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2006

Plant Sciences

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Lake Mead National Recreation Area Vegetation Monitoring And Management: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending December 31, 2006, Margaret N. Rees Dec 2006

Lake Mead National Recreation Area Vegetation Monitoring And Management: Quarterly Progress Report, Period Ending December 31, 2006, Margaret N. Rees

Vegetation Monitoring

Executive Summary

  • Two new Weed Sentry research assistants were hired.
  • Weed Sentry staff surveyed for exotic species on 89 miles of roads on NPS and BLM land and treated more than 21,000 exotic plants in incipient populations.
  • A grid-based rare plant monitoring method was tested this quarter.
  • A manuscript detailing vegetation succession on a water pipeline at Lake Mead NRA was submitted for review to the journal Crossosoma.
  • New integrative projects undertaken this quarter included establishing a competition study between a native grass and the exotic Sahara mustard, salvaging plants for research purposes from private sites with permission from ...


Switchgrass For Biomass Feedstock In The Usa, Matt Sanderson, Paul Adler, Akwasi Boateng, Michael Casler, Gautam Sarath Dec 2006

Switchgrass For Biomass Feedstock In The Usa, Matt Sanderson, Paul Adler, Akwasi Boateng, Michael Casler, Gautam Sarath

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Switchgrass has received much study for biomass feedstock production and conversion through research funded by the US-DOE and USDA during the past two decades. We have an improved understanding of the adaptation of existing cultivars and new cultivars with yield and adaptation improvements are now appearing. We also have a good understanding of the agronomics of switchgrass production, mainly from its use as a forage crop. There remain several constraints to switchgrass use in bioenergy cropping systems, including reliable establishment methods to obtain productive stands in the first year, targeted fertilization and nutrient management techniques to efficiently use nitrogen fertilizer ...


Recombinant Watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus) Hydroperoxide Lyase And Uses Thereof, David Hildebrand, Hirotada Fukushige Dec 2006

Recombinant Watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus) Hydroperoxide Lyase And Uses Thereof, David Hildebrand, Hirotada Fukushige

Plant and Soil Sciences Faculty Patents

Recombinant watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) hydroperoxide lyase protein, DNA sequences encoding the protein, vectors containing the DNA sequences and hosts containing the vectors are provided, together with methods for recombinantly producing watermelon hydroperoxide lyase, DNA sequences, vectors and hosts.


Untemplated Oligoadenylation Promotes Degradation Of Risc-Cleaved Transcripts, Fadia Ibrahim, Jennifer Rohr, Won-Joong Jeong, Jennifer Hesson, Heriberto D. Cerutti Dec 2006

Untemplated Oligoadenylation Promotes Degradation Of Risc-Cleaved Transcripts, Fadia Ibrahim, Jennifer Rohr, Won-Joong Jeong, Jennifer Hesson, Heriberto D. Cerutti

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

In the best-characterized mechanism of RNAmediated silencing, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), guide the endonucleolytic cleavage of complementary RNAs (1). In Drosophila melanogaster, these RISC-generated products are eventually degraded by exoribonucleases: Xrn1, a 5′-to-3′ exonuclease, and exosome, a 3′-to-5′ multisubunit exonuclease (2). Interestingly, in Arabidopsis thaliana and in mammals, an oligouridine or oligoadenine [oligo(U/A)] tail is added to the 5′ RNA fragments resulting from microRNA-directed cleavage (3). However, the biological role of this tail remains unclear.


New Extension Corn Production Web Site, Lori Abendroth, Roger W. Elmore Dec 2006

New Extension Corn Production Web Site, Lori Abendroth, Roger W. Elmore

Integrated Crop Management News

We've designed a new Web site for Iowa State University Extension corn production that has current and relevant management information for producing corn in Iowa. The Web site provides research-based recommendations and diagnostic tools for producers and agribusinesses. The largest section of the Web site is devoted to "Corn Management," which is broken into categories based on whether the topic addresses overarching production issues, such as cropping systems and rotations, or if the topic can be isolated to a certain time of the growing season (planting, early-season, mid-/late-season, harvest). For example, in the "Planting" category, users can find ...


