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2006

Iowa State University

Veterinary Medicine

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Aujeszky’S Disease, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health Dec 2006

Aujeszky’S Disease, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Aujeszky’s disease (pseudorabies) is a highly contagious, economically significant disease of pigs. This viral infection causes central nervous system (CNS) signs and high mortality rates in young animals, and respiratory illness in older pigs. Other species may be infected when they come in contact with infected pigs, resulting in a universally fatal CNS disease. Aujeszky’s disease can result in trade restrictions from regions where it is endemic. Eradication programs are underway or have been successful in many countries. In the United States, all states are now considered to be free of the virus in domesticated swine, and a ...


Amblyomma Hebraeum, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health Dec 2006

Amblyomma Hebraeum, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

CFSPH fichas de las enfermedades

Amblyomma hebraeum es una garrapata dura que infesta al ganado y a los animales silvestres. También pica a los humanos. Las largas piezas bucales de Amblyomma hacen que esta garrapata sea difícil de quitar en forma manual; estas garrapatas también dejan grandes heridas que se pueden infectar con bacterias o infestar con gusanos barrenadores. A. hebraeum puede transmitir Ehrlichia ruminantium (anteriormente denominada Cowdria ruminantium), que es el agente causal de la cowdriosis. Esta garrapata también es portadora de Rickettsia africae, que causa la fiebre por picadura de la garrapata africana, una zoonosis emergente en zonas rurales del África subsahariana y ...


Amblyomma Hebraeum, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health Dec 2006

Amblyomma Hebraeum, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Amblyomma hebraeum is a hard tick that infests livestock and wildlife. It also bites humans. The long mouthparts of Amblyomma ticks make them difficult to remove manually; these ticks also leave large wounds that may become infected by bacteria or infested by screwworms. A. hebraeum can transmit Ehrlichia ruminantium (formerly Cowdria ruminantium), the agent of heartwater. This tick also carries Rickettsia africae, the agent of African tick-bite fever, an emerging zoonosis in rural sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean.


Enfermedad De Aujeszky, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health Dec 2006

Enfermedad De Aujeszky, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

CFSPH fichas de las enfermedades

La enfermedad de Aujeszky (seudorrabia) es una enfermedad altamente contagiosa que afecta a los cerdos, de gran importancia económica. Esta infección viral afecta el sistema nervioso central (SNC), presenta índices de mortalidad elevados en los animales jóvenes; en cerdos adultos produce afecciones respiratorias. Otras especies pueden infectarse al entrar en contacto con cerdos infectados, dando como resultado una enfermedad del SNC de alta mortalidad. Esta enfermedad puede ocasionar restricciones comerciales para las regiones endémicas. Actualmente existen programas de erradicación que han resultado exitosos en muchos países. Hoy en día, se considera que en Estados Unidos los cerdos domésticos están libres ...


Monitoring Responses By Use Of Five-Color Flow Cytometry In Subsets Of Peripheral T Cells Obtained From Cattle Inoculated With A Killed Mycobacterium Avium Subsp Paratuberculosis Vaccine, Ratree Platt, James A. Roth, Ryan L. Royer, Charles O. Thoen Dec 2006

Monitoring Responses By Use Of Five-Color Flow Cytometry In Subsets Of Peripheral T Cells Obtained From Cattle Inoculated With A Killed Mycobacterium Avium Subsp Paratuberculosis Vaccine, Ratree Platt, James A. Roth, Ryan L. Royer, Charles O. Thoen

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Objective—To monitor by use of 5-color flow cytometry the antigen-specific responses of subsets of peripheral T cells in cattle inoculated with a killed Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP) vaccine and to compare results with those for 2 established cell-mediated immunity assays.

Animals—45 female Holstein cattle with negative results for MAP in skin tests conducted at time of inoculation with MAP.

Procedures—Cattle were allocated to 4 groups. Cattle of group 1 (n = 12) were 0 to 3 months old and inoculated with a killed MAP vaccine. The 10 cattle of group 2 were the same age as those ...


