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2006

Brigham Young University

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Structuring Emperical Methods For Reuse And Efficiency In Product Development Processes, Marshall Edwin Bare Dec 2006

Structuring Emperical Methods For Reuse And Efficiency In Product Development Processes, Marshall Edwin Bare

All Theses and Dissertations

Product development requires that engineers have the ability to predict product performance. When product performance involves complex physics and natural phenomena, mathematical models are often insufficient to provide accurate predictions. Engineering companies compensate for this deficiency by testing prototypes to obtain empirical data that can be used in place of predictive models. The purpose of this work is to provide techniques and methods for efficient use of empirical methods in product development processes. Empirical methods involve the design and creation of prototype hardware and the testing of that hardware in controlled environments. Empirical methods represent a complete product development sub-cycle ...


Assessing Perceived Marriage Education Needs And Interests Of Latino Individuals In Utah County, Utah, Iliana Snyder Dec 2006

Assessing Perceived Marriage Education Needs And Interests Of Latino Individuals In Utah County, Utah, Iliana Snyder

All Theses and Dissertations

This study utilized focus groups to assess the perceived needs and interests for marriage education among single and married Latino individuals residing in Utah County, Utah as well as the identification of common themes and differences for this population. Male and female groups at various points in the marital developmental life stage were studied including high school students (15-18 years of age), single never married young adults (19-30 years of age), committed (engaged or cohabiting) adults, married persons recently transitioning to parenting, and married people with children. The sample consisted of 10 groups, 5 female and 5 male. In addition ...


The Piezoresistive Effect In Microflexures, Gary K. Johns Dec 2006

The Piezoresistive Effect In Microflexures, Gary K. Johns

All Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research is to present a new model for predicting the piezoresistive effect in microflexures experiencing bending stresses. A linear model describing piezoresistivity exists for members in pure tension and compression. Extensions of this model to more complex loading conditions do not match experimental results. An accurate model of piezoresistivity in complex loading conditions would expand the design possibilities of piezoresistive devices. A new model to predict piezoresistive effects in tension, compression, and more complex loading conditions is proposed. The focus of this research is to verify a unidirectional form of this proposed model for microflexures in ...


Computational Promoter Analysis Of Mouse, Rat, And Human Antimicrobial Peptide-Coding Genes, Chin-Yo Lin, Manisha Brahmachary, Christian Schonbach, Liang Yang, Enli Huang, Sin Lam Tan, Rajesh Chowdhary, S. P. T. Krishnan, David A. Hume, Chikatoshi Kai, Jun Kawai, Piero Carninci, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Vladimir B. Bajic Dec 2006

Computational Promoter Analysis Of Mouse, Rat, And Human Antimicrobial Peptide-Coding Genes, Chin-Yo Lin, Manisha Brahmachary, Christian Schonbach, Liang Yang, Enli Huang, Sin Lam Tan, Rajesh Chowdhary, S. P. T. Krishnan, David A. Hume, Chikatoshi Kai, Jun Kawai, Piero Carninci, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Vladimir B. Bajic

All Faculty Publications

Mammalian antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effectors of the innate immune response. A multitude of signals coming from pathways of mammalian pathogen/pattern recognition receptors and other proteins affect the expression of AMP-coding genes (AMPcgs). For many AMPcgs the promoter elements and transcription factors that control their tissue cell-specific expression have yet to be fully identified and characterized. Results- Based upon the RIKEN full-length cDNA and public sequence data derived from human, mouse and rat, we identified 178 candidate AMP transcripts derived from 61 genes belonging to 29 AMP families. However, only for 31 mouse genes belonging to 22 AMP families ...


Life Stories Of Nikkeijin Seeking Better Opportunities: The Motivation Of Brazilian Immigrants In Japan, Marisa Utida Bellini Dec 2006

Life Stories Of Nikkeijin Seeking Better Opportunities: The Motivation Of Brazilian Immigrants In Japan, Marisa Utida Bellini

All Theses and Dissertations

The immigration of Brazilian-Japanese to Japan has started as recently as the early 1980s as a result of an economic downturn in Brazil and labor shortages in Japan. In a recent study published by the Ministry of Justice in Japan, there are about 250,000 Brazilians currently working throughout Japan. Even though most of the Brazilians are second or third generation of Japanese descent, they are not fluent in Japanese, thus resulting in many cultural problems and misunderstandings. Some research has examined about the immigration of Brazilians (nikkeijin) to Japan, but none has investigated their acquisition of Japanese as a ...


