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Retrieval-Induced Facilitation: Initially Nontested Material Can Benefit From Prior Testing Of Related Materia, Jason C.K. Chan, Kathleen B. Mcdermott, Henry L. Roediger Iii Nov 2006

Retrieval-Induced Facilitation: Initially Nontested Material Can Benefit From Prior Testing Of Related Materia, Jason C.K. Chan, Kathleen B. Mcdermott, Henry L. Roediger Iii

Jason C.K. Chan

Classroom exams can assess students' knowledge of only a subset of the material taught in a course. What are the implications of this approach for long-term retention? Three experiments (N = 210) examined how taking an initial test affects later memory for prose materials not initially tested. Experiment 1 shows that testing enhanced recall 24 hr later for the initially nontested material. This facilitation was not seen for participants given additional study opportunities without initial testing. Experiment 2 extends this facilitative effect to a within-subjects design. Experiment 3 demonstrates that this facilitation can be modulated by conscious strategies. These results have ...


The Effects Of Aging On Controlled Attention And Conflict Processing In The Stroop Task, Robert West Mar 2006

The Effects Of Aging On Controlled Attention And Conflict Processing In The Stroop Task, Robert West

Robert West

Recent computational modeling and behavioral work indicate that age-related declines in the ability to represent task context may contribute to disruptions of working memory and selective attention in older adults. However, it is unclear whether age-related declines in context processing arise from a disruption of the encoding or maintenance of task context and how age-related declines in context processing interact with mechanisms supporting conflict detection and resolution processes contributing to efficient selection of task-relevant information. This study examines the effects of aging on the neural correlates of context and conflict processing in the Stroop task using event-related brain potentials (ERPs ...


The Role Of Proximal And Distal Influences On Relationship Termination Adjustment In College Students , Robert Bruce Hensley Jan 2006

The Role Of Proximal And Distal Influences On Relationship Termination Adjustment In College Students , Robert Bruce Hensley

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of the present study was to investigate gender and age differences in dealing with a romantic relationship breakup, as well as to investigate the role that distal (childhood events and childhood attachment) and proximal (personality, perceived stress, coping, and adult attachment) influence one's adjustment to an ended romantic relationship. Participants for this study included 252 (160 women and 92 men) college students, with age ranges from 18 to 39. Two (Age) X Two (Gender) analyses of covariance were computed to assess mean differences for all variables. Women reported higher Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Agreeableness scores than men, whereas ...


Stability And Changes In Problem Behavior During Adolescence: Multilevel Predictors And Moderators , Dan Okello Nyaronga Jan 2006

Stability And Changes In Problem Behavior During Adolescence: Multilevel Predictors And Moderators , Dan Okello Nyaronga

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This study predicted that community ethnic heterogeneity (controlling for community poverty), family adversity (i.e., family economic hardship and non-intact two-parent family/single parenthood), family social resources (i.e., parent-adolescent relationship, parental control, parental warmth, parental knowledge), and individual traits (i.e., racial minority status and gender) would influence adolescent problem behavior trajectories both additively and multiplicatively. In addition, the study predicted that there would be racial/ethnic and gender differences in problem behavior over time. An effective analysis of community influence on individual outcomes requires a multilevel analysis that includes community-level, family-level, and individual-level variables. This multilevel analysis used ...


Eyewitness Identification: Systemic Reforms, Gary L. Wells Jan 2006

Eyewitness Identification: Systemic Reforms, Gary L. Wells

Psychology Publications

The vagaries of eyewitness identification are well known; the annals of criminal law are rife with instances of mistaken identification.


Using An Implicit Association Test To Examine The Effects Of Violent Video Games On The Values We Place On Others , Ryan Luke Tapscott Jan 2006

Using An Implicit Association Test To Examine The Effects Of Violent Video Games On The Values We Place On Others , Ryan Luke Tapscott

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The effect of exposure to violent video games on automatic devaluations of others was investigated in a sample of 337 undergraduate students. Contrary to our prediction, participants who played a violent video game did not automatically associate others with devaluation on an Implicit Association Test more than did participants who played a nonviolent game. Additionally, playing a violent game did not lead participants to automatically associate themselves more with worth than participants who played a non-violent game. However, males automatically associated themselves with worth more after playing a violent game, while females automatically associated themselves more with worth after playing ...