Addressing Fluorogenic Real-Time Qpcr Inhibition Using The Novel Custom Excel File System ‘Focusfield2-6gallupqpcrset-Uptool-001’ To Attain Consistently High Fidelity Qpcr Reactions, Jack M. Gallup, Mark R. Ackermann Dec 2006

Addressing Fluorogenic Real-Time Qpcr Inhibition Using The Novel Custom Excel File System ‘Focusfield2-6gallupqpcrset-Uptool-001’ To Attain Consistently High Fidelity Qpcr Reactions, Jack M. Gallup, Mark R. Ackermann

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss fluorogenic real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) inhibition and to introduce/define a novel Microsoft Excel-based file system which provides a way to detect and avoid inhibition, and enables investigators to consistently design dynamically-sound, truly LOG-linear qPCR reactions very quickly. The qPCR problems this invention solves are universal to all qPCR reactions, and it performs all necessary qPCR set-up calculations in about 52 seconds (using a pentium 4 processor) for up to seven qPCR targets and seventytwo samples at a time - calculations that commonly take capable investigators days to finish. We have ...


Depletion Of Alveolar Glycogen Corresponds With Immunohistochemical Development Of Cd208 Antigen Expression In Perinatal Lamb Lung, David K. Meyerholz, James A. Degraaf, Jack M. Gallup, Alicia Kathleen Olivier, Mark R. Ackermann Nov 2006

Depletion Of Alveolar Glycogen Corresponds With Immunohistochemical Development Of Cd208 Antigen Expression In Perinatal Lamb Lung, David K. Meyerholz, James A. Degraaf, Jack M. Gallup, Alicia Kathleen Olivier, Mark R. Ackermann

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

CD208 DC lysosomal-associated protein is a marker of activated human dendritic cells; however, recently it was described as a marker of adult type II pneumocytes in many species including humans and sheep. Our hypothesis was that CD208 is developmentally regulated in lung pneumocytes. Lamb lungs at varying stages of development were stained immunohistochemically for CD208 and with Nile red (a fluorescent stain for lamellar bodies of type II cells) along with pulmonary markers of maturation (glycogen stores and surfactant protein A [SP-A] expression) or proliferation (Ki-67). CD208 staining and Nile red were localized to rare pneumocytes in young fetal lambs ...


Complete Dna Sequence, Comparative Genomics, And Prevalence Of An Inchi2 Plasmid Occurring Among Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Isolates, Timothy J. Johnson, Yvonne Wannemuehler, Jennifer A. Scaccianoce, Sara J. Johnson, Lisa K. Nolan Nov 2006

Complete Dna Sequence, Comparative Genomics, And Prevalence Of An Inchi2 Plasmid Occurring Among Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Isolates, Timothy J. Johnson, Yvonne Wannemuehler, Jennifer A. Scaccianoce, Sara J. Johnson, Lisa K. Nolan

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

We have sequenced a large plasmid that occurs among avian pathogenicEscherichia coli isolates. This plasmid, pAPEC-O1-R, is a 241,387-bp IncHI2 plasmid which is cotransmissible via bacterial conjugation with a ColBM virulence plasmid, encodes resistance to eight antimicrobial agents, and appears to occur at low rates among extraintestinal E. coli isolates.


Acquisition Of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Plasmids By A Commensal E. Coli Isolate Enhances Its Abilities To Kill Chicken Embryos, Grow In Human Urine, And Colonize The Murine Kidney, Jerod A. Skyberg, Timothy J. Johnson, James R. Johnson, Connie Clabots, Catherine M. Logue, Lisa K. Nolan Nov 2006

Acquisition Of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Plasmids By A Commensal E. Coli Isolate Enhances Its Abilities To Kill Chicken Embryos, Grow In Human Urine, And Colonize The Murine Kidney, Jerod A. Skyberg, Timothy J. Johnson, James R. Johnson, Connie Clabots, Catherine M. Logue, Lisa K. Nolan

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

We have found an avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) plasmid, pAPEC-O2-ColV, which contains many of the genes associated with APEC virulence and also shows similarity in content to a plasmid and pathogenicity island of human uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). To test the possible role of this plasmid in virulence, it was transferred by conjugation along with a large R plasmid, pAPEC-O2-R, into a commensal avian E. coli strain. The transconjugant was compared to recipient strain NC, UPEC strain HE300, and donor strain APEC O2 using various assays, including lethality for chicken embryos, growth in human urine, and ability to cause ...


