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2006

Psychology

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Pain Affects Spouses Too: Personal Experience With Pain And Catastrophizing As Correlates Of Spouse Distress, Michelle T. Leonard, Annmarie Cano Dec 2006

Pain Affects Spouses Too: Personal Experience With Pain And Catastrophizing As Correlates Of Spouse Distress, Michelle T. Leonard, Annmarie Cano

Psychology Faculty Research Publications

Chronic pain has adverse effects on individuals with chronic pain (ICPs) as well as their family members. Borrowing from an empathy model described by Goubert et al. (2005), we examined topdown and bottom-up factors that may be related to psychological well-being in the spouses of ICPs. A diverse community sample of 113 middle-aged spouses of individuals with chronic pain (ICPs) completed measures on pain severity and spouse pain catastrophizing (PCS-S; Cano et al., 2005). Results showed that almost half (48.7%) of spouses reported chronic pain themselves and that pain in the spouse accounted for within-couple differences on psychological distress ...


An Overview Of The Near-Death Experience Phenomenon, David San Filippo Ph.D. Dec 2006

An Overview Of The Near-Death Experience Phenomenon, David San Filippo Ph.D.

Faculty Publications

Near-death experiences appear to be universal phenomena that have been reported for centuries. A near-death encounter is defined as an event in which the individual could very easily die or be killed, or may have already been considered clinically dead, but nonetheless survives, and continue his or her physical life. Reports of near-death experiences date back to the Ice Age. There are cave paintings, in France and Spain that depict possible after life scenes that are similar to reported scenes related to near-death experiences. Plato's Republic presents the story of a near-death experience of a Greek soldier named Er ...


Group Therapy For Abused And Neglected Youth: Therapeutic And Child Advocacy Challenges, Janine Wanlass, J. Kelly Moreno, Hannah M. Thomson Dec 2006

Group Therapy For Abused And Neglected Youth: Therapeutic And Child Advocacy Challenges, Janine Wanlass, J. Kelly Moreno, Hannah M. Thomson

Psychology and Child Development

Although group therapy for abused and neglected youth is a viable and efficacious treatment option, facilitation is challenging. Group leaders must contain intense affect, manage multiple transferences, and advocate for their clients within the larger social welfare system. Using a case study of a group for sexually abused girls, this paper explores some of these issues and discusses ways in which therapists recognize and deal with the dual challenge of advocating for and treating children.


Perceived Spouse Responses To Pain: The Level Of Agreement In Couple Dyads And The Role Of Catastrophizing, Marital Satisfaction, And Depression, Laura Pence, Annmarie Cano, Beverly Thorn, Charles Ward Dec 2006

Perceived Spouse Responses To Pain: The Level Of Agreement In Couple Dyads And The Role Of Catastrophizing, Marital Satisfaction, And Depression, Laura Pence, Annmarie Cano, Beverly Thorn, Charles Ward

Psychology Faculty Research Publications

The primary objective of this study was to examine whether individuals with chronic pain (“participants”) and their spouses agree on perceptions of solicitous, distracting, and punishing spouse responses to pain. The second aim was to examine the role of participant catastrophizing (a negative mental set about pain), participant and spouse marital satisfaction, and participant and spouse depression in participant perceptions of spouse responses, spouse perceptions of their responses, and agreement between participants and spouses. Individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain and their spouses (N=108 couples) completed questionnaire packets. Examination of overall group averages (participants vs. spouses) indicated little or no ...


Organizing To Strategize In The Face Of Interactions: Preventing Premature Lock-In, Jan W. Rivkin, Nicolaj Siggelkow Dec 2006

Organizing To Strategize In The Face Of Interactions: Preventing Premature Lock-In, Jan W. Rivkin, Nicolaj Siggelkow

Management Papers

Motivated by real examples that run contrary to conventional wisdom, we examine how firms organize themselves to strategize well. Interactions among decisions make strategizing difficult. They raise the spectre that a firm's strategizing efforts will get stuck in a web of conflicting constraints prematurely, before managers explore a wide enough range of possibilities. A key role of organizing is to free strategizing efforts and encourage broad search. At the same time, organizing must ensure that strategizing efforts are stabilized once the firm discovers an effective set of choices. The need to balance search and stability, we argue, is a ...