Screencrayons: Using Screen Captures For Annotation And Research, Trent Alan Taufer Dec 2006

Screencrayons: Using Screen Captures For Annotation And Research, Trent Alan Taufer

All Theses and Dissertations

In a world full of digital information we should be able to easily collect, organize, annotate, and leverage information from many different sources. This should be easy to do and not interrupt our normal workflow. A system to support information collection and organization should be user-friendly and as unobtrusive as possible, while still allowing for flexible and intelligent annotation. It should also be able to leverage the inherent information content of a collection of annotated information. We present a system that will demonstrate how these ideas can come together to make information collection easier and more productive. The system facilitates ...


Statistical Methods For Kinetic Modeling Of Fischer Tropsch Synthesis On A Supported Iron Catalyst, Brian L. Critchfield Dec 2006

Statistical Methods For Kinetic Modeling Of Fischer Tropsch Synthesis On A Supported Iron Catalyst, Brian L. Critchfield

All Theses and Dissertations

Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) is a promising technology for the production of ultra-clean fuels and chemical feedstocks from biomass, coal, or natural gas. Iron catalysts are ideal for conversion of coal and biomass. However, precipitated iron catalysts used in slurry-bubble column reactors suffer from high attrition resulting in difficulty separating catalysts from product and increased slurry viscosity. Thus, development of an active and selective-supported iron catalyst to manage attrition is needed. This thesis focuses on the development of a supported iron catalyst and kinetic models of FTS on the catalyst using advanced statistical methods for experimental design and analysis. A high ...


Getting Langue Winded How The European Union Language Policy Came To Be, Clinton R. Long Dec 2006

Getting Langue Winded How The European Union Language Policy Came To Be, Clinton R. Long

All Student Publications

While many people remember hearing about the French Revolution slogan of libert, galit et fraternit ringing through the streets of Paris in the eighteenth century, fewer people remember hearing about similar ideals ringing through the streets of Brussels, Bonn, and other European capitals in the 1950s with regard to the language policy of a united Europe. Even those familiar with the language policy of the European Union (EU) and its predecessors only talk about how the EU language policy is langue winded (langue means language in French) due to its inefficiencies without considering that these ideals-equality in particular-shaped the very ...


Social Withdrawal And Its Behavioral Correlates Among Chinese Preschoolers, Peixia Wu Dec 2006

Social Withdrawal And Its Behavioral Correlates Among Chinese Preschoolers, Peixia Wu

All Theses and Dissertations

Researchers have recognized that social withdrawal in early childhood is a complex and multifaceted construct which includes three main observed subtypes: reticence, solitary-passive withdrawal, and solitary-active withdrawal. Each is differentially associated with children's behavioral outcomes in Western societies (e.g., United States, Canada). Furthermore, potential gender differences may exist regarding the distinct associations between non-social behavior and indices of maladjustment across boys and girls due to differential societal and cultural gender-role expectations. Previous studies suggest that subtypes of observed social withdrawal can be identified in Chinese preschoolers. It is important to examine the behavioral correlates of observed withdrawn subtypes ...


Observation And Tracking Of Tropical Cyclones Using Resolution Enhanced Scatterometry, Richard Ryan Halterman Dec 2006

Observation And Tracking Of Tropical Cyclones Using Resolution Enhanced Scatterometry, Richard Ryan Halterman

All Theses and Dissertations

The QuikSCAT scatterometer provides global daily coverage of oceanic near-surface vector winds. Recently, algorithms have been developed to enhance the spatial resolution of QuikSCAT winds from 25~km to 2.5~km posting. These ultra-high resolution winds are used, in comparison with standard L2B data product winds, to observe and track tropical cyclones. Resolution enhanced winds are found to provide additional storm structure such as inner core size and structure and the presence of multiple eyewalls compared with standard resolution winds. The 2.5~km winds are also able to observe storms nearer to the shore than 25~km winds ...