Gentle Doctor (Vol. 20, No. 3), Iowa State University College Of Veterinary Medicine Oct 2006

Gentle Doctor (Vol. 20, No. 3), Iowa State University College Of Veterinary Medicine

Gentle Doctor

Contents: Distinguished Alumni Honored; College Breaks Ground for VTH Construction; Wanted: Food Animal Veterinarians


Rapid Aerosol Transmission Of Salmonella Among Turkeys In A Simulated Holding-Shed Environment, E. Harbaugh, Darrell W. Trampel, Irene V. Wesley, Steven J. Hoff, Ronald W. Griffith, H. Scott Hurd Oct 2006

Rapid Aerosol Transmission Of Salmonella Among Turkeys In A Simulated Holding-Shed Environment, E. Harbaugh, Darrell W. Trampel, Irene V. Wesley, Steven J. Hoff, Ronald W. Griffith, H. Scott Hurd

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Once turkeys arrive at Midwest processing plants, they are usually held in large open-sided sheds for 1 to 4 h, waiting to be unloaded. In hot, humid weather, large fans are used to cool the birds. The resultant air currents distribute a significant amount of dust to the turkeys. The dust created in this environment could be a factor in the number of Salmonella-contaminated turkeys entering slaughter plants. The objective of this study was to determine if rapid transmission of Salmonella in turkeys could occur from exposure toSalmonella-contaminated dust similar to what may be experienced in holding ...


White-Tailed Deer Harvest From The Chronic Wasting Disease Eradication Zone In South-Central Wisconsin, Julie A. Blanchong, Damien O. Joly, Michael D. Samuel, Julia A. Langenberg, Robert E. Rolley, Janet F. Sausen Oct 2006

White-Tailed Deer Harvest From The Chronic Wasting Disease Eradication Zone In South-Central Wisconsin, Julie A. Blanchong, Damien O. Joly, Michael D. Samuel, Julia A. Langenberg, Robert E. Rolley, Janet F. Sausen

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) was discovered in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in south-central Wisconsin in 2002. The current control method for CWD in the state is the harvest of deer from affected areas to reduce population density and lower CWD transmission. We used spatial regression methods to identify factors associated with deer harvest across south-central Wisconsin. Harvest of deer by hunters was positively related to deer density (slope = 0.003, 95% C =0.0001-0.006), the number of landowners that requested harvest permits (slope = 0.071, 95% C/ = 0.037-0.105), and proximity to the area of highest CWD ...


Characteristics Of A Cognitive Tool That Helps Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving, Jared A. Danielson, Eric M. Mills, Pamela J. Vermeer, Vanessa A. Preast, Karen M. Young, Mary M. Christopher, Jeanne W. George, R. Darren Wood, Holly Bender Sep 2006

Characteristics Of A Cognitive Tool That Helps Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving, Jared A. Danielson, Eric M. Mills, Pamela J. Vermeer, Vanessa A. Preast, Karen M. Young, Mary M. Christopher, Jeanne W. George, R. Darren Wood, Holly Bender

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

Three related studies replicated and extended previous work (J.A. Danielson et al. (2003),Educational Technology Research and Development, 51(3), 63–81) involving the Diagnostic Pathfinder (dP) (previously Problem List Generator [PLG]), a cognitive tool for learning diagnostic problem solving. In studies 1 and 2, groups of 126 and 113 veterinary students, respectively, used the dP to complete case-based homework; groups of 120 and 199, respectively, used an alternative method. Students in the dP groups scored significantly higher (p = .000 and .003, respectively) on final exams than those in control groups. In the third study, 552 veterinary students responding ...


