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The Effect And Chronic Acute Pre-Treatment With Methylphenidate On Recovery Of Cognitive Function Following Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury In Rats, Katharine Coryell Eakin Jan 2006

The Effect And Chronic Acute Pre-Treatment With Methylphenidate On Recovery Of Cognitive Function Following Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury In Rats, Katharine Coryell Eakin

Theses and Dissertations

Adolescent and young adult males are at a higher risk for traumatic brain injury (TBI) compared to the general population. Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is also more prevalent for males in these age groups. The most commonly prescribed medication for ADHD is methylphenidate (MPH). Based on the increase in the number of new diagnoses of ADHD and the number of children who continue taking MPH into adulthood, it is important to evaluate how chronic or acute MPH administered prior to injury may influence recovery following TBI. In both studies, cognitive abilities of male Sprague-Dawley rats were assessed ...


The Discriminative Stimulus Properties Of The Atypical Antipsychotic Clozapine In C57bl/6 Mice, Scott D. Philibin Jan 2006

The Discriminative Stimulus Properties Of The Atypical Antipsychotic Clozapine In C57bl/6 Mice, Scott D. Philibin

Theses and Dissertations

Serotonin and α1 adrenergic receptor antagonism may contribute to atypical antipsychotic drug effects. Clozapine (2.5 mg/kg) drug discrimination in C57BL/6 mice may selectively screen atypical antipsychotic drugs. Previous data show that the atypical antipsychotics olanzapine, risperidone, ziprasidone but not the typical antipsychotic haloperidol fully substitutes for clozapine. The present study demonstrated that the atypical antipsychotics quetiapine, sertindole, zotepine, iloperidone, melperone fully substituted for clozapine but aripiprazole did not. The typical antipsychotics fluphenazine and perphenazine failed to fully substitute for clozapine but chlorpromazine and thioridazine fully substituted for clozapine. This model does not differentiate between atypical and typical ...


Reflecting The Past And Shaping The Future: A Study Of Adolescent Schemas And Exposure To Community Violence, Monique Vulin Reynolds Jan 2006

Reflecting The Past And Shaping The Future: A Study Of Adolescent Schemas And Exposure To Community Violence, Monique Vulin Reynolds

Theses and Dissertations

Exposure to community violence is a pervasive problem among urban youth and has been associated with both internalizing and externalizing disorders. The mechanisms through which exposure to community violence impacts adolescent adjustment are unclear. A change in adolescent schemas has been proposed as a mechanism through which the impact occurs. The goals of this study were to develop a measure of relevant adolescent schemas and examine their relation to exposure to community violence. A sample of 320 5th and 8th graders were assessed and confirmatory factor analyses of the measure supported a three factor model, including self-schemas, world schemas and ...


Social Capital, Health And Mental Health In African American Women, Cheryl Lynn Bennett Jan 2006

Social Capital, Health And Mental Health In African American Women, Cheryl Lynn Bennett

Theses and Dissertations

Cultural and social influences on mental and physical health are increasingly recognized by social science researchers. Researchers have found that specific, Afrocultural factors are related to the functioning of African Americans. The current research considered whether interdependence is especially salient for African American women since women and African Americans tend to define themselves within the context of social relationships. The study outlines processes affecting the mental and physical health of African American women including communalism, collective efficacy, and social capital. The also study examined the relationship between socioeconomic status and both mental and physical health among African American women in ...


A Longitudinal Investigation Of Cognitive Predictors Of Self-Care Behaviors In Youth With Type I Diabetes, Michelle Marie Greene Jan 2006

A Longitudinal Investigation Of Cognitive Predictors Of Self-Care Behaviors In Youth With Type I Diabetes, Michelle Marie Greene

Theses and Dissertations

Cross-sectional research of youth with type I diabetes has demonstrated that rote and working memory predict blood glucose monitoring (BGM) and carbohydrate consumption, respectively; however, to date, no longitudinal follow-up studies exist. Rote and working memory subtests from well-standardized memory measures, along with a problem-solving and executive functioning measures were administered to 118 youth with type I diabetes, aged 9-16 in two waves of data collection (mean interval = 2.07 years). Diabetes care behaviors were assessed through the 24-hour Diabetes Interview. This study was the first to document longitudinal prediction of BGM by rote memory and fat consumption by working ...


