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2006

Iowa State University

Agriculture

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New Extension Corn Production Web Site, Lori Abendroth, Roger W. Elmore Dec 2006

New Extension Corn Production Web Site, Lori Abendroth, Roger W. Elmore

Integrated Crop Management News

We've designed a new Web site for Iowa State University Extension corn production that has current and relevant management information for producing corn in Iowa. The Web site provides research-based recommendations and diagnostic tools for producers and agribusinesses. The largest section of the Web site is devoted to "Corn Management," which is broken into categories based on whether the topic addresses overarching production issues, such as cropping systems and rotations, or if the topic can be isolated to a certain time of the growing season (planting, early-season, mid-/late-season, harvest). For example, in the "Planting" category, users can find ...


A Response To Phenomenon In 2006: Multiple Ears Per Node, Roger W. Elmore, Lori Abendroth Dec 2006

A Response To Phenomenon In 2006: Multiple Ears Per Node, Roger W. Elmore, Lori Abendroth

Integrated Crop Management News

Corn hybrids from several companies expressed more than one ear at a single node from Iowa to Indiana in 2006. Multiple ears are not unexpected, but they typically occur at different nodes (as with prolific hybrids), not on the same node. This trait was expressed in different ways in Iowa. In the most extreme cases, up to eight ears occurred at a single node. Some have called these "bouquets." Ears on these plants were usually barren. In one case, a field with bouquet ears yielded 50 bu/acre.


How To Interpret Scn Soil Test Results, Gregory L. Tylka Dec 2006

How To Interpret Scn Soil Test Results, Gregory L. Tylka

Integrated Crop Management News

Soybean yield loss due to the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) occurred throughout much of Iowa in 2006. Damage from this pest was particularly noticeable in areas of the state that were very dry. There seems to be increased interest in testing for and managing SCN in Iowa this fall, and there likely has been more fields sampled for SCN this fall than in recent years. Following are some commonly asked questions and answers that illustrate things to consider when interpreting SCN soil sample results. This information is excerpted from Iowa State University Extension publication IPM 61, Interpreting SCN Soil Sample ...


Crop Performance Test Bulletins Now Available, Keven Arrowsmith Dec 2006

Crop Performance Test Bulletins Now Available, Keven Arrowsmith

Integrated Crop Management News

Results of the 2006 Iowa Crop Performance Tests for alfalfa, barley, corn, oat, soybean, triticale, and winter wheat are now available. For those wanting to download a copy of the bulletins, visit the Iowa Crop Improvement Association (ICIA) Web site or the Iowa State University (ISU) Extension Distribution Center (EDC) online store. Published bulletins may be requested by contacting ICIA at (515) 294-6921 or EDC at (515) 294-5247.


Aphids In The Air: What Is The Risk For 2007?, Wayne Ohnesorg, Matthew E. O'Neal, Marlin E. Rice Dec 2006

Aphids In The Air: What Is The Risk For 2007?, Wayne Ohnesorg, Matthew E. O'Neal, Marlin E. Rice

Integrated Crop Management News

The 2006 growing season has come to a close and with it another year's worth of experience with the soybean aphid. For many, it was a quiet, "low aphid" year with few reports of economic outbreaks within Iowa. Reflecting these low populations in the field, we observed fewer aphids within our suction traps (Figure 1) compared to the 2005 growing season when the traps collected nearly 100 times more aphids (Figure 2). For the last two years, the Iowa suction trap network (Figure 3) has been part of a larger network of suction traps located in nine states throughout ...


Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr Dec 2006

Cases, Regulations, And Statutes, Robert P. Achenbach Jr

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Index To Volume 17, Nos. 1-24, Agricultural Law Digest Dec 2006

Index To Volume 17, Nos. 1-24, Agricultural Law Digest

Agricultural Law Digest

No abstract provided.