Monocytic/Macrophagic Pneumonitis After Intrabronchial Deposition Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor In Neonatal Lambs, David K. Meyerholz, Branka Grubor, Tatjana Lazic, Jack M. Gallup, Marcia M.A. De Macedo, Paul B. Mccray Jr., Mark R. Ackermann Sep 2006

Monocytic/Macrophagic Pneumonitis After Intrabronchial Deposition Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor In Neonatal Lambs, David K. Meyerholz, Branka Grubor, Tatjana Lazic, Jack M. Gallup, Marcia M.A. De Macedo, Paul B. Mccray Jr., Mark R. Ackermann

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

Preterm and young neonates are prone to inadequate surfactant production and are susceptible to respiratory distress syndrome characterized by alveolar damage and hyaline-membrane formation. Glucocorticoid therapy is commonly used in preterm and young infants to enhance lung maturation and surfactant synthesis. Recently, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was suggested to be a novel therapeutic agent for lung maturation that lacked adverse effects in mice. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of incremental concentration (0.0005, 0.005, and 0.05 mg/ml) and duration (16, 24, and 32 hours) of recombinant human VEGF after bronchoscopic instillation ...


Collectins And Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Of The Respiratory Epithelia, Branka Grubor, David K. Meyerholz, Mark R. Ackermann Sep 2006

Collectins And Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Of The Respiratory Epithelia, Branka Grubor, David K. Meyerholz, Mark R. Ackermann

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

The respiratory epithelium is a primary site for the deposition of microorganisms that are acquired during inspiration. The innate immune system of the respiratory tract eliminates many of these potentially harmful agents preventing their colonization. Collectins and cationic antimicrobial peptides are antimicrobial components of the pulmonary innate immune system produced by respiratory epithelia, which have integral roles in host defense and inflammation in the lung. Synthesis and secretion of these molecules are regulated by the developmental stage, hormones, as well as many growth and immunoregulatory factors. The purpose of this review is to discuss antimicrobial innate immune elements within the ...


Characterization Of Monoclonal Antibodies To Avian Escherichia Coli Iss, Aaron M. Lynne, Steven L. Foley, Lisa K. Nolan Sep 2006

Characterization Of Monoclonal Antibodies To Avian Escherichia Coli Iss, Aaron M. Lynne, Steven L. Foley, Lisa K. Nolan

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Colibacillosis accounts for annual multimillion dollar losses in the poultry industry, and control of this disease is hampered by limited understanding of the virulence mechanisms used by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). Previous work in our laboratory has found that the presence of the increased serum survival gene (iss) is strongly associated with APEC but not commensal E. coli, making iss and the protein it encodes (Iss) candidate targets of colibacillosis-control procedures. Previously, we produced monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against Iss to be used as a reagent in studies of APEC virulence and colibacillosis pathogenesis. Unfortunately, the utility of these MAbs ...


Occurrence Of Pathogenicity Island Iapec-O1 Genes Among Escherichia Coli Implicated In Avian Colibacillosis, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Timothy J. Johnson, Chitrita Debroy, Lisa K. Nolan Sep 2006

Occurrence Of Pathogenicity Island Iapec-O1 Genes Among Escherichia Coli Implicated In Avian Colibacillosis, Subhashinie Kariyawasam, Timothy J. Johnson, Chitrita Debroy, Lisa K. Nolan

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Colibacillosis caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is a leading cause of economic loss to the poultry industry worldwide. The ability of APEC to cause disease is determined by certain virulence markers, some of which are located on pathogenicity islands (PAIs). We recently described one such PAI in an APEC O1:K1 strain (APEC-O1). This PAI, termed PAI IAPEC-O1, carries the genes of the pap operon, a region similar to the tiainvasion determinant of enterotoxigenic E. coli; ireA, a gene that encodes an iron-responsive element; and a novel 1.5-kb region, ORF 54. Here, the occurrence of ...


