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2006

Psychology

University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

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Front Matter Sep 2006

Front Matter

Modern Psychological Studies

No abstract provided.


Gender Differences In Memory Recall, April Baer, Nevelyn N. Trumpeter, Bart L. Weathington Sep 2006

Gender Differences In Memory Recall, April Baer, Nevelyn N. Trumpeter, Bart L. Weathington

Modern Psychological Studies

Past research suggests that males and females differ in memory associated with genderstereotyped objects. Specific findings, however, have been inconclusive with regards to the specifics of these differences. The purpose of this study was to extend this literature by evaluating gender differences in memory recall when participants are presented with stereotypically masculine items, stereotypically feminine items, and neutral items. Results found that females recalled more items overall and performed better on recalling gender neutral and female stereotyped items. No differences were found between males and females in recalling male stereotyped items. Additionally, no difference was found between males and females ...


The Importance Of Handedness For Females: Solving Visual-Spatial Problems, Elise M. Pforr Sep 2006

The Importance Of Handedness For Females: Solving Visual-Spatial Problems, Elise M. Pforr

Modern Psychological Studies

It is well established that men tend to perform better than women in tests of spatial ability. The magnitude of these gender differences is usually relatively modest; however tasks involving 'mental rotation' generate more substantial effects. Mental rotation tests consistently yield the largest effect sizes, of any cognitive or spatial test specifically, for sex differences in performance. Many studies investigating factors such as sociocultural, biological, ratio scoring and instructional manipulation have been conducted in an attempt to account for this difference. However, very few studies have investigated the role of handedness in visual-spatial tasks, especially, in relation to impossible (mirror ...


Deliberate Self-Harm In Clinical And Non-Clinical Populations, Jeffrey T. Counterman Sep 2006

Deliberate Self-Harm In Clinical And Non-Clinical Populations, Jeffrey T. Counterman

Modern Psychological Studies

Approximately 4% of the general population and 14% of college students have engaged or currently engage in deliberate self-harm. The purpose of the Literature Review is to assess similarities and differences of demographic information, gender, age, frequency, prevalence rates, methods, and reasons of self-harm in both clinical and non-clinical samples. Definitions and alternate names of self-harm were presented, common misconceptions regarding gender were discussed, and frequency and prevalence rates in clinical and non-clinical samples were compared.


Effectiveness Of Treatment Interventions For Adults Suffering From Anger Disorders: A Literature Review, Amy Levitt, Mark J. Sciutto Sep 2006

Effectiveness Of Treatment Interventions For Adults Suffering From Anger Disorders: A Literature Review, Amy Levitt, Mark J. Sciutto

Modern Psychological Studies

No abstract provided.


Computer-Mediated Communication And Group Cohesion, Kirsten M. Barbosa Sep 2006

Computer-Mediated Communication And Group Cohesion, Kirsten M. Barbosa

Modern Psychological Studies

Utilizing the recent gains in technology, many work teams now communicate through computer-mediated communication (e.g., instant-messaging). As the research in this area continues to grow, one variable that has not been considered is group cohesion in "virtual" environments. To address this issue, four-member groups (N=144) completed tasks by communicating through an instant-messaging system or by meeting face-to-face. The study allowed for assessment of cohesiveness as well as group performance on a judgment task. Contrary to hypotheses, differences in group cohesion were not identified between the communication conditions. However, groups communicating through instant messaging took longer to complete the ...


Just Delivering The News Or Something More? How The Mass Media Influence Public Opinion And Public Perception, Tamara D. Marashlian Sep 2006

Just Delivering The News Or Something More? How The Mass Media Influence Public Opinion And Public Perception, Tamara D. Marashlian

Modern Psychological Studies

The media, which include radio, television and newspapers, have become a crucial part of society as it provides the public with a variety of information on a daily basis. As a result, the media can potentially influence public opinion and public perception. This review examines the current research on how the media are influential and, in the process, the degree to which the media are responsible for creating public opinion. Also explained is the third-person effect, defined as the belief that a person considers himself to be less influenced by the media than others. Furthermore, the review focuses on the ...