Managing Complaints About Doctors: Stakeholder Perspectives Of The Role Of The Medical Council In Ireland, Siobhan Mccarthy, Hannah Mcgee, Ciaran O'Boyle Dec 2006

Managing Complaints About Doctors: Stakeholder Perspectives Of The Role Of The Medical Council In Ireland, Siobhan Mccarthy, Hannah Mcgee, Ciaran O'Boyle

Psychology Reports

This study has quantified the number of complaints made about doctors to hospitals in Ireland over a five year period. Complaints about doctors represented a minority of overall complaints to hospitals. They predominantly concerned clinical care and communication issues. There were few patient complaints about unprofessional behaviour. Hospitals rarely referred complaints to the Irish Medical Council. Thus current practice differs significantly from that envisaged in the new legislative framework. There is a need to promote transparent, efficient and effective regulation through a standardised inter-agency approach.


Differential Effects Of Stimulus Context In Sensory Processing: Effets Différentiels Du Contexte De Présentation Des Stimuli Sur Les Processus Perceptifs, Yoav Arieh, Lawrence E. Marks Dec 2006

Differential Effects Of Stimulus Context In Sensory Processing: Effets Différentiels Du Contexte De Présentation Des Stimuli Sur Les Processus Perceptifs, Yoav Arieh, Lawrence E. Marks

Department of Psychology Faculty Scholarship and Creative Works

Stimulus contexts in which different intensity levels are presented to two sensory–perceptual channels can produce differential effects on perception: Perceived magnitudes are depressed in whichever channel received the stronger stimuli. Context differentially can affect loudness at different sound frequencies or perceived length of lines in different spatial orientations. Reported in the hearing, vision, haptic touch, taste, and olfaction, differential context effects (DCEs) are a general property of perceptual processing. Characterizing their functional properties and determining their underlying mechanisms are essential both to fully understanding sensory and perceptual processes and to properly interpreting sensory measurements obtained in applied as well ...


Behaviorally-Based Disorders: The Historical Social Construction Of Youths' Most Prevalent Psychiatric Diagnoses, Christopher A. Mallett Dec 2006

Behaviorally-Based Disorders: The Historical Social Construction Of Youths' Most Prevalent Psychiatric Diagnoses, Christopher A. Mallett

Social Work Faculty Publications

The article discusses the historical social construction of the most prevalent diagnosis of youth in the U.S. The country's psychiatry controls the definitions of mental health disorders and diagnosis through required practice utilization of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. A research is conducted through a social construction theoretical paradigm to identify diagnostic classification systems, nosology changes, and critical time periods.


Comparison Of Distributed Versus Collocated Command Group Collaboration Performance, Christopher Van Fultz Dec 2006

Comparison Of Distributed Versus Collocated Command Group Collaboration Performance, Christopher Van Fultz

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The transformation of the United States Army to a combat force capable of operating successfully on future battlefields requires the leveraging of digital communication capabilities to support distributed battle command. The purpose of this study is to investigate collaborative command group planning performance in traditional face-to-face (collocated) and geographically dispersed group (distributed) conditions. The Reactive Planning Strategies Simulation (REPSS) system was developed to provide a realistic group planning task supporting empirical estimates of planning process and performance outcome success, measured in this context as delivery rate of humanitarian supplies. Results indicate that synchronization scores were not significantly different between conditions ...


Modeling Crowd And Trained Leader Behavior During Building Evacuation, Nuria Pelechano, Norman I. Badler Dec 2006

Modeling Crowd And Trained Leader Behavior During Building Evacuation, Nuria Pelechano, Norman I. Badler

Departmental Papers (CIS)

This article considers animating evacuation in complex buildings by crowds who might not know the structure's connectivity, or who find routes accidently blocked. It takes into account simulated crowd behavior under two conditions: where agents communicate building route knowledge, and where agents take different roles such as trained personnel, leaders, and followers.