Design Drawing In Instructional Design At Brigham Young University's Center For Instructional Design: A Case Study, S. Todd Stubbs Dec 2006

Design Drawing In Instructional Design At Brigham Young University's Center For Instructional Design: A Case Study, S. Todd Stubbs

All Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to compare the use of design drawing in design fields such as architecture, engineering, and industrial design with its use in instructional design (ID). This study was conducted in three parts: first, a review of literature to understand the role and value design drawing plays in non-ID fields; second, a search for design drawing in the literature of ID; and third, observations of actual use of design drawing in ID in the field. For the first part, the literature of design studies was reviewed regarding design drawing. For the second part, the literature review ...


Testing Hypothesized Evolutionary Shifts Toward Stress Tolerance In Hybrid Helianthus Species, Larry C. Brouillette, Maheteme Gebremedhin, David M. Rosenthal, Lisa A. Donovan Dec 2006

Testing Hypothesized Evolutionary Shifts Toward Stress Tolerance In Hybrid Helianthus Species, Larry C. Brouillette, Maheteme Gebremedhin, David M. Rosenthal, Lisa A. Donovan

Western North American Naturalist

We examined how plant traits related to growth and resource use have evolved during hybrid speciation and specialization into stressful habitats. Two desert sunflower species of homoploid hybrid origin are endemic to habitats with lower soil nutrient levels than those of their ancestral parent species. We hypothesized that the hybrid species would exhibit greater tolerance to low levels of soil nutrients than their parental species. The 2 hybrid species, Helianthus anomalus and H. deserticola, and their parental species, H. annuus and H. petiolaris, were compared for plant traits and growth through reproduction under 3 nutrient levels in a greenhouse study ...


Wildlife Use Of Douglas-Fir Dwarf Mistletoe Witches' Brooms In The Southwest, Shaula J. Hedwall, Robert L. Mathiasen Dec 2006

Wildlife Use Of Douglas-Fir Dwarf Mistletoe Witches' Brooms In The Southwest, Shaula J. Hedwall, Robert L. Mathiasen

Western North American Naturalist

We evaluated wildlife use of witches' brooms associated with infection by Douglas-fir dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium douglasii) in 6 mixed-conifer study areas in Arizona and 2 areas in New Mexico. We climbed 153 infected Douglas-firs (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and examined 706 witches' brooms for evidence of wildlife use. Even though we observed evidence of use by birds, most wildlife use was by small mammals, particularly red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Red squirrels used witches' brooms for nesting, foraging, caching, and as latrines. Witches' brooms classified as Type II or III brooms, located close to the main bole with large platforms, and 5–10 ...


Long-Term Interactions Of Climate, Productivity, Species Richness, And Growth Form In Relictual Sagebrush Steppe Plant Communities, Neil E. West, Terence P. Yorks Dec 2006

Long-Term Interactions Of Climate, Productivity, Species Richness, And Growth Form In Relictual Sagebrush Steppe Plant Communities, Neil E. West, Terence P. Yorks

Western North American Naturalist

Vegetation trends due to climatic changes are difficult to separate from disturbances caused by varying land uses. To separate climatic influences from livestock grazing and fire disturbances within sagebrush steppe, we compared vegetation structure and productivity during 2 periods (10-year sequences of data from the late 1950s to the late 1960s and 3 years in the early 1990s) at 12 stands within 3 relict areas in or near the Great Rift of southern Idaho. Year-to-year fluctuations in annual net aboveground phytomass accumulation (ANAPA) were considerable in response to varying climate during both periods. More importantly, an apparently significant increase in ...


A Longevity Record For Canada Lynx, Lynx Canadensis, In Western Montana, Jay A. Kolbe, John R. Squires Dec 2006

A Longevity Record For Canada Lynx, Lynx Canadensis, In Western Montana, Jay A. Kolbe, John R. Squires

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Raptors Of California By Hans Peeters And Pam Peeters, Clayton M. White Dec 2006

Raptors Of California By Hans Peeters And Pam Peeters, Clayton M. White

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Index [And Table Of Contents] To Volume 66 Dec 2006

Index [And Table Of Contents] To Volume 66

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Front Matter, Vol. 66 No. 4 Dec 2006

Front Matter, Vol. 66 No. 4

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Technique And Performance Level Comparisons Of Male And Female Hammer Throwers, Suzanne M. Konz Dec 2006

Technique And Performance Level Comparisons Of Male And Female Hammer Throwers, Suzanne M. Konz

All Theses and Dissertations

The aim of this study was two-fold: 1) what the hammer throwing technique differences between sexes are and 2) what technique parameters help determine throw distance. The performances of the top 16 male and female throwers at the 2003 World Athletic Final and the top 13 male and female throwers from the 2003 USA Track and Field Nationals were examined. Video was captured using three Canon 60 Hz cameras. The best throws of each athlete were digitized and analyzed using the Peak Motus 8.2 motion analysis system. T-tests revealed that athlete mass, athlete height, velocity at release, timing components ...