Edema Disease Caused By A Clone Of Escherichia Coli O147, Amy F. Helgerson, Vijay Sharma, Amie M. Dow, Regina Schroeder, Karen Post, Nancy A. Cornick Sep 2006

Edema Disease Caused By A Clone Of Escherichia Coli O147, Amy F. Helgerson, Vijay Sharma, Amie M. Dow, Regina Schroeder, Karen Post, Nancy A. Cornick

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Edema disease is a systemic disease of weaned pigs caused by host-adapted strains of Escherichia coli, most commonly belonging to serogroup O138, O139, or O141. In the late 1990s, E. coli O147 strains containing the virulence genes f18,sta, stb, and stx2 were recovered from outbreaks of edema disease in the United States. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to determine that the majority of these strains (34/43) were closely related to one another. Subsequent analysis by multilocus restriction typing confirmed the PFGE results and indicated that the cluster of edema disease strains were only distantly related to ...


An Experimental Study Of Effects Of Overlaying Tissues On Hifu Lesion, Tao Long, Viren R. Amin, Ronald A. Roberts, R. Bruce Thompson, Scott R. Mcclure, Timothy Ryken Aug 2006

An Experimental Study Of Effects Of Overlaying Tissues On Hifu Lesion, Tao Long, Viren R. Amin, Ronald A. Roberts, R. Bruce Thompson, Scott R. Mcclure, Timothy Ryken

Center for Nondestructive Evaluation Conference Papers, Posters and Presentations

Understanding the effect of overlaying tissues on HIFU lesion is crucial for estimating HIFU dose distribution at a target tissue. We have run a series of experiments to systematically observe the effects of the overlaying tissues on the HIFU beam and ultimately the lesion created in the target tissue. First, we mapped out the HIFU transducer beam (in low power) under water without and with different overlaying tissue layers. Then, we performed a series of experiments in high power to create lesions in target tissues (e.g., liver) without and with overlaying tissues (e.g. muscle). The lesions are characterized ...


Recombinant Nipah Virus Vaccines Protect Pigs Against Challenge, Hana M. Weingartl, Yohannes Berhane, Jeff L. Caswell, Sheena Loosmore, Jean-Christophe Audonnet, James A. Roth, Markus Czub Aug 2006

Recombinant Nipah Virus Vaccines Protect Pigs Against Challenge, Hana M. Weingartl, Yohannes Berhane, Jeff L. Caswell, Sheena Loosmore, Jean-Christophe Audonnet, James A. Roth, Markus Czub

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Nipah virus (NiV), of the family Paramyxoviridae, was isolated in 1999 in Malaysia from a human fatality in an outbreak of severe human encephalitis, when human infections were linked to transmission of the virus from pigs. Consequently, a swine vaccine able to abolish virus shedding is of veterinary and human health interest. Canarypox virus-based vaccine vectors carrying the gene for NiV glycoprotein (ALVAC-G) or the fusion protein (ALVAC-F) were used to intramuscularly immunize four pigs per group, either with 108 PFU each or in combination. Pigs were boosted 14 days postvaccination and challenged with 2.5 × 105 PFU ...


Complete Dna Sequence Of A Colbm Plasmid From Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Suggests That It Evolved From Closely Related Colv Virulence Plasmids, Timothy J. Johnson, Sara J. Johnson, Lisa K. Nolan Aug 2006

Complete Dna Sequence Of A Colbm Plasmid From Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Suggests That It Evolved From Closely Related Colv Virulence Plasmids, Timothy J. Johnson, Sara J. Johnson, Lisa K. Nolan

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), an extraintestinal pathogenic E. colicausing colibacillosis in birds, is responsible for significant economic losses for the poultry industry. Recently, we reported that the APEC pathotype was characterized by possession of a set of genes contained within a 94-kb cluster linked to a ColV plasmid, pAPEC-O2-ColV. These included sitABCD, genes of the aerobactin operon, hlyF, iss, genes of the salmochelin operon, and the 5′ end ofcvaB of the ColV operon. However, the results of gene prevalence studies performed among APEC isolates revealed that these traits were not always linked to ColV plasmids. Here, we ...