The Influence Of Children's Gender And Behavior On Parental Perceptions, Virginia Lowery Dec 2006

The Influence Of Children's Gender And Behavior On Parental Perceptions, Virginia Lowery

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Parents' perceptions of children's behavior may vary depending on the gender of the child and the type of behavior displayed. It is important to delineate which factor(s) influence parental perceptions because parental perceptions directly influence whether or not parents respond to their children's behavior and how parents choose to manage the behavior. The present study examined how the gender of the child and the types of behaviors (internalizing vs. externalizing) the child displays affect parental perceptions regarding the severity of the behavior. One hundred and three parents of children ages 1 V2 to 5 years in the ...


African American Children's Inferences Based On Race, Sex And Age, Erica Hightower Dec 2006

African American Children's Inferences Based On Race, Sex And Age, Erica Hightower

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Previous studies (Madole, Eastman, Stone, & White, 2005) have suggested that children do not make inferences about people on the basis of race until around 8 years of age. The present study was a replication of a study performed by Madole et al. The distinction between the two studies was in the sample used, hi the previous study the majority of children used were Caucasian. The present study sought to examine whether African American children were more likely to make inferences on the basis of race than Caucasian children. Children ages 6 to 11 years were asked to perform an inference ...


Memory For Non-Focal Words, John Jones Dec 2006

Memory For Non-Focal Words, John Jones

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In two experiments a modified flanker paradigm was used to simultaneously present a focal word and an incidental non-focal word. The participants' task was to process the focal word in one of two conditions: naming aloud or a conceptual decision (concrete or abstract). The focal and non-focal words were either semantically related or not. Participants were instructed to direct their attention at the focal word. Furthermore, the presentation of the focal word was brief to reduce the possibility of eye movement to the non-focal word. Memory was measured with implicit and explicit memory tests. Evidence was found to suggest implicit ...


Examination Of The Relationship Between Parenting Styles And Parental Tolerance, Amanda Sowers Dec 2006

Examination Of The Relationship Between Parenting Styles And Parental Tolerance, Amanda Sowers

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Noncompliant behavior in children may be due to the developmental stage the child is going through, but persistent noncompliance can have long-term effects on the child ranging from academic problems to relationship problems (Forehand & Wierson, 1993; Kalb & Loeber, 2003). Parents' response to noncompliant behavior may be influenced by their parenting style. Parental tolerance is one factor that may differ among parenting styles. Parental tolerance can be defined by how annoyed the parent becomes by disruptive behavior displayed by children and the affect it has on the parent-child interaction (Brestan, Eyberg, Algina, Johnson, & Boggs, 2003). One new measure of parental tolerance is the ...


Perceived Similarity And Relationship Success Among Dating Couples: An Idiographic Approach, Catherine J. Lutz, Angela Christine Bradley, Jennifer L. Mihalik, Erika R. Moorman Dec 2006

Perceived Similarity And Relationship Success Among Dating Couples: An Idiographic Approach, Catherine J. Lutz, Angela Christine Bradley, Jennifer L. Mihalik, Erika R. Moorman

Psychology Faculty Publications

This study utilized an idiographic approach to investigate the relation between similarity on valued characteristics and relationship success. College students (N = 247) rated their current romantic partner on perceived similarity in personality, attitudes, interests, and religious affiliation; the importance of similarity in these dimensions; and relationship satisfaction. Relationship status was assessed 6 weeks later. Results revealed significant similarity by importance interactions for religion and interests in predicting satisfaction. Participants with high perceived similarity in religion or interests reported greater satisfaction than did their low similarity counterparts, but only to the extent that they rated this type of similarity as being ...