Bankruptcy Court Interpretation Of Chapter 12 Tax Rules, Neil E. Harl, Joseph A. Peiffer Dec 2006

Bankruptcy Court Interpretation Of Chapter 12 Tax Rules, Neil E. Harl, Joseph A. Peiffer

Agricultural Law Digest

The first Bankruptcy Court interpretation1 of the provisions in the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act of 20052 pertaining to the income tax treatment of asset dispositions in Chapter 12 bankruptcy cases3 has been published. The first case, involving a hog farmer from Northern Iowa who had encountered disease problems in the swine herd and a series of accidents (following a period of low hog prices), tested the income tax rules enacted in 2005 for Chapter 12 filers. Although the decision was favorable to the taxpayers on some issues, the opinion did not go as far ...


Potential Benefits Of Wetland Filters For Tile Drainage Systems: Impact On Nitrate Loads To Mississippi River Subbasins, William G. Crumpton, Greg A. Stenback, B. A. Miller, Matthew J. Helmers Dec 2006

Potential Benefits Of Wetland Filters For Tile Drainage Systems: Impact On Nitrate Loads To Mississippi River Subbasins, William G. Crumpton, Greg A. Stenback, B. A. Miller, Matthew J. Helmers

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Technical Reports and White Papers

The primary objective of this project was to estimate the nitrate reduction that could be achieved using restored wetlands as nitrogen sinks in tile-drained regions of the upper Mississippi River (UMR) and Ohio River basins. This report provides an assessment of nitrate concentrations and loads across the UMR and Ohio River basins and the mass reduction of nitrate loading that could be achieved using wetlands to intercept nonpoint source nitrate loads. Nitrate concentration and stream discharge data were used to calculate stream nitrate loading and annual flow-weighted average (FWA) nitrate concentrations and to develop a model of FWA nitrate concentration ...


High-Level Resistance To Bacillus Thuringiensis Toxin Cry1ac And Cadherin Genotype In Pink Bollworm, Aaron J. Gassmann, Robert W. Biggs, Jeffrey A. Fabrick, Bruce E. Tabashnick, Timothy J. Dennehy, Yves Carriere, Shai Morin Dec 2006

High-Level Resistance To Bacillus Thuringiensis Toxin Cry1ac And Cadherin Genotype In Pink Bollworm, Aaron J. Gassmann, Robert W. Biggs, Jeffrey A. Fabrick, Bruce E. Tabashnick, Timothy J. Dennehy, Yves Carriere, Shai Morin

Aaron J. Gassmann

Resistance to transgenic cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry1Ac is linked with three recessive alleles of a cadherin gene in laboratory-selected strains of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), a major cotton pest. Here, we analyzed a strain (MOV97-R) with a high frequency of cadherin resistance alleles, a high frequency of resistance to 10 μg of Cry1Ac per milliliter of diet, and an intermediate frequency of resistance to 1,000 μg of Cry1Ac per ml of diet. We selected two strains for increased resistance by exposing larvae from MOV97-R to diet with 1,000 μg of Cry1Ac ...


Disaster Recovery—Managing Immature Crops For Grain Or Silage, Stephen K. Barnhart, Roger W. Elmore, Palle Pedersen, H. Mark Hanna Dec 2006

Disaster Recovery—Managing Immature Crops For Grain Or Silage, Stephen K. Barnhart, Roger W. Elmore, Palle Pedersen, H. Mark Hanna

Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications

Tips on managing crops that may not mature before the first killing freeze of fall.


Intra-Industry Trade, Multilateral Trade Integration, And Invasive Species Risk, Anh T. Tu, John C. Beghin Dec 2006

Intra-Industry Trade, Multilateral Trade Integration, And Invasive Species Risk, Anh T. Tu, John C. Beghin

CARD Working Papers

We analyze the linkage between protectionism and invasive species (IS) hazard in the context of two-way trade and multilateral trade integration, two major features of real-world agricultural trade. Multilateral integration includes the joint reduction of tariffs and trade costs among trading partners. Multilateral trade integration is more likely to increase damages from IS than predicted by unilateral trade opening under the classic Heckscher-Ohlin-Samuelson (HOS) framework because domestic production (the base susceptible to damages) is likely to increase with expanding export markets. A country integrating its trade with a partner characterized by relatively higher tariff and trade costs is also more ...


