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Neuroscience Workshops For Fifth-Grade School Children By Undergraduate Students: A University–School Partnership, Judith G. Foy, Marissa Feldman, Edward Lin, Margaret Mahoney, Chelsea Sjoblom Jul 2006

Neuroscience Workshops For Fifth-Grade School Children By Undergraduate Students: A University–School Partnership, Judith G. Foy, Marissa Feldman, Edward Lin, Margaret Mahoney, Chelsea Sjoblom

Psychology Faculty Works

The National Science Education Standards recommend that science be taught using inquiry-based approaches. Inspired by the Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives, we examined whether undergraduate students could learn how to conduct field research by teaching elementary school children basic neuroscience concepts in interactive workshops. In an inquiry-based learning experience of their own, undergraduate psychology students working under the close supervision of their instructor designed and provided free, interactive, hour-long workshops focusing on brain structure and function, brain damage and disorders, perception and illusions, and drugs and hormones to fifth-graders from diverse backgrounds, and we assessed the effectiveness of the workshops ...


What Do Children Want To Know About Animals And Artifacts? Domain-Specific Requests For Information, M. L. Greif, Deborah G. Kemler Nelson, F. C. Keil, F. Gutierrez Jun 2006

What Do Children Want To Know About Animals And Artifacts? Domain-Specific Requests For Information, M. L. Greif, Deborah G. Kemler Nelson, F. C. Keil, F. Gutierrez

Psychology Faculty Works

Children's questions may reveal a great deal about the characteristics of objects they consider to be conceptually important. Thirty-two preschool children were given opportunities to ask questions about unfamiliar artifacts and animals. The children asked ambiguous questions such as “What is it?” about artifacts and animals alike. However, they were more likely to ask about the functions of artifacts, but about category membership, food choices, and typical locations of animals. They never asked questions about either artifacts or animals that would be considered inappropriate by adults. The results indicate that children hold different expectations about the types of information ...


Risky Decision Making Assessed With The Gambling Task In Adults With Hiv, David J. Hardy, Charles H. Hinkin, Steven A. Castellon, Andrew J. Levine, Mona N. Lam May 2006

Risky Decision Making Assessed With The Gambling Task In Adults With Hiv, David J. Hardy, Charles H. Hinkin, Steven A. Castellon, Andrew J. Levine, Mona N. Lam

Psychology Faculty Works

Decision making was assessed using a laboratory gambling task in 67 adults with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV+) and in 19 HIV-seronegative (HIV−) control participants. Neurocognitive test performance across several domains was also analyzed to examine potential cognitive mechanisms of gambling task performance. As predicted, the HIV+ group performed worse on the gambling task, indicating greater risky decision making. Specifically, the HIV+ group selected more cards from the “risky” or disadvantageous deck that included relatively large payoffs but infrequent large penalties. The control group also selected such risky cards but quickly learned to avoid them. Exploratory analyses also indicated that ...


Low Doses Of Memantine Disrupt Memory In Adult Rats, Catherine Creeley, David Wozniak, Joanne Labruyere, George Taylor, John Olney Apr 2006

Low Doses Of Memantine Disrupt Memory In Adult Rats, Catherine Creeley, David Wozniak, Joanne Labruyere, George Taylor, John Olney

Psychology Faculty Works

Memantine, a drug recently approved for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, has been characterized as a unique NMDA antagonist that confers protection against excitotoxic neurodegeneration without the serious side effects that other NMDA antagonists are known to cause. In the present study, we determined what dose of memantine is required to protect the adult rat brain against an NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxic process and then tested that dose and a range of lower doses to determine whether the drug in this dose range is associated with significant side effects. Consistent with previous research, we found that memantine confers a neuroprotective effect ...


Understanding Reported Cognitive Dysfunction In Older Adults With Cardiovascular Disease, Robert H. Paul, John Gunstad, Ronald A. Cohen, David F. Apr 2006

Understanding Reported Cognitive Dysfunction In Older Adults With Cardiovascular Disease, Robert H. Paul, John Gunstad, Ronald A. Cohen, David F.

Psychology Faculty Works

High HIV-1 DNA (HIV DNA) levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) correlate with HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). If this relationship also exists among HAART-naïve patients, then HIV DNA may be implicated in the pathogenesis of HAD. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between HIV DNA and cognition in subjects naïve to HAART in a neuro AIDS cohort in Bangkok, Thailand. Subjects with and without HAD were recruited and matched for age, gender, education, and CD4 cell count. PBMC and cellular subsets were analyzed for HIV DNA using real-time PCR. The median ...


Depression Prevention For Early Adolescent Girls: A Pilot Study Of All-Girls Versus Co-Ed Groups, T. M. Chaplin, Jane Gillham, K. Reivich, A. G.L. Elkon, B. Samuels, D. R. Freres, B. Winder, M. E.P. Seligman Feb 2006

Depression Prevention For Early Adolescent Girls: A Pilot Study Of All-Girls Versus Co-Ed Groups, T. M. Chaplin, Jane Gillham, K. Reivich, A. G.L. Elkon, B. Samuels, D. R. Freres, B. Winder, M. E.P. Seligman

Psychology Faculty Works

Given the dramatic increase in depression that occurs during early adolescence in girls, interventions must address the needs of girls. The authors examined whether a depression prevention program, the Penn Resiliency Program, was more effective for girls in all-girls groups than in co-ed groups. Within co-ed groups, the authors also tested whether there were greater effects for boys than for girls. Participants were 20811-to 14-year-olds. Girls were randomly assigned to all-girls groups, co-ed groups, or control. Boys were assigned to co-ed groups or control. Students completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and explanatory style before and after the intervention. Girls ...


Social Suffering, Gender, And Women's Depression, Jeanne Marecek Jan 2006

Social Suffering, Gender, And Women's Depression, Jeanne Marecek

Psychology Faculty Works

No abstract provided.


Review Of "America's Crisis Of Values: Reality And Perception" By W. Baker, Barry Schwartz Jan 2006

Review Of "America's Crisis Of Values: Reality And Perception" By W. Baker, Barry Schwartz

Psychology Faculty Works

No abstract provided.


Hiv Dna And Dementia In Treatment-Naive Hiv-1-Infected Individuals In Bangkok, Thailand, Robert H. Paul, Bruce Shiramizu, Silvia Ratto-Kim, Pasiri Sithinamsuwan Jan 2006

Hiv Dna And Dementia In Treatment-Naive Hiv-1-Infected Individuals In Bangkok, Thailand, Robert H. Paul, Bruce Shiramizu, Silvia Ratto-Kim, Pasiri Sithinamsuwan

Psychology Faculty Works

High HIV-1 DNA (HIV DNA) levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) correlate with HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). If this relationship also exists among HAART-naïve patients, then HIV DNA may be implicated in the pathogenesis of HAD. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between HIV DNA and cognition in subjects naïve to HAART in a neuro AIDS cohort in Bangkok, Thailand. Subjects with and without HAD were recruited and matched for age, gender, education, and CD4 cell count. PBMC and cellular subsets were analyzed for HIV DNA using real-time PCR. The median ...