Love, Work, And Changes In Extraversion And Neuroticism Over Time, Christie N. Scollon, Ed Diener Dec 2006

Love, Work, And Changes In Extraversion And Neuroticism Over Time, Christie N. Scollon, Ed Diener

Research Collection School of Social Sciences

The present study examined individual differences in change in extraversion, neuroticism, and work and relationship satisfaction. Of particular interest were the correlations between changes. Data were from the Victorian Quality of Life Panel Study (B. Headey & A. Wearing, 1989, 1992), in which an overall 1,130 individuals participated (ages 16 to 70). Respondents were assessed every 2 years from 1981 to 1989. Four major findings emerged. (a) There were significant individual differences in changes in extraversion and neuroticism. (b) change was not limited to young adulthood. (c) Development was systematic in that increased work and relationship satisfaction was associated with decreases in neuroticism and increases in extraversion over time; on average, the magnitude of the relation between changes in work and relationship satisfaction and traits was .40. (d) Cross-lagged models indicated traits had a greater influence on role satisfaction; however, marginal support emerged for work satisfaction leading to increased extraversion. Implications of correlated change are discussed.


Culturally Adapted Mental Health Interventions: A Meta-Analytic Review, Timothy B. Smith, Derek Griner Dec 2006

Culturally Adapted Mental Health Interventions: A Meta-Analytic Review, Timothy B. Smith, Derek Griner

All Faculty Publications

There is a pressing need to enhance the availability and quality of mental health services provided to persons from historically disadvantaged racial and ethnic groups. Many previous authors have advocated that traditional mental health treatments be modified to better match clients? cultural contexts. Numerous studies evaluating culturally adapted interventions have appeared, and the present study used meta-analytic methodology to summarize these data. Across 76 studies the resulting random effects weighted average effect size was d = .45, indicating a moderately strong benefit of culturally adapted interventions. Interventions targeted to a specific cultural group were four times more effective than interventions provided ...


The Use Of Treatment Process Variables To Differentiate Between Completers And Dropouts For A Guided Self-Change Adolescent Substance Abuse Intervention, Mildred Cordaro Nov 2006

The Use Of Treatment Process Variables To Differentiate Between Completers And Dropouts For A Guided Self-Change Adolescent Substance Abuse Intervention, Mildred Cordaro

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study documented differences between substance using adolescent participants who either completed or dropped out of a brief motivational intervention. Therapeutic alliance, working alliance and patient involvement were used to describe differences in treatment process ratings in a sample of majority Latino males who either (a) completed a adolescent substance abuse intervention called Alcohol Treatment Targeting Adolescents In Need (ATTAIN) or (b) dropped out after the first or second Guided Self-Change therapy session. Fifteen-minute segments were copied from the midpoint of previously recorded audio-tapes of Guided Self-Change therapy sessions. Raters were trained to a criterion level of interrater reliability for ...


The Role Of Training Variables In Effective Dissemination Of Evidence-Based Parenting Interventions, Alexandra C. Seng, Ronald J. Prinz, Matthew R. Sanders Nov 2006

The Role Of Training Variables In Effective Dissemination Of Evidence-Based Parenting Interventions, Alexandra C. Seng, Ronald J. Prinz, Matthew R. Sanders

Faculty Publications

From a public health perspective, mental health in parents and children can be promoted through population-based dissemination of parenting and family support interventions. However, it is critical that service providers who are acquiring evidence-based parenting interventions complete the training regimen to optimize dissemination and impact. This article examines training completion and its relationship to individual service provider characteristics, barriers to program use and subsequent implementation of an evidence-based program, the Triple P - Positive Parenting Program. In this study, 83.7% of the service providers completed the two-part training. Individual-level variables did not predict training completion. Service providers from diverse backgrounds ...