Models Of Forgiveness And Adult Romantic Attachment In Ended Relationships: Forgiveness Over Time, Kathryn Louise Cooke Jan 2006

Models Of Forgiveness And Adult Romantic Attachment In Ended Relationships: Forgiveness Over Time, Kathryn Louise Cooke

Theses and Dissertations

This study examined models of self and other as they relate to attachment, forgiveness, emotional and cognitive reactions to a breakup, relationship variables, and positive and negative feelings toward the self and former partner after a romantic relationship is ended. This study also tested how these variables change over time. Data were collected over a period of five weeks from 130 undergraduates who had experienced a breakup within the two weeks prior to beginning the study. Data were analyzed with a series of univariate and multivariate analyses of variance. Results found that there were differences in how participants reacted to ...


Emotional Labor And Nursing Students: An Investigation Of Nursing Students' Emotion Work, Ann Caldwell Smolen-Hetzel Jan 2006

Emotional Labor And Nursing Students: An Investigation Of Nursing Students' Emotion Work, Ann Caldwell Smolen-Hetzel

Theses and Dissertations

This study examined emotional labor as a potential source of stress for nursing students, as nursing students' performance of emotional labor may impact their working lives in important ways. Participants were 107 undergraduate and graduate nursing students enrolled in a large southeastern university who completed the Discrete EmotionsEmotional Labor Scale (DEELS; Glomb & Tews, 20041, the Student Nurse Stress Index (SNSI; Jones & Johnston, 1999), the Job Descriptive Index (JDI; Balzer et al., 20001, and the Job in General (JIG; Balzer et al., 2000) scales. Two sub-samples of nursing students were identified, one of which held a registered nurse license (seasoned group; N = 54), and the other which had no previous clinical training in nursing (unseasoned group ...


The Predictive Relationship Of Inhibitory Control, Emotion Regulation, Moral Emotions, And Life Stressors On Behavior Problems In School-Aged Children Of Incarcerated Mothers, Geraldine M. Lotze Jan 2006

The Predictive Relationship Of Inhibitory Control, Emotion Regulation, Moral Emotions, And Life Stressors On Behavior Problems In School-Aged Children Of Incarcerated Mothers, Geraldine M. Lotze

Theses and Dissertations

Children whose mothers go to prison are at high risk for poor outcomes of many kinds,including externalizing behaviors, internalizing disorders, school dropout, and eventual criminal activity. Inhibitory control, moral emotions, emotion regulation, and stressful life events were examined as predictors of externalizing and internalizing behaviors in children of incarcerated mothers. Participants were 50 children age 6 to 12 years (M = 9.77 y, SD = 1.54) with mothers currently in prison who attended a faith-based recreational summer camp. Inhibitory control was not impaired in these children, showing that their brains were functioning appropriately in this area of executive functioning ...


Supportive And Unsupportive Responses From Parents As Moderators Of The Relationship Between Stressful Events And Negative Outcomes In Adolescents, Karen A. Muehl Jan 2006

Supportive And Unsupportive Responses From Parents As Moderators Of The Relationship Between Stressful Events And Negative Outcomes In Adolescents, Karen A. Muehl

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between stressful events in adolescents and negative outcomes of substance use, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Parental support and unsupportive parental responses were examined as moderators of this relationship. The research design was cross-sectional, and self-report data were collected from 100 adolescents in the 8th and 9th grades. As hypothesized, significant positive associations were found between perceived stressors and each of the three negative outcomes, as well as between unsupportive parental responses and the outcomes. Also consistent with hypotheses, and previous literature, was the finding of a significant inverse association ...