Spray Equipment Selection For Best Protection Against Soybean Rust And Aphid, Erdal Ozkan Nov 2006

Spray Equipment Selection For Best Protection Against Soybean Rust And Aphid, Erdal Ozkan

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Fungicides manufactured to control soybean rust are effective; however, successful control of this disease will mostly depend on proper application methods. Spray coverage and deposition from 9 application equipment/spray nozzles were analyzed. In general, the spray treatments with air assistance were more effective in spraying rust fungicides than the treatments with the conventional boom sprayer. Spray performances from the boom sprayer with a canopy opener were very similar to the air assisted spray treatments, and were better than other treatments with the boom sprayer. Twinjet, Turbo Dual pattern and hollow cone nozzles produced lower spray performances than single-flow pattern ...


Can Ground Eggshells Be Used As A Liming Source?, John Holmes, Paul Kassel Nov 2006

Can Ground Eggshells Be Used As A Liming Source?, John Holmes, Paul Kassel

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Iowa has become the leading egg producing state in the U.S. It's common to see large-scale egg-laying units in many parts of Iowa. Although most plants ship the eggs intact, some facilities have begun to ship liquid eggs. One egg-breaking operation in northern Iowa produces approximately 15 tons of ground eggshells daily. Several other egg-breaking facilities are also operating in Iowa. The eggshells at most locations are ground, stockpiled, and applied to farm fields. Farmers want to know if the eggshells have any value as a liming source, and if so, at what rate they should be applied.


Sourcing Corn For Ethanol: Effects Of Increased Local Processing, Connie L. Hardy, Howard E. Shepherd, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., Mary S. Holz-Clause Nov 2006

Sourcing Corn For Ethanol: Effects Of Increased Local Processing, Connie L. Hardy, Howard E. Shepherd, Charles R. Hurburgh Jr., Mary S. Holz-Clause

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Rapid growth of ethanol production continues to generate many questions related to future analysis, shifts in existing businesses and policy development. In Iowa, new dry-grind ethanol processing plant construction is announced frequently, financed by either local or remote investor groups. New dry-grind ethanol plants are also being added to existing wet milling operations. As these markets develop, there will be innovation in contracts, price discovery and market information. There will also be changes to supplier interaction and service aspects as well. One of the growing concerns is the balance of corn supplies between new ethanol demand and existing feed/export ...


Row Spacing Is Critical For High Yielding Soybeans, Palle Pedersen Nov 2006

Row Spacing Is Critical For High Yielding Soybeans, Palle Pedersen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

There are fundamental management decisions that give the best opportunity to maintain high yield. Understanding how a soybean plant develops through the season will provide insight into selection of management decisions that should lead to maintaining the soybean genetic yield potential. Row spacing is the third most important variable for maximizing soybean yield after variety selection and planting date. Most research from the Midwest documents that narrows (less than 30 inch) yield greater than wide rows (30 inch or greater). Despite this, the majority of the acres in Iowa are still planted in wide rows. Why7 There are many reasons ...


Production And Use Of Flax And Field Peas In Iowa, Margaret Smith, Mary Wiedenhoeft, Sarah Carlson, Jim Fawcett Nov 2006

Production And Use Of Flax And Field Peas In Iowa, Margaret Smith, Mary Wiedenhoeft, Sarah Carlson, Jim Fawcett

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Most Iowa crop producers now rely on only two crops, corn and soybeans, for their livelihood. This has led to many challenges, including increased pest problems, such as bean leaf beetles and soybean aphids, a skewed distribution of labor throughout the year, and vulnerability to adverse weather and poor prices. It has also become increasingly difficult to compete in the world market when these commodities can be produced at a lower cost in other countries, such as Brazil. Crop producers are continually looking for a third crop to include in their rotation, but either the economics are not favorable or ...