It Must Be Awful For Them: Perspective And Task Context Affects Ratings For Health Conditions, Heather P. Lacey, Angela Fagerlin, George Loewenstein, Dylan M. Smith, Jason Riis, Peter A. Ubel Nov 2006

It Must Be Awful For Them: Perspective And Task Context Affects Ratings For Health Conditions, Heather P. Lacey, Angela Fagerlin, George Loewenstein, Dylan M. Smith, Jason Riis, Peter A. Ubel

Marketing Papers

When survey respondents rate the quality of life (QoL) associated with a health condition, they must not only evaluate the health condition itself, but must also interpret the meaning of the rating scale in order to assign a specific value. The way that respondents approach this task depends on subjective interpretations, resulting in inconsistent results across populations and tasks. In particular, patients and non-patients often give very different ratings to health conditions, a discrepancy that raises questions about the objectivity of either groups' evaluations. In this study, we found that the perspective of the raters (i.e., their own current ...


Drinking Game Participation Among College Students: Gender And Ethnic Implications, Eric R. Pedersen, Joseph W. Labrie Nov 2006

Drinking Game Participation Among College Students: Gender And Ethnic Implications, Eric R. Pedersen, Joseph W. Labrie

Heads Up!

Participation in drinking games by college students has recently sparked research attention. While previous research indicates that women play drinking games at lower frequencies than men, the current study reveals that college women may be playing games at rates similar to college men. In a sample of 105 coed college students, participants completed a 3-month Timeline Followback recording every drinking event and quantity consumed. They then were prompted to identify which drinking events involved drinking games and how much alcohol was consumed during game playing. Both men and women engaged in drinking games at similar rates and consumed more drinks ...


Towards A Bibliography Of Critical Whiteness Studies, Tim Engles Nov 2006

Towards A Bibliography Of Critical Whiteness Studies, Tim Engles

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

As the title implies, this book offers a multi-disciplinary overview of the explosion of work in scholarly critical whiteness studies. The contributing bibliographers acknowledge that this work follows and builds upon a great deal of whiteness critique previously provided by African American writers, and by those writing from other racialized positions. Each section provides a solid introduction to key concepts and practices regarding whiteness in a particular field, including: philosophy, history, literature, cinema, the visual arts, psychology, education, media studies, qualitative inquiry, personal narratives, and international and comparative approaches.


Personality Development In Emerging Adulthood: Integrating Evidence From Self- And Spouse-Ratings, David Watson, John Humrichhouse Nov 2006

Personality Development In Emerging Adulthood: Integrating Evidence From Self- And Spouse-Ratings, David Watson, John Humrichhouse

Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences Publications

We examined self- and spouse-ratings in a young adult newlywed sample across a 2-year interval. Rank-order stability correlations were consistently high and did not differ across the two types of ratings. As expected, self-ratings showed significant increases in conscientiousness and agreeableness—and declines in neuroticism/negative affectivity—over time. Spouse-ratings yielded a very different pattern, however, showing significant decreases in conscientiousness, agreeableness, extraversion and openness across the study interval. Spouse-ratings also showed evidence of a “honeymoon effect”, such that they tended to be more positive than self-ratings at Time 1. This effect had dissipated by the second assessment; in fact ...


Self-Mutilation In Adolescents: Recognizing A Silent Epidemic, Constance Glenn, Susan M. Denisco Nov 2006

Self-Mutilation In Adolescents: Recognizing A Silent Epidemic, Constance Glenn, Susan M. Denisco

Nursing Faculty Publications

This article describes the physical and emotional manifestations of self-mutilation behavior (SMB) in adolescents and provides information about diagnosis and treatment. The authors' own survey of school nurses' on-the-job experience with SMB is presented. Finally, the implications of the problem for nurse practitioners (NPs) who care for teens at risk for SMB are discussed.


Developing A Methodology For Assessing Safety Programs Targeting Human Error In Aviation, Scott Shappell, Douglas Wiegmann Nov 2006

Developing A Methodology For Assessing Safety Programs Targeting Human Error In Aviation, Scott Shappell, Douglas Wiegmann

Publications

There is a need to develop an effective methodology for generating comprehensive intervention strategies that map current and proposed safety programs onto well-established types of human error. Two separate studies were conducted using recommendations from NTSB accident investigations and several joint FAA and industry working groups. The goal of the studies was to validate a proposed framework for developing and examining safety initiatives that target human error in aviation. The results suggest five approaches to reducing human factors associated with aviation accidents. When combined with the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System, the resulting Human Factors Intervention Matrix will provide ...


