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Beliefs About Essences And The Reality Of Mental Disorders, Woo-Kyoung Ahn, Elizabeth H. Flanagan, Jessecae K. Marsh, Charles A. Sanislow Sep 2006

Beliefs About Essences And The Reality Of Mental Disorders, Woo-Kyoung Ahn, Elizabeth H. Flanagan, Jessecae K. Marsh, Charles A. Sanislow

Division III Faculty Publications

Do people believe mental disorders are real and possess underlying essences? The current study found that both novices and practicing clinicians held weaker essentialist beliefs about mental disorders than about medical disorders. They were also unwilling to endorse the idea that mental disorders are real and natural. Furthermore, compared with novices, mental health clinicians were less likely to endorse the view that there is a shared cause underlying a mental disorder and that one needs to remove the cause to get rid of the mental disorder. Clinicians were polarized on their views about whether mental disorders are categorical or dimensional ...


Mental Rubbernecking To Negative Information Depends On Task Context, Marcia K. Johnson, Karen J. Mitchell, Carol L. Raye, Joseph T. Mcguire, Charles A. Sanislow Aug 2006

Mental Rubbernecking To Negative Information Depends On Task Context, Marcia K. Johnson, Karen J. Mitchell, Carol L. Raye, Joseph T. Mcguire, Charles A. Sanislow

Division III Faculty Publications

We previously demonstrated mental rubbernecking during the simple cognitive act of refreshing a just activated representation. Participants saw two neutral and one negative word presented simultaneously and, 425 msec later, were cued to mentally refresh (i.e., think of) one of the no-longer-present words. They were slower to refresh a neutral word than the negative word (Johnson et al., 2005, Experiment 6A). The present experiments extended that work by showing mental rubbernecking when negative items were sometimes the target of refreshing, but not when negative items were present but never the target of refreshing, indicating that expectations influence mental rubbernecking ...


Descriptive And Longitudinal Observations On The Relationship Of Borderline Personality Disorder And Bipolar Disorder, John G. Gunderson, Igor Weinberg, Maria T. Daversa, Karsten D. Kueppenbender, Mary C. Zanarini, M. Tracie Shea, Andrew E. Skodol, Charles A. Sanislow, Shirley Yen, Leslie C. Morey, Carlos M. Grilo, Thomas H. Mcglashan, Robert L. Stout, Ingrid R. Dyck Jul 2006

Descriptive And Longitudinal Observations On The Relationship Of Borderline Personality Disorder And Bipolar Disorder, John G. Gunderson, Igor Weinberg, Maria T. Daversa, Karsten D. Kueppenbender, Mary C. Zanarini, M. Tracie Shea, Andrew E. Skodol, Charles A. Sanislow, Shirley Yen, Leslie C. Morey, Carlos M. Grilo, Thomas H. Mcglashan, Robert L. Stout, Ingrid R. Dyck

Division III Faculty Publications

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test whether borderline personality disorder is a variant of bipolar disorder by examining the rates of co-occurrence in both disorders, the effects of co-occurrence on a longitudinal course, and whether the presence of either disorder confers the risk for new onsets of the other.

METHOD: A prospective repeated-measures design with reliable independent diagnostic measures and 4 years of follow-up was used to assess 196 patients with borderline personality disorder and 433 patients with other personality disorders.

RESULTS: Patients with borderline personality disorder had a significantly higher co-occurrence of bipolar disorder (19.4 ...


Predictors Of 2-Year Outcome For Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder, John G. Gunderson, Maria T. Daversa, Carlos M. Grilo, Thomas H. Mcglashan, Mary C. Zanarini, M. Tracie Shea, Andrew E. Skodol, Shirley Yen, Charles A. Sanislow, Donna S. Bender, Ingrid R. Dyck, Leslie C. Morey, Robert L. Stout May 2006

Predictors Of 2-Year Outcome For Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder, John G. Gunderson, Maria T. Daversa, Carlos M. Grilo, Thomas H. Mcglashan, Mary C. Zanarini, M. Tracie Shea, Andrew E. Skodol, Shirley Yen, Charles A. Sanislow, Donna S. Bender, Ingrid R. Dyck, Leslie C. Morey, Robert L. Stout

Division III Faculty Publications

OBJECTIVE: The primary purpose of this report was to investigate whether characteristics of subjects with borderline personality disorder observed at baseline can predict variations in outcome at the 2-year follow-up.