Brown Stem Rot And Its Interaction With The Soybean Cyst Nematode, G. M. Tabor, G. L. Tylka, C. R. Bronson Nov 2006

Brown Stem Rot And Its Interaction With The Soybean Cyst Nematode, G. M. Tabor, G. L. Tylka, C. R. Bronson

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Brown stem rot (BSR) of soybeans is caused by the fungal vascular pathogen Cadophora gregata (previously named Phialophora gregata). BSR is an economically important disease of soybeans in the north central United States, being prevalent in 68 to 73% of the soybean fields of Illinois, Iowa, and Minnesota (Workneh et al. 1999). There are two genetic types (called genotypes) of C. gregata that differ in their ability to cause foliar symptoms on susceptible soybeans (Chen et al. 2000). Infection by genotype A of the fungus can result in mild to severe brown discoloration of the pith and severe foliar symptoms ...


Cost-Effective, Performance-Based Environmental Management, John Rodecap, Chad Ingels Nov 2006

Cost-Effective, Performance-Based Environmental Management, John Rodecap, Chad Ingels

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Iowa has over 19,000 miles of interior rivers and streams, numerous lakes and other natural resources and considerable agricultural production capacity. With such an extensive network of water bodies running through the state it is no surprise that experts have estimated that 90% of Iowa water quality issues are attributed to agricultural land and related activities. This nonpoint source contamination often results from long term actions and will take a long time for measurable outcomes.


Crop Management Practices In Indiana Soybean Production Systems?, Shawn P. Conley, Judith B. Santini Nov 2006

Crop Management Practices In Indiana Soybean Production Systems?, Shawn P. Conley, Judith B. Santini

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

To meet the current and future needs of today's soybean producer it is vital that agricultural researchers and Extension specialists clearly understand the production concerns of our clientele. The objective of this research was to characterize the current management practices of Indiana soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) growers, to identify specific educational needs, and to provide a framework for directing applied soybean research efforts. This assessment was conducted through a direct-mail survey. The results of this survey define distinct similarities and differences among growers of different farm operation size. Large acreage growers (>1000 acres) were more likely to plant ...


Can We Sustain Corn Yield Trends?, Roger Elmore Nov 2006

Can We Sustain Corn Yield Trends?, Roger Elmore

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Corn yields in Iowa continue at a rate of 2 bushels per acre per year. This is a trend that started back in the 1940's. Driven by hybrid genetic improvement and management the question we need to address is: Are these yield trends sustainable into the future? Will these yield trends continue to increase? If so, for how long7 We can think of yield in four different ways. Yield trends for two of these four are increasing while two are not:


Economic And Environmental Considerations For Drainage Design, Matthew J. Helmers, Ranvir Singh Nov 2006

Economic And Environmental Considerations For Drainage Design, Matthew J. Helmers, Ranvir Singh

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Water table management through the use of artificial subsurface drainage systems is of primary importance in humid areas with poorly or somewhat poorly drained soils to maximize agricultural productivity Excess precipitation in Iowa and many other Mississippi/Ohio River watershed agricultural production states is removed artificially via subsurface drainage systems that intercept and usually divert it to surface waters. Subsurface drainage systems have been installed to allow timely seedbed preparation, planting and harvesting and to protect crops from extended periods of flooded soil conditions. The tradeoff of improved subsurface drainage is a significant increase in the losses of nitrate-nitrogen (Gilliam ...


The "Root" Of Drought Problems, Elwynn Taylor Nov 2006

The "Root" Of Drought Problems, Elwynn Taylor

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Agricultural plants require moisture, but there is more to it than a simple need for rain or irrigation. Under conditions that depend on precipitation to replenish crop available soil moisture it is easy to conclude that the success of the crop depends upon the rain. This is in large measure true , yet considerable variations in yields are found in areas with like precipitation. The "law of limiting factors" holds that at any given moment there is only one factor limiting the growth of a plant. It may be some aspect of soil fertility, or temperature, or light, or carbon dioxide ...


Wisconsin Farmers Take The 2-Pass Challenge Against Weeds, Richard T. Proost, Daniel J. Heider, Chris M. Boerboom Nov 2006

Wisconsin Farmers Take The 2-Pass Challenge Against Weeds, Richard T. Proost, Daniel J. Heider, Chris M. Boerboom

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Single pass herbicide programs have become the standard for most Wisconsin corn producers. The apparent time and cost savings in controlling weeds with a single pre or post-emergence herbicide application is the driving force behind this trend. While there are situations where a single pass program will work, it has weaknesses that can result in inconsistent performance.