Differential Expression Of Ovine Innate Immune Genes By Preterm And Neonatal Lung Epithelia Infected With Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Kenji Kawashima, David K. Meyerholz, Jack M. Gallup, Branka Grubor, Tatjana Lazic, Howard D. Lehmkuhl, Mark R. Ackermann Jul 2006

Differential Expression Of Ovine Innate Immune Genes By Preterm And Neonatal Lung Epithelia Infected With Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Kenji Kawashima, David K. Meyerholz, Jack M. Gallup, Branka Grubor, Tatjana Lazic, Howard D. Lehmkuhl, Mark R. Ackermann

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

Preterm infants have increased susceptibility to severe manifestations of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. The cause(s) for this age-dependent vulnerability is/are not well-defined, but alterations in innate immune products have been implicated. In sheep, RSV disease severity has similar age-dependent characteristics and sheep have several related innate molecules for study during pulmonary infection including surfactant protein A (SP-A), surfactant protein D (SP-D), sheep beta defensin 1 (SBD1), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). However, the in vivo cellular gene expression as a response to RSV infection is poorly understood. In this study, the effect ...


Gentle Doctor (Vol. 20, No. 2), Iowa State University College Of Veterinary Medicine Jul 2006

Gentle Doctor (Vol. 20, No. 2), Iowa State University College Of Veterinary Medicine

Gentle Doctor

Contents: A Bright Future is Forecase: Equine care at VTH; Interview with a Surgeon: Q & A with Dr. Brent Reimer


Mycobacteriosis, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health Jul 2006

Mycobacteriosis, Iowa State University Center For Food Security And Public Health

Center for Food Security and Public Health Technical Factsheets

Mycobacteriosis is a chronic or acute, systemic, granulomatous disease that occurs in aquarium and culture food fish, particularly those reared under intensive conditions. Mycobacteriosis results from infection by several species of Mycobacterium, aerobic, Gram-positive, pleomorphic rods which are members of the order Actinomycetales and family Mycobacteriaceae. Mycobacteria are widespread in the environment, particularly in aquatic reservoirs. The two most important species causing mycobacteriosis in fish and humans are Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium fortuitum. Other species known to cause mycobacterial disease in fish include M. chelonei, M neoaurum, M simiae, and M scrofulaceum.

Mycobacterium marinum was first recognized in 1926 from ...


In Vivo Transduction Of An Stx-Encoding Phage In Ruminants, Nancy A. Cornick, Amy F. Helgerson, Volker Mai, Jennifer M. Ritchie, David W. K. Acheson Jul 2006

In Vivo Transduction Of An Stx-Encoding Phage In Ruminants, Nancy A. Cornick, Amy F. Helgerson, Volker Mai, Jennifer M. Ritchie, David W. K. Acheson

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

We assessed the ability of a kanamycin-marked Stx phage to move into a commensal, ovine Escherichia coli strain in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract. Transduction was detected in 19/24 sheep tested, resulting in the recovery of 47 transductants. Subtherapeutic doses of the quinolone antibiotic enrofloxacin did not increase the rate of transduction.


Environmental Impacts Of Emergency Livestock Mortality Composting—Leachate Release And Soil Contamination, Thomas D. Glanville, Heekwon Ahn, Thomas L. Richard, Jay D. Harmon, Donald L. Reynolds, Sevinc Akinc Jul 2006

Environmental Impacts Of Emergency Livestock Mortality Composting—Leachate Release And Soil Contamination, Thomas D. Glanville, Heekwon Ahn, Thomas L. Richard, Jay D. Harmon, Donald L. Reynolds, Sevinc Akinc

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Conference Proceedings and Presentations

A 3-year study was conducted in Iowa to evaluate the feasibility of using composting for emergency disposal of cattle mortalities. During the study, 49 metric tons of 450 kg cattle carcasses were composted in 27 replicated unturned windrow test units constructed during three different seasons of the year. Each test unit contained 1.8 metric tons of carcasses enveloped in one of 5 different materials: corn silage, ground cornstalks, straw/manure, leaves, or a soil/compost blend. Due to their water absorbing capacity and ability to evaporate absorbed water, the volume of leachate released into the soil was generally less ...