Child Sexual Abuse: How Young People Tell, Rosaleen Mcelvaney Nov 2006

Child Sexual Abuse: How Young People Tell, Rosaleen Mcelvaney

Conference papers

This paper explores the theme of disclosing sexual abuse experiences in adolescence. As children develop increasing autonomy and independence they also develop cognitive, social and emotional skills which facilitate the process of disclosing personal experiences they have struggled for in some cases many years to maintain secrecy. Decision making skills which enable the young person to consider alternative consequences to their behaviour, multiple outcomes and an appreciation of the diverse perspectives of others enables them to weigh up the relative advantages and disadvantages of disclosure. Increased empathy enables them to appreciate the vulnerability of other children to abuse yet also ...


Defining And Quantifying Coping Strategies After Stroke: A Review., Claire Donnellan, David Hevey, Anne Hickey, Desmond O'Neill Nov 2006

Defining And Quantifying Coping Strategies After Stroke: A Review., Claire Donnellan, David Hevey, Anne Hickey, Desmond O'Neill

Psychology Articles

The coping strategies that people use after a stroke may influence recovery. Coping measures are generally used to assess the mediating behaviour between a stressor (ie, disease or condition) and the physical or psychological outcome of an individual. This review evaluates measures that quantified coping strategies in studies on psychological adaptation to stroke. The main aspects of the coping measures reviewed were (a) conceptual basis; (b) coping domains assessed; (c) coping strategies used after a stroke; and (d) psychometric properties of coping measures used in studies assessing patients with stroke. Four databases (Medline, CINAHL, PsychINFO and Cochrane Systematic Reviews) were ...


Subject: Psychology And Sociology, Susan Lacette Oct 2006

Subject: Psychology And Sociology, Susan Lacette

ILR School Theses and Dissertations: A Listing

No abstract provided.


Factors Associated With Dietary Supplement Use Among Prescription Medication Users, Paula Gardiner, Robert E. Graham, Anna T.R. Legedza, David M. Eisenberg, Russell S. Phillips Oct 2006

Factors Associated With Dietary Supplement Use Among Prescription Medication Users, Paula Gardiner, Robert E. Graham, Anna T.R. Legedza, David M. Eisenberg, Russell S. Phillips

Center for Integrated Primary Care Publications

BACKGROUND: We examined the patterns of nonvitamin dietary supplement (NVDS) use among adult prescription medication users in the United States.

METHODS: Using the 2002 National Health Interview Survey, we analyzed factors associated with NVDS use and prescription medication use in the prior 12 months with descriptive, chi(2), and logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS: In the United States, 21% of adult prescription medication users reported using NVDSs in the prior 12 months. Of the respondents who used both prescription medications and NVDSs in the prior 12 months, 69% did not discuss this use with a conventional medical practitioner. Among adults who ...


Regulatory Fit As Input For Stop Rules, Leigh Ann Vaughn, Jill Malik, Sandra Schwartz, Zhivka Petkova, Lindsay Trudeau Oct 2006

Regulatory Fit As Input For Stop Rules, Leigh Ann Vaughn, Jill Malik, Sandra Schwartz, Zhivka Petkova, Lindsay Trudeau

Psychology Department Faculty Publications and Presentations

Three experiments show that the motivational effects of regulatory fit (consistency between regulatory state and strategic means) are context-dependent. With no explicit decision rule about when to stop (Experiment 1) or an explicit enjoyment stop rule (Experiments 2 and 3), participants exerted more effort on tasks when experiencing regulatory fit than when experiencing regulatory nonfit. With an explicit sufficiency stop rule (Experiments 2 and 3), participants exerted less effort when experiencing regulatory fit than when experiencing regulatory nonfit. The interactive effect of regulatory fit and stop rules can be explained by misattribution of rightness feelings from regulatory fit: the effect ...