A Response To Phenomenon In 2006: Multiple Ears Per Node, Roger W. Elmore, Lori Abendroth Dec 2006

A Response To Phenomenon In 2006: Multiple Ears Per Node, Roger W. Elmore, Lori Abendroth

Integrated Crop Management News

Corn hybrids from several companies expressed more than one ear at a single node from Iowa to Indiana in 2006. Multiple ears are not unexpected, but they typically occur at different nodes (as with prolific hybrids), not on the same node. This trait was expressed in different ways in Iowa. In the most extreme cases, up to eight ears occurred at a single node. Some have called these "bouquets." Ears on these plants were usually barren. In one case, a field with bouquet ears yielded 50 bu/acre.


How To Interpret Scn Soil Test Results, Gregory L. Tylka Dec 2006

How To Interpret Scn Soil Test Results, Gregory L. Tylka

Integrated Crop Management News

Soybean yield loss due to the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) occurred throughout much of Iowa in 2006. Damage from this pest was particularly noticeable in areas of the state that were very dry. There seems to be increased interest in testing for and managing SCN in Iowa this fall, and there likely has been more fields sampled for SCN this fall than in recent years. Following are some commonly asked questions and answers that illustrate things to consider when interpreting SCN soil sample results. This information is excerpted from Iowa State University Extension publication IPM 61, Interpreting SCN Soil Sample ...


Crop Performance Test Bulletins Now Available, Keven Arrowsmith Dec 2006

Crop Performance Test Bulletins Now Available, Keven Arrowsmith

Integrated Crop Management News

Results of the 2006 Iowa Crop Performance Tests for alfalfa, barley, corn, oat, soybean, triticale, and winter wheat are now available. For those wanting to download a copy of the bulletins, visit the Iowa Crop Improvement Association (ICIA) Web site or the Iowa State University (ISU) Extension Distribution Center (EDC) online store. Published bulletins may be requested by contacting ICIA at (515) 294-6921 or EDC at (515) 294-5247.


Aphids In The Air: What Is The Risk For 2007?, Wayne Ohnesorg, Matthew E. O'Neal, Marlin E. Rice Dec 2006

Aphids In The Air: What Is The Risk For 2007?, Wayne Ohnesorg, Matthew E. O'Neal, Marlin E. Rice

Integrated Crop Management News

The 2006 growing season has come to a close and with it another year's worth of experience with the soybean aphid. For many, it was a quiet, "low aphid" year with few reports of economic outbreaks within Iowa. Reflecting these low populations in the field, we observed fewer aphids within our suction traps (Figure 1) compared to the 2005 growing season when the traps collected nearly 100 times more aphids (Figure 2). For the last two years, the Iowa suction trap network (Figure 3) has been part of a larger network of suction traps located in nine states throughout ...


Central Crops And Soils Research Station Highmore, South Dakota: Annual Progress Report, 2006, Agricultural Experiment Station, Plant Science Department Dec 2006

Central Crops And Soils Research Station Highmore, South Dakota: Annual Progress Report, 2006, Agricultural Experiment Station, Plant Science Department

Agricultural Experiment Station and Research Farm Annual Reports

This is the 2006 progress report for the Central Crops and Soils Research Station at Highmore, South Dakota State College. This document represents the research conducted at the Station during the 2006 crop season including: temperature and precipitation data, evaluation of native and naturalized grasses for reduced-input turf in the Northern Plains, 2006 NTEP tall fescue ancillary trial for drought tolerance, field evaluations of woody plant materials, alfalfa production, optimal management of drought -tolerant legumes and warm season annual grasses, winter wheat breeding, evaluation of sunflower germplasm for resistance to the red sunflower seed weevil, weed control, fertilizer influence on ...


West River Ag Center Crops And Soils Research Annual Progress Report, 2006, Agricultural Experiment Station Dec 2006

West River Ag Center Crops And Soils Research Annual Progress Report, 2006, Agricultural Experiment Station

Agricultural Experiment Station and Research Farm Annual Reports

This is the 2006 progress report of the West River Crops and Soils Research Projects, South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station. This document includes reports on: weather and climate, wheat and grain variety trials, management and tillage, and weed and pest control.