Expression And Function Of Alpha3 And Beta2 Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subunits In Hek-293 Cells, Nathan W. Steinhafel Dec 2006

Expression And Function Of Alpha3 And Beta2 Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Subunits In Hek-293 Cells, Nathan W. Steinhafel

All Theses and Dissertations

Single-cell real-time quantitative RT-PCR was used to characterize the mRNA expression of rat neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits α3 and β2 in CA1 hippocampus stratum radiatum and stratum oriens interneurons. α3β2 co-expression was detected in 43% of interneurons analyzed. The nAChR subtype α3β2 was transiently expressed in cells derived from the human embryonic kidney cell line 293 at mRNA levels found in the CA1. The functional properties of α3β2 in HEK-293 cells were characterized by whole-cell patch clamping using acetylcholine (ACh) as an agonist. The kinetics of α3β2 channels were further analyzed by altering the level of α3 DNA ...


Ontogenetic And Habitat-Related Changes In Diet Of Late Larval And Juvenile Suckers (Catostomidae) In Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, Douglas F. Markle, Kale Clauson Dec 2006

Ontogenetic And Habitat-Related Changes In Diet Of Late Larval And Juvenile Suckers (Catostomidae) In Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, Douglas F. Markle, Kale Clauson

Western North American Naturalist

We describe ontogenetic patterns in the diets of shortnose and Lost River suckers (15.8–92.8 mm standard length) from Upper Klamath Lake in summer 1999. Both species made a transition from surface and planktonic prey to benthic prey at about 20–30 mm standard length, corresponding to the approximate size of the juvenile morphological transition. Surface prey was dominated by adult chironomids and undigestable pollen, while benthic prey was dominated by larval chironomids, chydorids, and ostracods. In the 15–20-mm size class, pollen made up >75% of food particles in 68% of specimens, and only 2 specimens in ...


The Female Of Cnodocentron (Caenocentron) Yavapai Moulton And Stewart (Trichoptera: Xiphocentronidae), David E. Ruiter Dec 2006

The Female Of Cnodocentron (Caenocentron) Yavapai Moulton And Stewart (Trichoptera: Xiphocentronidae), David E. Ruiter

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Temperature On The Survival And Growth Of Age-0 Least Chub (Iotichthys Phlegethontis), Eric J. Billman, Eric J. Wagner, Ronney E. Arndt Dec 2006

Effects Of Temperature On The Survival And Growth Of Age-0 Least Chub (Iotichthys Phlegethontis), Eric J. Billman, Eric J. Wagner, Ronney E. Arndt

Western North American Naturalist

Larval and juvenile stages of many fishes require nursery habitats that provide optimal conditions for growth. Loss or degradation of these habitats limits recruitment, causing population and species declines. Least chub (Iotichthys phlegethontis), an endemic cyprinid in the Bonneville Basin, is currently restricted to a few spring complexes in Utah. This species utilizes the warm shallow spring margins as spawning and rearing habitat throughout the summer. This study was conducted to determine effects of temperature on survival and growth of age-0 least chub to understand the importance of temperature in selection of spring margins as rearing habitat. Age-0 least chub ...


Long-Term Effects Of Tebuthiuron On Bromus Tectorum, Dana M. Blumenthal, Urszula Norton, Justin D. Derner, Jean D. Reeder Dec 2006

Long-Term Effects Of Tebuthiuron On Bromus Tectorum, Dana M. Blumenthal, Urszula Norton, Justin D. Derner, Jean D. Reeder

Western North American Naturalist

Use of herbicides to thin dense stands of Artemisia spp. (sagebrush) can free up resources for herbaceous plants and increase forage production, but may also facilitate weed invasion. We revisited a sagebrush thinning experiment in a north central Wyoming big sagebrush–grassland 11 years after application of tebuthiuron (N-[5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]-N-N′-dimethylurea) to determine the long-term responses of shrubs, available soil resources, perennial grasses, and Bromus tectorum L. (downy brome). Tebuthiuron reduced shrub cover by more than half, from 31% in untreated plots to 15% in treated plots (P = 0.002), and increased downy brome ...