D' Is Not Appropriate For Contrasting Yes-No And Forced-Choice Recognition , Moses Michael Langley Jan 2006

D' Is Not Appropriate For Contrasting Yes-No And Forced-Choice Recognition , Moses Michael Langley

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The equal-variance signal detection (EVSD) model predicts superiority of two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) detection over yes-no (YN) detection by a factor of √2. To make balanced comparisons between detection in these tasks, the equation for calculating 2AFC detection involves a division by √2. While the detection literature confirms this prediction (Wickelgren, 1968), the prediction sometimes fails when the model is extended to discrimination tasks (Creelman & Macmillan, 1979). Nevertheless, this model has been widely used in recent years to contrast discrimination in YN and 2AFC tasks. Three experiments tested the √2 prediction under conditions that previous research suggests are theoretically ideal for the use of EVSD in discrimination measurement; the √2 prediction failed across all three experiments. The present results challenge previous assertions that the EVSD model may be appropriate for discrimination under the present circumstances. The implications of these findings for the study of ...


A Comprehensive Investigation Of Change In Self-Reported Resources Of Older Adults, G. Kevin Randall Jan 2006

A Comprehensive Investigation Of Change In Self-Reported Resources Of Older Adults, G. Kevin Randall

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this study was on the mechanisms or resources that older individuals draw upon to adapt to the normative decrepitude of advanced age. To date, no studies have been found that systematically investigate the structural inter-relationships of the self-reported resources (i.e., social, economic, mental, physical, and functional) assessed by the Duke Older American Resources and Services (OARS) instrument among older adults. In particular, because the centenarian group typically struggles with increased hearing, vision, and functional health losses, social resources are especially salient for positive adaptation to these age-related losses. Because social resources has been specified as an ...


Patterns Of Absolute, Differential And Structural Continuity In Perceptions Of Nurturance In Mother-Daughter, Mother-Son, Father-Daughter And Father-Son Dyads , Phyllis G. Harris Jan 2006

Patterns Of Absolute, Differential And Structural Continuity In Perceptions Of Nurturance In Mother-Daughter, Mother-Son, Father-Daughter And Father-Son Dyads , Phyllis G. Harris

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Parents' and their adolescent children's perceptions have found to have both similar and different perceptions of their parent-adolescent relationship (Carlson, Cooper, & Spradling, 1991; Comstock, 1994) with changes in perceptions of nurturing and/or warmth becoming more apparent during the adolescent transitional phase and as a function of parent - adolescent gender differences (Clark-Lempers, Lempers, & Ho, 1991);Three waves of data were collected from Iowa parents with adolescent children in the sixth (11-to 13-years) or eighth grade (12-to 14-years) at the first wave of measurement responded at each wave of measurement to 21 parenting questionnaire items taken from Roberts, Block and Block (1984) Child Rearing ...


Exploring The Role Of Visual Selective Attention In Synesthesia , Amy L. Ramos Jan 2006

Exploring The Role Of Visual Selective Attention In Synesthesia , Amy L. Ramos

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Individuals with grapheme-color synesthesia perceive colors, called concurrents, when processing alphanumeric stimuli. Concurrents may arise from cross activation between cortical language and color processing areas. Two experiments used an attentional blink (AB) paradigm to test whether production of concurrents is an automatic or attention-demanding process. Two experiments used a visual-short-term-memory paradigm to test whether working memory (WM) representations of concurrents are capacity demanding. When target color was incongruent with concurrent color but color did not define targets, a synesthete (S1) showed delayed AB recovery compared to controls. When color defined targets and target color was congruent with concurrent color, the ...


Is It Competitiveness Or Violent Content?: The Effects Of Violent Sports Video Games On Aggression , Nicholas Lee Carnagey Jan 2006

Is It Competitiveness Or Violent Content?: The Effects Of Violent Sports Video Games On Aggression , Nicholas Lee Carnagey

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Past experimental research has shown that violent video game exposure can increase aggression-related variables compared to nonviolent video game exposure. Currently, there are two competing hypotheses to interpret these findings. The violent-content hypothesis states that violent video games increases aggression because the violent content increases the accessibility of aggression-related knowledge structures. The competition-only hypothesis states that violent video games typically have a high level of competition compared to nonviolent video games. According to this hypothesis, the heightened level of competition increases aggression. One way to test these hypotheses is to expose participants to violent and nonviolent video games matched on ...


A Test Of The Coordinate Relations Hypothesis: Is Prosopagnosia A Consequence Of Damage To The Coordinate Recognition System? , Glenn Eric Casner Jan 2006

A Test Of The Coordinate Relations Hypothesis: Is Prosopagnosia A Consequence Of Damage To The Coordinate Recognition System? , Glenn Eric Casner

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The coordinate relations hypothesis theorizes that the recognition system that mediates most basic-level object recognition is a structural description that represents shape using categorical relations whereas the recognition system that mediates face recognition represents shape via a coordinate relations representation. According to the coordinate relations hypothesis, the factor determining which visual recognition system mediates a given recognition task is the computational demands of the task. According to the coordinate relations hypothesis, if the visual recognition task requires distinctions to be made among stimuli that share the same structural description, then the task will be performed by the face recognition system ...