Social Emotional Development In School: The Anatomy Of One School's Role In Adolescent Female Development, Tanya Elizabeth Forneris Jan 2006

Social Emotional Development In School: The Anatomy Of One School's Role In Adolescent Female Development, Tanya Elizabeth Forneris

Theses and Dissertations

Social and emotional learning enables individuals to recognize and manage emotions, develop caring and concern for others, make responsible decisions, establish and maintain positive relationships, handle challenging situations effectively, achieve academically, and lead a healthy lifestyle. Research has shown that competent young people who are socially and emotionally competent are more likely to succeed both academically and personally and have strong personal and interpersonal skills. The purpose of this study was to examine one school's process in helping its students develop both socially and emotionally. For this study social-emotional learning was examined using the individual competencies and guidelines for ...


Physical Activity In Elementary School Girls: Implementation And Theory-Based Evaluation Of Girls On The Run, Melanie Kerr Van Ogtrop Bean Jan 2006

Physical Activity In Elementary School Girls: Implementation And Theory-Based Evaluation Of Girls On The Run, Melanie Kerr Van Ogtrop Bean

Theses and Dissertations

Rates of obesity in children are rising at an alarming rate, particularly among girls and ethnic minorities. Engaging in regular physical activity can help reduce this risk. Little is known about factors associated with physical activity (PA) in preadolescent populations, an age when intervention is ideal. Guided by Social Cognitive Theory, this study used a repeated-measures design to examine PA and its correlates, including PA self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and social influences (from parents and peers). Among participants (N = 57) in Girls on the Run, an innovative PA intervention for elementary school girls. Participants (M age = 9.4) predominately include girls ...


Psychological Symptoms, Marital Quality, And Environmental Stress In Newly-Married Couples, Constance B. Sharp Jan 2006

Psychological Symptoms, Marital Quality, And Environmental Stress In Newly-Married Couples, Constance B. Sharp

Theses and Dissertations

Cross-sectional relationships between psychological symptoms, marital quality, and stress experienced over the past week were explored using data from 310 newly married couples. Couples were recruited through newspaper ads and paid to participate. Couples were eligible if they had been married for less than six months and were not receiving therapy when they contacted the researcher. The Global Severity Index (GSI) of the Brief Symptom Inventory measured psychological symptoms. The Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) measured marital quality, and scaled ratings of 11 types of stressors experienced over the previous week measured stress. Husband and wife measures were taken of each ...


Perceptions Of Academic And Social Self-Efficacy Among Adolescents Diagnosed With Cancer And Their Relations With Dispositional Optimism, Perceived Vulnerability, And Treatment Modality, Rebecca Hope Foster Jan 2006

Perceptions Of Academic And Social Self-Efficacy Among Adolescents Diagnosed With Cancer And Their Relations With Dispositional Optimism, Perceived Vulnerability, And Treatment Modality, Rebecca Hope Foster

Theses and Dissertations

For adolescents with cancer, a population notably neglected in the literature, maintaining and strengthening academic and social self-efficacy is especially salient in terms of promoting positive adaptation on key developmental indices. Based on prior research citing their potential roles among adolescents adapting to cancer, treatment modality, dispositional optimism, and perceived vulnerability were chosen as variables likely related to social and academic self-efficacy. Forty-two adolescents diagnosed with cancer and at least six months post-treatment completed questionnaire packets. Analyses indicated that although treatment modality did not relate to academic or social self-efficacy, prognosis should be considered as a covariate. Hierarchical regression analyses ...


Do Expectancies Mediate The Relationship Between Sensitivities And Fearfulness?: An Alternative To Reiss' Expectancy Theory, Scott David Mcdonald Jan 2006

Do Expectancies Mediate The Relationship Between Sensitivities And Fearfulness?: An Alternative To Reiss' Expectancy Theory, Scott David Mcdonald

Theses and Dissertations

This paper tests Reiss' (1991) expectancy theory of fearfulness. Reiss' moderation model of fears speculates that individual differences in fearfulness and phobic avoidance is a function of the interaction between trait vulnerabilities (i.e., sensitivities) and beliefs about potential outcomes during exposure to phobic stimuli (i.e., expectancies). Four hundred and forty-five undergraduates completed questionnaires related to Reiss' fundamental sensitivities (e.g., "anxiety sensitivity"), expectancies (e.g., "expectancy of physical injury or harm") and the intensity of common fears. Informed by findings concerning fear-related outcome expectancies, a system for measuring expectancies was developed for this study called the Focus of ...