Reviewers For 2006 Dec 2006

Reviewers For 2006

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


End Matter, Vol. 66 No. 4 Dec 2006

End Matter, Vol. 66 No. 4

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Banking Transactions And Controls Training For Deutsche Bank Operations Employees, Jodi Young Dec 2006

Banking Transactions And Controls Training For Deutsche Bank Operations Employees, Jodi Young

All Theses and Dissertations

This report describes the development process of the Deutsche Bank Intro to Controls instructional training tool. This course utilizes a multi-faceted, blended approach, including web-based training, simulation, and instructor-led training components to teach complex banking operations. The report includes a literature review describing instructional theories, and strategies concerning the use of a blended approach in the training of complex systems and operations. The report also includes a description of the formative evaluation process and results. These results demonstrated a positive response to the content and instructional strategies employed in the training, as well as the need for future research to ...


Microhabitat-Specific Controls On Soil Respiration And Denitrification In The Mojave Desert: The Role Of Harvester Ant Nests And Vegetation, Jeremy B. Jones, Diane Wagner Dec 2006

Microhabitat-Specific Controls On Soil Respiration And Denitrification In The Mojave Desert: The Role Of Harvester Ant Nests And Vegetation, Jeremy B. Jones, Diane Wagner

Western North American Naturalist

Seed harvesting ants (Pogonomyrmex rugosus) concentrate organic matter and nutrients near their nests and create biogeochemical hotspots in desert soil. We examined factors regulating denitrification and soil respiration in a Mojave Desert ecosystem to determine the role harvester ant colonies play in nitrogen loss and carbon mineralization. Organic matter and nutrient storage were significantly greater in colonies than under the dominant vegetation (i.e., Pleuraphis rigida, a bunch grass) and in bare soil, with standing stocks of inorganic nitrogen in colonies nearly 4-fold greater than in the other microhabitats. Soil respiration, measured with laboratory incubations, was below detection limits under ...


Correlation Of Neighborhood Relationships, Carbon Assimilation, And Water Status Of Sagebrush Seedlings Establishing After Fire, Katherine Dicristina, Matthew Germino Dec 2006

Correlation Of Neighborhood Relationships, Carbon Assimilation, And Water Status Of Sagebrush Seedlings Establishing After Fire, Katherine Dicristina, Matthew Germino

Western North American Naturalist

Interactions of Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana (mountain big sagebrush) and neighboring herbs may affect community development following fire in sagebrush steppe. Dry mass, photosynthesis, and water relations were measured for seedlings of A. tridentata ssp. vaseyana occurring at different distances from neighboring herbs in the initial growing seasons following fire, when herbs dominate plant community cover. Seedling mass significantly increased as distance to neighboring herbs increased, although a low r2 indicated that mass was also affected by other sources of variation. Carbon assimilation (Anet) was also greater for A. tridentata ssp. vaseyana seedlings in microsites farther from herbs ...


Serologic Survey Of The Island Spotted Skunk On Santa Cruz Island, Victoria J. Bakker, Dirk H. Van Vuren, Kevin R. Crooks, Cheryl A. Scott, Jeffery T. Wilcox, David K. Garcelon Dec 2006

Serologic Survey Of The Island Spotted Skunk On Santa Cruz Island, Victoria J. Bakker, Dirk H. Van Vuren, Kevin R. Crooks, Cheryl A. Scott, Jeffery T. Wilcox, David K. Garcelon

Western North American Naturalist

Two rare endemic carnivores occur on California's northern Channel Islands: island spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis amphiala) and island foxes (Urocyon littoralis). As insular carnivores, both may be particularly vulnerable to novel pathogens. We tested sera from 31 island spotted skunks on Santa Cruz Island, where both skunks and foxes occur sympatrically, to establish their exposure to disease agents. One skunk (3%) tested positive for canine heartworm, and 3 skunks (10%) tested positive for canine parvovirus. None showed evidence of exposure to canine adenovirus, canine distemper virus, canine herpesvirus, Leptospira bacteria (serovars pomona, canicola, and icterohaemorrhagiae), or pseudorabies virus. Spotted ...