings were used to evaluate the degree of infection. Serum and bronchial lavage fluids (BAL) were collected sequentially, before contact and over a period of one year after contact. The kinetics of the different antibody isotypes to MmmSC was established ...