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Nontariff Barriers, John C. Beghin Dec 2006

Nontariff Barriers, John C. Beghin

CARD Working Papers

Nontariff barriers (NTBs) refer to the wide range of policy interventions other than border tariffs that affect trade of goods, services, and factors of production. Most taxonomies of NTBs include market-specific trade and domestic policies affecting trade in that market. Extended taxonomies include macro-economic policies affecting trade. NTBs have gained importance as tariff levels have been reduced worldwide. Common measures of NTBs include tariff-equivalents of the NTB policy or policies and count and frequency measures of NTBs. These NTB measures are subsequently used in various trade models, including gravity equations, to assess trade and/or welfare effects of the measured ...


Social Assistance Programs And Outcomes: Food Assistance In The Context Of Welfare Reform, Sonya Kostova Huffman, Helen H. Jensen Sep 2006

Social Assistance Programs And Outcomes: Food Assistance In The Context Of Welfare Reform, Sonya Kostova Huffman, Helen H. Jensen

CARD Working Papers

Food assistance programs play an important role in meeting the basic needs of low-income households. We consider the complex interactions among food stamps, labor force participation, and food insecurity status of low-income households under different program designs and economic conditions. The analysis uses data from the Survey of Program Dynamics to jointly estimate the role of participation in the Food Stamp Program (FSP), labor market participation and well-being, measured as food security, through the use of a simultaneous equation model. The results of our research suggest that food insecurity has a positive effect on FSP participation while labor force participation ...


Pharmaceutical And Industrial Traits In Genetically Modified Crops: Co-Existence With Conventional Agriculture, Giancarlo Moschini Aug 2006

Pharmaceutical And Industrial Traits In Genetically Modified Crops: Co-Existence With Conventional Agriculture, Giancarlo Moschini

CARD Working Papers

This paper discusses the implications of using genetically modified crops to biomanufacture pharmaceuticals and industrial compounds from the perspective of their co-existence with conventional agriculture. Such plant-made pharmaceuticals and plant-made industrial products rely on exciting scientific and technological breakthroughs and promise new opportunities for the agricultural sector, but they also entail novel risks. The management of the externalities and of the possible unintended economic effects that arise in this context is critical and poses difficult questions for regulators.


U.S. Sugar Policy Options And Their Consequences Under Nafta And Doha, David Abler, John C. Beghin, David Blandford, Amani E. Elobeid Jun 2006

U.S. Sugar Policy Options And Their Consequences Under Nafta And Doha, David Abler, John C. Beghin, David Blandford, Amani E. Elobeid

CARD Working Papers

We analyze the potential impact of continuing the existing U.S. sugar program, replacing it with a standard program, and implementing the standard program with multilateral trade liberalization. Under the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), duty-free sugar imports from Mexico will undermine the program’s ability to operate on a “no-cost” basis to U.S. taxpayers. As the Mexican beverage industry is likely to expand considerably its highfructose corn syrup use, the sugar thereby displaced will seek a market in the United States. Under these conditions, marketing allotments could not be utilized under current legislation and prices would likely ...