Gender And Forgiveness In Early Married Couples, Andrea J. Lerner Jan 2006

Gender And Forgiveness In Early Married Couples, Andrea J. Lerner

Theses and Dissertations

Ninety-five studies that addressed the possibility of gender differences in forgiveness literature are reviewed. Gender differences were examined with respect to predictor variables and outcome variables. Participants were 314 couples from the community who had been married less than one year. Participants filled out questionnaires. Males were more forgiving and were more committed to the marriage. However, females were more successful at granting forgiveness. In addition, females were more religious and reported more symptoms of depression, anxiety, and hostility. Four structural equation models were tested in order to test for gender differences. Structural models including the latent variables of martial ...


Children's Coping With Peer Rejection Experiences: The Regulating Role Of Emotion, Kimberly L. Goodman Jan 2006

Children's Coping With Peer Rejection Experiences: The Regulating Role Of Emotion, Kimberly L. Goodman

Theses and Dissertations

The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the role of emotions as predictors of children's coping responses to peer rejection experiences. This study also explored how children's emotional experience and coping behaviors were related to gender, peer socialization (i.e., receiving prosocial acts by peers and previous victimization experiences), and indices of psychopathology. Children ages 7-12 (N=53) completed questionnaires to assess emotional and coping responses to hypothetical peer rejection scenarios, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and peer experiences. Overall, findings suggested that emotion-related factors (emotion states and more stable "emotional tendencies" such as psychological symptoms ...


Implicit Theories Of Weight Management: A Social Cognitive Approach To Motivation, Jeni L. Burnette Jan 2006

Implicit Theories Of Weight Management: A Social Cognitive Approach To Motivation, Jeni L. Burnette

Theses and Dissertations

Just as scientists develop general conceptual explanations of the phenomena they investigate, individuals also develop intuitive theories about such human characteristics as intelligence, personality, and athletic ability. These theories, unlike scientist's theories, are not explicitly articulated or documented, and so they are termed implicit theories. Implicit theories, in achievement motivation, distinguish between the belief that human attributes are fixed (entity theory) or malleable (incremental theory) and have been shown to have far-reaching consequences for motivation, goal-orientations, and regulatory strategies in an array of domains. This dissertation extended implicit theories research to the domain of body-weight management. Drawing from an ...


Relationships Between Dimensions Of Religiosity And Internalizing And Externalizing Psychiatric Disorders: A Twin Study, Gilbert Todd Vance Jan 2006

Relationships Between Dimensions Of Religiosity And Internalizing And Externalizing Psychiatric Disorders: A Twin Study, Gilbert Todd Vance

Theses and Dissertations

The present study estimated the genetic and environmental effects on different dimensions of religiosity, explored how genetic and environmental effects covary across different dimensions of religiosity, and decomposed the covariance of genetic and environmental effects between different dimensions of religiosity and internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders. Dimensions of religiosity were found to be largely influenced by additive genetic and unique environmental effects, with little influence observed from common enviromental effects. Multidimensional analyses found that the seven religiosity factors observed in the present study were influenced by one common additive genetic factor, three common unique environmental factors, and unique environmental effects ...


An Examination Of Career Decision-Making In The Context Of Female Offenders, Allison L. Stone Jan 2006

An Examination Of Career Decision-Making In The Context Of Female Offenders, Allison L. Stone

Theses and Dissertations

Female offenders often have had increased financial difficulties post-release because of lower levels of educational achievement and less job experience. Career programming may prove useful to female offenders by providing guidance with career decisions and strengthening career decision-making skills. The aims of this study were to investigate career decision-making skills and self-efficacy in the context of vocational programming for a group of female offenders. A pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design was used to examine scale scores for a group who participated in programming and a control group at the same correctional facility. A series oft tests revealed no significant differences between the ...