METHOD: Hypothesized predictor variables were selected from prior studies. The patients (N=160) were recruited from the four clinical sites of the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorders Study. Patients were assessed at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 months with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders; the Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders, a modified version of that instrument; the Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation; and the Childhood ...


Perfectionism And Depressive Symptoms 3 Years Later: Negative Social Interactions, Avoidant Coping, And Perceived Social Support As Mediators., David M. Dunkley, Charles A. Sanislow, Carlos M. Grilo, Thomas H. Mcglashan Mar 2006

Perfectionism And Depressive Symptoms 3 Years Later: Negative Social Interactions, Avoidant Coping, And Perceived Social Support As Mediators., David M. Dunkley, Charles A. Sanislow, Carlos M. Grilo, Thomas H. Mcglashan

Division III Faculty Publications

Although research has demonstrated perfectionism to have a negative impact on the treatment of depression, little research has examined the mechanisms or processes through which perfectionism predicts subsequent depressive symptoms in clinical populations over time. Using data from a prospective, 3-year study of a clinical sample (N = 96), hierarchical regression analyses indicated that perfectionism, assessed by the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (Weissman AN, Beck AT. Development and validation of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale: a preliminary investigation. Paper presented at the 86th annual convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 1978), is distinguished from major depression and neuroticism for its ...


Prospective Assessment Of Treatment Use By Patients With Personality Disorders, Donna S. Bender, Andrew E. Skodol, Maria E. Pagano, Ingrid R. Dyck, Carlos M. Grilo, M. Tracie Shea, Charles A. Sanislow, Mary C. Zanarini, Shirley Yen, Thomas H. Mcglashan, John G. Gunderson Feb 2006

Prospective Assessment Of Treatment Use By Patients With Personality Disorders, Donna S. Bender, Andrew E. Skodol, Maria E. Pagano, Ingrid R. Dyck, Carlos M. Grilo, M. Tracie Shea, Charles A. Sanislow, Mary C. Zanarini, Shirley Yen, Thomas H. Mcglashan, John G. Gunderson

Division III Faculty Publications

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the utilization of mental health treatments over a three-year period among patients with schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, or obsessive-compulsive personality disorders compared with patients with major depressive disorder and no personality disorder.

METHODS: A prospective, longitudinal study design was used to measure treatment use for 633 individuals aged 18 to 45 years during a three-year period.

RESULTS: Patients with borderline personality disorder were significantly more likely than those with major depressive disorder to use most types of treatment. Furthermore, all patients continued using high-intensity, low-duration treatments throughout the study period, whereas individual psychotherapy attendance declined significantly after ...


Night Eating: Prevalence And Demographic Correlates, R H. Striegel, D L. Franko, D Thompson, S Affenito, H C. Kraemer Jan 2006

Night Eating: Prevalence And Demographic Correlates, R H. Striegel, D L. Franko, D Thompson, S Affenito, H C. Kraemer

Division III Faculty Publications

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the prevalence and correlates of night eating, the core behavioral symptom of night eating syndrome among adolescents and adults, using two public access survey databases of nationally representative samples.

RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES:

Data were extracted for individuals age 13 years or older who completed food diary data for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (N = 18,407) or the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (N = 10,741). Prevalence estimates were calculated for three commonly used definitions of night eating. Logistic regression was used to examine correlates of night eating: type of day ...


The Importance Of Being Coherent: Category Coherence, Cross-Classification, And Reasoning, Andrea L. Patalano, Seth Chin-Parker, Brian H. Ross Jan 2006

The Importance Of Being Coherent: Category Coherence, Cross-Classification, And Reasoning, Andrea L. Patalano, Seth Chin-Parker, Brian H. Ross

Division III Faculty Publications

Category-based inference is crucial for using past experiences to make sense of new ones. One challenge to inference of this kind is that most entities in the world belong to multiple categories (e.g., a jogger, a professor, and a vegetarian). We tested the hypothesis that the degree of coherence of a category--the degree to which category features go together in light of prior knowledge--influences the extent to which one category will be used over another in property inference. The first two experiments demonstrate that when multiple social categories are available, high coherence categories are selected and used as the ...