Site-Specific Tillage Management And Crop Yield Response, Mahdi Al-Kaisi Nov 2006

Site-Specific Tillage Management And Crop Yield Response, Mahdi Al-Kaisi

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Tillage decision is only one issue farmers have to make during fall. There are many factors that need to be considered in selecting a tillage system for any given field or region within the state. Those factors are soil conditions, which can include, soil slope, soil drainage, top soil depth or the A-horizon depth. Other factors need to be considered, which are equally important. They are management factors, such as, residue cover, type of residue (corn or soybean), soil moisture condition at the time of making the decision, timing of tillage operation, fertilizer management in conjunction with tillage operation, type ...


Weed Management Update - Who Cares?, Micheal D. K. Owen Nov 2006

Weed Management Update - Who Cares?, Micheal D. K. Owen

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Despite the importance of glyphosate-based crop systems, there is a need for continued investigation and development of new tactics to manage weeds effectively and economically. It is interesting that larger farm size and higher percentage of income attributable to grain is associated with growers willingness to accept alternative weed management strategies and the adoption of integrated weed management programs (Hammond et al. 2006). The concern for timely weed management in order to protect crop yields becomes premiere in POST-based corn and soybean systems, whether based on glyphosate or any other herbicide (Halford et al. 200 l; Cox et al. 2006 ...


Integrated Pest Management 101: Corn-Damaging Caterpillars, Marlin E. Rice Nov 2006

Integrated Pest Management 101: Corn-Damaging Caterpillars, Marlin E. Rice

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

One of the foundational elements of an integrated pest management program is correct identification of potential pest species. This presentation will provide participants an opportunity to test their identification skills in the arena of insect identification. The six most common caterpillar species (Order Lepidoptera) that attack mid- to late-vegetative stage or reproductive stage corn plants will be presented in a multiple-choice format. Circle the correct letter for each caterpillar photograph shown in the PowerPoint presentation. The key identifying characteristics for larvae in the mid to late instars are listed below for each of the correct species.


Strategies For Management Of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome And White Mold, X. B. Yang, S. S. Navi Nov 2006

Strategies For Management Of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome And White Mold, X. B. Yang, S. S. Navi

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines and soybean white mold caused Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were two of the most prevalent diseases in 2006. The two diseases have become even year production problems for some producers. This workshop will review results of the latest studies from the past two years and discuss management strategies for the two diseases. The SDS has been recognized as a major disease of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) in the southern United States for nearly three decades. In 1995 Scherm and Yang using computer model predicted that the disease would become ...


A Postemergence Primer, Bob Hartzler Nov 2006

A Postemergence Primer, Bob Hartzler

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

Postemergence herbicides are the most widely used weed management tool in Iowa's corn and soybean acres. Application of the herbicide directly to the target bypasses the myriad of soil interactions that influence preemergence herbicides. However, killing weeds with postemergence products is not as simple as merely getting the herbicide onto the leaf of the weed. This paper will discuss the factors that influence the activity of postemergence weeds.


Using Resistant Soybean Varieties To Manage Soybean Cyst Nematode, Gregory L. Tylka Nov 2006

Using Resistant Soybean Varieties To Manage Soybean Cyst Nematode, Gregory L. Tylka

Proceedings of the Integrated Crop Management Conference

The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) was a serious yield-limiting pest of soybeans throughout Iowa in 2006. It caused severe damage in areas of Iowa that received less-than-normal rainfall. This nematode is widely distributed throughout the state and does not increase its numbers extraordinarily (i.e. does not flare up) in dry years. The nematode has excellent long-term survival and its population densities build up each year that susceptible soybeans are grown, regardless of the precipitation that occurs. Research in Iowa has shown that up to 40% yield loss can occur without the appearance of any above-ground symptoms.