Marriage Length, Spousal Support, And Marital Satisfaction In Dual-Income Men And Women, Shaday A. Gallimore, Jennifer L. Hughes, Holly A. Geldhauser Sep 2006

Marriage Length, Spousal Support, And Marital Satisfaction In Dual-Income Men And Women, Shaday A. Gallimore, Jennifer L. Hughes, Holly A. Geldhauser

Modern Psychological Studies

The introduction of women into the workforce has led to a steady increase in the number of dual-income couples in the United States. Since dual-income married couples now comprise the majority of couples, they are especially important to study. Approximately half of marriages end in divorce, so an increased knowledge of what makes marriages work is essential. Previous studies indicate that as spousal support increases so does marital satisfaction. This study seeks to confirm the above mentioned relationship for dual-income married couples by studying 143 dual-income couples from varying demographic backgrounds. Also, we will investigate whether couples married for a ...


Front Matter Jan 2006

Front Matter

Modern Psychological Studies

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Transcendental Medication On Blood Pressure, Joanna C. Bovee Jan 2006

Effects Of Transcendental Medication On Blood Pressure, Joanna C. Bovee

Modern Psychological Studies

Many prevention and treatments methods exist for hypertension, but not all are effective or easy to incorporate into one's life. Stress-reduction methods, including Transcendental Meditation (TM), has been suggested as such a method, but have received inconsistent reviews about its effect on blood pressure. This literature review of twelve clinical studies concludes patients who practice TM can significantly reduce blood pressure. The technique was found to be effective for groups at high risk for hypertension, such as African-Americans, as well as low-risk groups. TM also appears to be more effective than progressive muscle relaxation, another popular stress-management technique. TM ...


The Relationship Between Self-Efficacy And Health Promoting Behaviors, Illness Severity, Mental Health, And Perceived Quality Of Life In Multiple Sclerosis Patients, Anna Finn Jan 2006

The Relationship Between Self-Efficacy And Health Promoting Behaviors, Illness Severity, Mental Health, And Perceived Quality Of Life In Multiple Sclerosis Patients, Anna Finn

Modern Psychological Studies

Multiple sclerosis is an incurable, debilitating, nervous system disease, which causes are largely unknown, and which affects hundreds of thousands of people across the United States. Early research suggests the impact that psychological factors can have on a patient's physical and mental health status. Self-efficacy, the belief in one's ability to cope with a situation, has been found to offer beneficial and protective effects in patients suffering from conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, sickle cell disease, and fibromylagia. This comprehensive literature review sought to look at psychological research that has considered the relationship between self-efficacy and health promoting ...


An Investigation Into The Effects Of Social Network Strength And Stress Level On Cardiovascular Responses In Colleges Students, Amy R. Levitt Jan 2006

An Investigation Into The Effects Of Social Network Strength And Stress Level On Cardiovascular Responses In Colleges Students, Amy R. Levitt

Modern Psychological Studies

The present study investigated the effects of strength of social network on physiological stress during a cognitive task. Participants were randomly assigned to a timed or untimed word search task. The dependent variables were heart rate and participants' perceptions of the difficulty of their word search task. Participants in the high stress condition reported performing significantly worse on the word search task than those in the low stress condition. Participants perceived the task to be less difficult when in the high social network group as compared to the low social network group. While there were no significant findings for the ...


Age-Related Expectations Of Child Witness Credibility, Meredith Allison, R. C. L. Lindsay Jan 2006

Age-Related Expectations Of Child Witness Credibility, Meredith Allison, R. C. L. Lindsay

Modern Psychological Studies

Age-related expectations of credibility were examined in a child witness study. The within-subjects factors were witness age (4, 8, 12, 16, 20 years) and type of credibility rating (honesty vs. cognitive ability). The between subjects factors were type of assault (physical vs. sexual), role of witness (victim vs. bystander), and participant gender. Men (n = 31) and women (n = 61) from a first-year psychology course read vignettes describing a crime (adapted from Nightingale, 1993) and rated the witness' cognitive ability and honesty at each age (adapted from Ross, Lindsay, & Marsil, 1996). The results indicated that the witness was perceived to be ...