Using Counterfactuals To Assess Eyewitnesses' Abilities To Estimate The Effects Of External Influences On Their Lineup Identifications , Steve Douglas Charman Jan 2006

Using Counterfactuals To Assess Eyewitnesses' Abilities To Estimate The Effects Of External Influences On Their Lineup Identifications , Steve Douglas Charman

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Eyewitnesses are often asked in real-world cases whether their responses to a lineup were affected by various external influences, but their ability to answer these types of questions accurately is unknown. Two experiments used a new paradigm to examine eyewitnesses' abilities to estimate the influence of lineup manipulations. Eyewitnesses were administered either confirming post-identification feedback or no post-identification feedback (Experiment 1, n = 103), or a cautionary pre-lineup instruction or no cautionary pre-lineup instruction (Experiment 2, n = 114). Eyewitnesses then gave actual responses (retrospective confidence, view, and attention measures in Experiment 1; identification decision in Experiment 2) as well as counterfactual ...


Algorithms And Procedures To Analyze Physiological Signals In Psychophysiological Research, Joset Amy Etzel Jan 2006

Algorithms And Procedures To Analyze Physiological Signals In Psychophysiological Research, Joset Amy Etzel

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation presents analytical techniques which allow more information to be derived from psychophysiological data than possible with traditional methods. The techniques include an implemented algorithm for chest strain-gauge respiration signal analysis and a permutation testing method for evaluating changes over time in physiological signals. These methods are applied to three data sets, each examining physiological correlates of emotional experience. In the first study physiological correlates of moods induced using music were identified, although respiration entrainment confounds the issue of whether mood or the music caused the observed patterns. The second study examined physiological responses while subjects watched an emotion-inducing ...


A Social Ecological Analysis Of Physical Activity Promotion For Overweight And Normal Weight Youth , Roxane Renee Joens-Matre Jan 2006

A Social Ecological Analysis Of Physical Activity Promotion For Overweight And Normal Weight Youth , Roxane Renee Joens-Matre

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Introduction. The psychosocial correlates of youth physical activity have not been well scrutinized in the context of the relatively new phenomenon of an increased prevalence of overweight among youth. The purpose of the examination of unique subpopulations (rural vs. urban; overweight vs. normal overweight) within a psychosocial and social ecological framework, was to enhance the theoretical basis for designing improved physical activity interventions for youth. Methods. Data were from a large cohort of Iowa youth, ages 9--11 and 14--18 years (N = 2,862). Physical fitness, body composition, height and weight were assessed. Students completed a physical activity questionnaire, the Childrens ...


Experiences Of Children With Or Without Disabilities In Early Childhood Programs , Carolyn Luann Clawson Jan 2006

Experiences Of Children With Or Without Disabilities In Early Childhood Programs , Carolyn Luann Clawson

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation was to explore multiple methods of assessing early childhood programs and to investigate children's individual experiences and activities in inclusive early child care and education settings. Specifically, this research investigated if individual play/learning experiences in early childhood programs differed for children with and without disabilities and the relationship between global quality of early childhood care and education programs and individual play/learning experiences of individual children with or without disabilities;Early care and education quality is a complex phenomenon influenced by variables that exist on a number of levels including overall program quality ...


Remediating The Professional Classroom: The New Rhetoric Of Teaching And Learning , David Dean Fisher Jan 2006

Remediating The Professional Classroom: The New Rhetoric Of Teaching And Learning , David Dean Fisher

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The incarnation of many Internet-based courses is informed by traditional notions of classroom instruction, in which course/content management systems (CMSs) like WebCT and Blackboard are used to reproduce actions undertaken in brick-and-mortar classrooms. In this dissertation I argue that the way in which the CMS is configured and deployed can provide students with the sense that they are immersed in a social activity other than taking a college course. Elaborating on simulation-building methodologies, I show how we have created a CMS called MyCase that helps classroom instructors evoke and immerse students in discourse-demanding situations within several disciplines. This sense ...


Semantic Priming And Health Risk: A Dual-Process Approach , Rachel Ann Reimer Jan 2006

Semantic Priming And Health Risk: A Dual-Process Approach , Rachel Ann Reimer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Dual process theories propose that people possess two information processing systems (rational vs. experiential). The present study used two semantic priming techniques to influence health risk decisions via the two processing systems. Baseline measures of sexual attitudes (erotophobia), and willingness and intentions to engage in risky sexual, alcohol, and drug use behaviors were collected from 183 college males. Participants were then subliminally or supraliminally primed with the concept of sex while performing a lexical decision task. Changes in willingness and intentions were examined. Results yielded no clear pattern of priming effects on health risk decisions, although there was evidence that ...


