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Risky Decision Making Assessed With The Gambling Task In Adults With Hiv, David J. Hardy, Charles H. Hinkin, Steven A. Castellon, Andrew J. Levine, Mona N. Lam May 2006

Risky Decision Making Assessed With The Gambling Task In Adults With Hiv, David J. Hardy, Charles H. Hinkin, Steven A. Castellon, Andrew J. Levine, Mona N. Lam

Psychology Faculty Works

Decision making was assessed using a laboratory gambling task in 67 adults with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV+) and in 19 HIV-seronegative (HIV−) control participants. Neurocognitive test performance across several domains was also analyzed to examine potential cognitive mechanisms of gambling task performance. As predicted, the HIV+ group performed worse on the gambling task, indicating greater risky decision making. Specifically, the HIV+ group selected more cards from the “risky” or disadvantageous deck that included relatively large payoffs but infrequent large penalties. The control group also selected such risky cards but quickly learned to avoid them. Exploratory analyses also indicated that ...


Real-Time Decision Making And Aggressive Behavior In Youth: A Heuristic Model Of Response Evaluation And Decision (Red), Reid Griffith Fontaine, Kenneth A. Dodge Jan 2006

Real-Time Decision Making And Aggressive Behavior In Youth: A Heuristic Model Of Response Evaluation And Decision (Red), Reid Griffith Fontaine, Kenneth A. Dodge

Reid G. Fontaine

Considerable scientific and intervention attention has been paid to judgment and decision-making systems associated with aggressive behavior in youth. However, most empirical studies have investigated social–cognitive correlates of stable child and adolescent aggressiveness, and less is known about real-time decision making to engage in aggressive behavior. A model of realtime decision making must incorporate both impulsive actions and rational thought. The present paper advances a process model (response evaluation and decision; RED) of real-time behavioral judgments and decision making in aggressive youths with mathematic representations that may be used to quantify response strength. These components are a heuristic to ...


Evaluative Behavioral Judgments And Instrumental Antisocial Behaviors In Children And Adolescents, Reid G. Fontaine Jan 2006

Evaluative Behavioral Judgments And Instrumental Antisocial Behaviors In Children And Adolescents, Reid G. Fontaine

Reid G. Fontaine

There is a growing body of scientific research that has drawn a distinction between instrumental (or proactive) and reactive forms of aggressive behavior in children and adolescents. Whereas neurocognitive, psychophysiological, and other psychological factors have been shown to distinguish these aggressive subtypes, social cognitive research on alternative types of instrumental antisocial behavior (e.g., stealing, cheating, and illicit substance use) in youth is limited. Research on social information processing and aggression has shown that evaluative behavioral judgments may be of particular importance to understanding instrumental antisocial tendencies. Herein presented is a review of research on social cognition and discernible forms ...


Cross-Cultural Exploration Of The Indecisiveness Scale: A Comparison Of Chinese And American Men And Women, Andrea L. Patalano, Steven M. Wengrovitz Jan 2006

Cross-Cultural Exploration Of The Indecisiveness Scale: A Comparison Of Chinese And American Men And Women, Andrea L. Patalano, Steven M. Wengrovitz

Division III Faculty Publications

Indecisiveness is the inability to make decisions in a timely manner across situations and domains. The present research explores the construct of indecisiveness across sex and culture, given the past suggestion of group differences in mean scores (Ji, Oka, & Yates, 2000; Rassin & Muris, 2005a). Frost and Shows' (1993) Indecisiveness Scale was administered to undergraduates in the United States and China (73 men and 88 women per culture). For Americans, a two-factor model of indecisiveness (general indecisiveness and planning indecisiveness) emerged while, for Chinese, a three-factor model (with general indecisiveness split into anxiety- and confidence-related factors) better explained the data. No group differences ...


Effective Group Meetings And Decision Making, Donelson R. Forsyth Jan 2006

Effective Group Meetings And Decision Making, Donelson R. Forsyth

Jepson School of Leadership Studies articles, book chapters and other publications

Single individuals do much to advance the cause of peace, but much of the work - the decisions, advocacy, planning, and organizing - is handled by groups. In groups we pool our knowledge and abilities, give each other feedback, and tackle problems too overwhelming to face alone. Group members give us emotional and social support and can stimulate us to become more creative, insightful, and committed to our goals. When we work with others who share our values and goals, we often come to understand ourselves, and our objectives, more clearly.

Not every group, however, realizes these positive consequences. Often we dread ...


Cross-Cultural Exploration Of The Indecisiveness Scale: A Comparison Of Chinese And American Men And Women, Andrea L. Patalano, Steven M. Wengrovitz Dec 2005

Cross-Cultural Exploration Of The Indecisiveness Scale: A Comparison Of Chinese And American Men And Women, Andrea L. Patalano, Steven M. Wengrovitz

Andrea L Patalano

Indecisiveness is the inability to make decisions in a timely manner across situations and domains. The present research explores the construct of indecisiveness across sex and culture, given the past suggestion of group differences in mean scores (Ji, Oka, & Yates, 2000; Rassin & Muris, 2005a). Frost and Shows' (1993) Indecisiveness Scale was administered to undergraduates in the United States and China (73 men and 88 women per culture). For Americans, a two-factor model of indecisiveness (general indecisiveness and planning indecisiveness) emerged while, for Chinese, a three-factor model (with general indecisiveness split into anxiety- and confidence-related factors) better explained the data. No group differences ...