The Relationship Between Eating Disordered Behavior And Smoking In Black And White College Females, Sarah Elizabeth Trace Jan 2006

The Relationship Between Eating Disordered Behavior And Smoking In Black And White College Females, Sarah Elizabeth Trace

Theses and Dissertations

Both eating disorders and smoking are significant problems for Black and White college women. Additionally, these two negative health behaviors frequently co-occur. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between these health behaviors using a multivariate model. Two models, one for full and one for partial mediation, were tested using Structural Equation Modeling. The Model for full mediation tested whether the relationship among general distress and smoking are fully mediated by body dissatisfaction, restraint, and binge eating. The model for partial mediation hypothesized that the relationships among general distress, and smoking are mediated by body dissatisfaction, restraint, and binge eating ...


The Influence Of Physical Activity And Television On The Intention And Self-Efficacy To Engage In Health-Enhancing Behaviors, Ian Joseph Wallace Jan 2006

The Influence Of Physical Activity And Television On The Intention And Self-Efficacy To Engage In Health-Enhancing Behaviors, Ian Joseph Wallace

Theses and Dissertations

Cancer and heart disease account for the largest proportion of morbidity and mortality among all adult diseases in the United States. Research has focused on identifying causal risk factors among adolescents. However, theories of health behavior change also stress the intermediary factors of intention and efficacy for effective behavior change. Existing research supports the potential of physical activity (PA), particularly learned through the domains of exercise and sport, as a means to developing these necessary skills (Danish, Petitpas, & Hale, 1993). The current investigation examined the influence of PA and television watching (TV) on intentions and efficacy to engage in health-enhancing ...


Panic Disorder, Trait Anxiety, And Risk Drinking In Pregnant And Non-Pregnant Women, Sarah Meshberg-Cohen Jan 2006

Panic Disorder, Trait Anxiety, And Risk Drinking In Pregnant And Non-Pregnant Women, Sarah Meshberg-Cohen

Theses and Dissertations

Anxiety disorders, including Panic Disorder, and alcohol problems co-occur at greater rates than chance in the general population. It has also been suggested that alcohol is used to cope with anxiety symptoms, such as trait anxiety. While pregnancy may be a protective period against Panic Disorder and panic symptoms, trait anxiety remains relatively stable during pregnancy. The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in rates of current Panic Disorder, panic attacks, and trait anxiety in pregnant and non-pregnant women receiving care at an urban OB/GYN clinic. The study also examined correlates and differences in alcohol use ...


The Long-Term Effects Of Direct Verbal Victimization And Family Support On Anxious And Aggressive Behaviors In Urban Adolescents: Do Mean Words Have A Lasting Impact?, Amie Bettencourt Jan 2006

The Long-Term Effects Of Direct Verbal Victimization And Family Support On Anxious And Aggressive Behaviors In Urban Adolescents: Do Mean Words Have A Lasting Impact?, Amie Bettencourt

Theses and Dissertations

Stressful life events that occur within the context of interpersonal relationships are problematic for adolescents. Peer victimization, a stressful interpersonal event, involves acts of both physical and verbal harassment, and can contribute to psychosocial maladjustment among youth. Direct verbal victimization is a specific form of peer victimization involving name-calling and teasing that is particularly prevalent among adolescents, but has rarely been studied separately from other types of victimization.This form of victimization is associated with adjustment problems, including anxiety and aggression among adolescents. Despite the significant association between direct verbal victimization and negative adolescent adjustment outcomes, not all youth who ...


Understanding How African-American Middle School Students Cope With Peer Victimization: A Mixed-Methods Approach, Suzanne C. Linkroum Jan 2006

Understanding How African-American Middle School Students Cope With Peer Victimization: A Mixed-Methods Approach, Suzanne C. Linkroum

Theses and Dissertations

A mixed-methods approach was used to determine how African-American middle school students cope with peer victimization and to identify factors that inhibit and promote the use of prosocial coping strategies. In a previous study, participants had been categorized into four social clusters: well-adjusted, rejected, passively-victimized, or aggressively-victimized based on a cluster analysis of self-reported psychosocial variables. Interviews with a sub sample of 80 students focusing on identifying both how students thought they would respond and how they thought they should respond to hypothetical situations involving peer victimization were analyzed. Interviews also elicited factors that would support or impede the use ...