Caregiver Relations Among African American Children: A Before And After Picture Of Changes In Caregiver , Danielle Jacqueline Hill Jan 2006

Caregiver Relations Among African American Children: A Before And After Picture Of Changes In Caregiver , Danielle Jacqueline Hill

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In the event of family breakdown, removing the child from the home is one of the most common forms of state intervention, and is one of the primary interventions provided when a parent experiences severe problems related to caring for their children. This investigation examined predictors and consequences of the transition from one primary caregiver to another among African American youth. The sample consisted of African American children being raised by various members of their families including biological parents, relatives, and non-relatives. Respondents were participants in a large-scale study of African American children and their families, the Family and Community ...


Self-Silencing As A Mediator And Moderator Of Adult Attachment And Disordered Eating Attitudes , Shannon Kellim Young Jan 2006

Self-Silencing As A Mediator And Moderator Of Adult Attachment And Disordered Eating Attitudes , Shannon Kellim Young

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The present study examined the mediating and moderating roles of self-silencing between adult attachment (anxiety and avoidance) and disordered eating attitudes. Participants were 221 female college students from a large Midwestern university. Survey data was analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression and the bootstrap procedure for testing the significance of indirect effects. For the mediation, the results indicated that self-silencing fully mediated the relation between attachment avoidance and disordered eating attitudes. Moreover, self-silencing partially mediated the relation between attachment anxiety and disordered eating attitudes. Specifically, the results showed significant positive relations between adult attachment (anxiety and avoidance) and self-silencing as well ...


The Roles Of Awareness And Encoding Effectiveness In Repetition Blindness , Mary Lynn Still Jan 2006

The Roles Of Awareness And Encoding Effectiveness In Repetition Blindness , Mary Lynn Still

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Three experiments examined the necessity of awareness in producing the repetition blindness (RB) effect. This was done by using a novel procedure in which three orthographically similar items appeared in the RSVP stream (e.g., mine, mile, file). On these trials participants would often be unaware of the second similar item, so report of the third similar item served as an index of how often RB occurs when participants are unaware of the second similar item. Results give no indication that RB can occur without awareness of the preceding similar item. Additional comparisons revealed that RB late in the RSVP ...


A Bioecological Analysis Of Risk And Protective Factors Associated With Early Sexual Intercourse Of Young Adolescents , Tina Renae Jordahl Jan 2006

A Bioecological Analysis Of Risk And Protective Factors Associated With Early Sexual Intercourse Of Young Adolescents , Tina Renae Jordahl

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Risk and protective factors of the family and individual microsystems associated with early sexual intercourse among a sample of low-income adolescents were assessed using bioecological theory in combination with a risk and resiliency framework. The risk factors examined were adolescent race, gender, family structure, low maternal education, family welfare receipt, income, and delinquent behaviors. Protective factors explored included family routines, parental monitoring, parent-child relationships, father involvement, academic achievement and academic aspirations. Waves 1 and 2 of the Welfare, Children and Families: A Three-City Study were used (N=984, ages 10 to 14 years). Relationships between early sexual activity and sexual ...


The Relationship Among Salesperson Appearance, Employee-Organization Identification, Job Involvement, And Job Performance In The Context Of An Apparel Retail Store , Jennifer Lee Yurchisin Jan 2006

The Relationship Among Salesperson Appearance, Employee-Organization Identification, Job Involvement, And Job Performance In The Context Of An Apparel Retail Store , Jennifer Lee Yurchisin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to explore employee-organization identification in the apparel retail store setting. This study was guided by the following questions: (1) What is the nature of employee-organization identification in apparel retail stores? (2) In what ways, if any, is salesperson appearance related to employee-organization identification in an apparel retail store setting? (3) To what extent are employees' perceptions of store image, person-organization fit, and attractiveness of the organization directly and indirectly related to level of employee-organization identification among salespeople in an apparel retail store? (4) To what extent is level of employee-organization identification related to level ...


Career Appraisal, Lisa M. Larson Jan 2006

Career Appraisal, Lisa M. Larson

Psychology Publications

The increasing specialization of today's more diverse and technologically advanced labor market challenges employees and job seekers alike to continually evaluate their career choices and engage in career appraisal. The development of a comprehensive career plan is essential in understanding one's interests, attributes, abilities, and values necessary to fit into this everchanging vocational environment. Moreover, adults find themselves reconsidering previous career choices as they develop new interests or as the job market shifts. Of all these domains, vocational interests serve as the cornerstone of any career plan. John Holland's theory provides an avenue for classifying vocational interests ...