Risk Factors And Patterns Of Onset In Binge Eating Disorder, R H. Striegel, J L. Manwaring, A Hilbert, D E. Wifley, K M. Pike, C G. Fairburn, F A. Dohm Jan 2006

Risk Factors And Patterns Of Onset In Binge Eating Disorder, R H. Striegel, J L. Manwaring, A Hilbert, D E. Wifley, K M. Pike, C G. Fairburn, F A. Dohm

Division III Faculty Publications

OBJECTIVE: The current study examined risk factors in women with binge eating disorder (BED) who began binging before dieting (binge-first [BF]) compared with women with BED who began dieting before binging (diet-first [DF]). It further aimed to replicate findings regarding eating disorder and general psychopathology among BF versus DF subtypes.

METHOD: One hundred fifty-five women with BED completed the Oxford Risk Factor Interview to retrospectively assess risk factors occurring before eating disturbance onset. Clinical interview assessed eating disorder and general psychopathology.

RESULTS: Overall, no significant differences in risk factors emerged between the groups. The BF group had a significantly earlier ...


Antecedent Life Events Of Binge-Eating Disorder, R H. Striegel, K M. Pike, D Wilfley, A Hilbert, C G. Fairburn, F A. Dohm Jan 2006

Antecedent Life Events Of Binge-Eating Disorder, R H. Striegel, K M. Pike, D Wilfley, A Hilbert, C G. Fairburn, F A. Dohm

Division III Faculty Publications

The present study investigated the occurrence of life events preceding the onset of disturbed eating in binge-eating disorder (BED). In a case-control design, 162 matched pairs of black and white women with BED and women with no current psychiatric disorder, and 107 matched pairs of women with BED and a current general psychiatric disorder were recruited from the community for the New England Women's Health Project. Life events in the year before the onset of disturbed eating were assessed retrospectively with an investigator-based interview. Women with BED reported exposure to a significantly greater number of life events during the ...


Cross-Cultural Exploration Of The Indecisiveness Scale: A Comparison Of Chinese And American Men And Women, Andrea L. Patalano, Steven M. Wengrovitz Jan 2006

Cross-Cultural Exploration Of The Indecisiveness Scale: A Comparison Of Chinese And American Men And Women, Andrea L. Patalano, Steven M. Wengrovitz

Division III Faculty Publications

Indecisiveness is the inability to make decisions in a timely manner across situations and domains. The present research explores the construct of indecisiveness across sex and culture, given the past suggestion of group differences in mean scores (Ji, Oka, & Yates, 2000; Rassin & Muris, 2005a). Frost and Shows' (1993) Indecisiveness Scale was administered to undergraduates in the United States and China (73 men and 88 women per culture). For Americans, a two-factor model of indecisiveness (general indecisiveness and planning indecisiveness) emerged while, for Chinese, a three-factor model (with general indecisiveness split into anxiety- and confidence-related factors) better explained the data. No group differences ...


The Adverse Effect Of Negative Comments About Weight And Shape From Family And Siblings On Women At High Risk For Eating Disorders, R H. Striegel, C B. Taylor, S Bryson, A A. Celio Doyle, K H. Luce, D Cunning, L B. Abascal, R Rockwell, A E. Field, A J. Winzelberg, D E. Wilfley Jan 2006

The Adverse Effect Of Negative Comments About Weight And Shape From Family And Siblings On Women At High Risk For Eating Disorders, R H. Striegel, C B. Taylor, S Bryson, A A. Celio Doyle, K H. Luce, D Cunning, L B. Abascal, R Rockwell, A E. Field, A J. Winzelberg, D E. Wilfley

Division III Faculty Publications

OBJECTIVE:

Our purpose with this work was to examine the relationship between negative comments about weight, shape, and eating and social adjustment, social support, self-esteem, and perceived childhood abuse and neglect.

METHODS:

A retrospective study was conducted with 455 college women with high weight and shape concerns, who participated in an Internet-based eating disorder prevention program. Baseline assessments included: perceived family negative comments about weight, shape, and eating; social adjustment; social support; self-esteem; and childhood abuse and neglect. Participants identified 1 of 7 figures representing their maximum body size before age 18 and parental maximum body size.

RESULTS:

More than ...