Optimization Of A Sampling System For Recovery And Detection Of Airborne Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus And Swine Influenza Virus, Joseph R. Hermann, Steven J. Hoff, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Anna C. Burkhardt, Richard B. Evans, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman Jul 2006

Optimization Of A Sampling System For Recovery And Detection Of Airborne Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus And Swine Influenza Virus, Joseph R. Hermann, Steven J. Hoff, Kyoung-Jin Yoon, Anna C. Burkhardt, Richard B. Evans, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The objective of this research was to optimize sampling parameters for increased recovery and detection of airborne porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and swine influenza virus (SIV). Collection media containing antifoams, activated carbons, protectants, and ethylene glycol were evaluated for direct effects on factors impacting the detection of PRRSV and SIV, including virus infectivity, viability of continuous cell lines used for the isolation of these viruses, and performance of reverse transcriptase PCR assays. The results showed that specific compounds influenced the likelihood of detecting PRRSV and SIV in collection medium. A subsequent study evaluated the effects of collection ...


Quantity And Distribution Of Salmonella Recovered From Three Swine Lairage Pens, Annette M. O'Connor, Jared K. Gailey, James D. Mckean, H. Scott Hurd Jul 2006

Quantity And Distribution Of Salmonella Recovered From Three Swine Lairage Pens, Annette M. O'Connor, Jared K. Gailey, James D. Mckean, H. Scott Hurd

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

The quantity of Salmonella recoverable from three lairage pens in a swine abattoir was determined. Using dry four-ply cotton gauze pads measuring 10 by 10 cm, 100 fecal slurry samples were collected from each of the three pens. Salmonella recovery was expressed as the log CFU per milliliter of sample. Mean values were 2.5 log CFU/ml in pen A, 2.7 log CFU/ ml in pen B, and 0.89 log CFU/ml in pen C. Median values were 2.6 log CFU/ml in pen A, 2.0 log CFU/ml in pen B, and below the ...


Immune Response To Recombinant Escherichia Coli Iss Protein In Poultry, Aaron M. Lynne, Steven L. Foley, Lisa K. Nolan Jun 2006

Immune Response To Recombinant Escherichia Coli Iss Protein In Poultry, Aaron M. Lynne, Steven L. Foley, Lisa K. Nolan

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Colibacillosis accounts for significant losses to the poultry industry, and control efforts are hampered by limited understanding of the mechanisms used by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) to cause disease. We have found that the presence of the increased serum survival gene (iss) is strongly associated with APEC but not with commensal E. coli, makingiss, and the protein it encodes (Iss), candidate targets of colibacillosis control procedures. To assess the potential of Iss to elicit a protective response in chickens against APEC challenge, Iss fusion proteins were produced and administered subcutaneously to four groups of 2-wk-old specific-pathogen-free leghorn chickens ...


Preventing Zoonotic Influenza Virus Infection, Alejandro Ramirez, Ana W. Capuano, Debbie A. Wellman, Kelly A. Lesher, Sharon F. Setterquist, Gregory C. Gray Jun 2006

Preventing Zoonotic Influenza Virus Infection, Alejandro Ramirez, Ana W. Capuano, Debbie A. Wellman, Kelly A. Lesher, Sharon F. Setterquist, Gregory C. Gray

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

We evaluated 49 swine industry workers and 79 nonexposed controls for antibodies to swine influenza viruses. Multivariate modeling showed that workers who seldom used gloves (odds ratio [OR] 30.3) or who smoked (OR 18.7) most frequently had evidence of previous H1N1 swine virus. These findings may be valuable in planning for pandemic influenza.