Southeast South Dakota Experiment Farm Annual Progress Report, 2006, Agricultural Experiment Station Dec 2006

Southeast South Dakota Experiment Farm Annual Progress Report, 2006, Agricultural Experiment Station

Agricultural Experiment Station and Research Farm Annual Reports

This document highlights 24 crop and livestock research and demonstration reports from projects conducted at Southeast Research Farm in 2006. It is published by the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service at South Dakota State University in cooperation with the Southeast South Dakota Experiment Farm Corporation. Reports in this document include information on: temperatures and precipitation data, corn production and performance, soybean research and planting, soil testing, alfalfa yield test, fertilizer testing, herbicide research, crop rotation, sorghum, small grains, livestock research, and pest and weed control.


Forage News [2006-12], University Of Kentucky Department Of Plant And Soil Sciences Dec 2006

Forage News [2006-12], University Of Kentucky Department Of Plant And Soil Sciences

Forage News

  • Grazing Conference
  • FEED: Biggest Cost Item
  • Heart of America Grazing Conference
  • KFGC Presents Annual Awards
  • KFGC Installs New Officers
  • Fayette County Producer Becomes Forage Spokesperson
  • Kentucky Hay – 2006
  • Methods to Manage Soil Phosphorus Levels on Kentucky Poultry Farms
  • Meat Goat Performance and Carcass Parameters When Finished on Orchardgrass, Red Clover, or Alfalfa Pastures
  • The Case for Forage Legumes
  • Upcoming Events


Intsormil’S Global Impact: A Revolution In West African Sorghum Production, Intsormil Dec 2006

Intsormil’S Global Impact: A Revolution In West African Sorghum Production, Intsormil

INTSORMIL Impacts and Bulletins

Sorghum and pearl millet are the staple grains for millions of people around the world, especially those residing in the semiarid margins of agricultural sustainability. For this reason, INTSORMIL has been working in the semiarid regions of Africa and Central America where it has been helping sorghum and millet farmers achieve the status of surplus grain production and the economic, social and health benefits thus provided. What impact has INTSORMIL had on the lives of these sorghum and millet farmers?

To determine the global impact of the USAID funded INTSORMIL program, Battelle, an independent agency, was chosen to conduct an ...


Bovine Immune Response To Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia Coli O157:H7, Mark A. Hoffman, Christian Menge, Thomas A. Casey, William Laegreid, Brad T. Bosworth, Evelyn A. Dean-Nystrom Dec 2006

Bovine Immune Response To Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia Coli O157:H7, Mark A. Hoffman, Christian Menge, Thomas A. Casey, William Laegreid, Brad T. Bosworth, Evelyn A. Dean-Nystrom

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Although cattle develop humoral immune responses to Shiga-toxigenic (Stx+) Escherichia coli O157:H7, infections often result in long-term shedding of these human pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this study was to compare humoral and cellular immune responses to Stx+ and Stx- E. coli O157:H7. Three groups of calves were inoculated intrarumenally, twice in a 3-week interval, with different strains of E. coli: a Stx2- producing E. coli O157:H7 strain (Stx2+O157), a Shiga toxin-negative E. coli O157:H7 strain (Stx-O157), or a nonpathogenic E. coli strain (control). Fecal shedding of Stx2+O157 was significantly higher than that ...


Asexual Propagation Of Four Cultivars Of Vaccinium Corymbosum And Weed Management In An Established Orchard Of Vaccinium Corymbosum 'Bluejay' (Highbush Blueberry) In South Central Kentucky, Kyle Daniel Dec 2006

Asexual Propagation Of Four Cultivars Of Vaccinium Corymbosum And Weed Management In An Established Orchard Of Vaccinium Corymbosum 'Bluejay' (Highbush Blueberry) In South Central Kentucky, Kyle Daniel

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In response to the changing economy of Kentucky tobacco, producers are seeking an economically viable alternative that can be produced on a similarly small acreage. Blueberries are an emerging crop that satisfy the needs of these producers and are popular with consumers for their flavor and health benefits. In addition to selling the berries, local producers are experiencing much success selling blueberry plants to homeowners and other producers. However, the protocol for propagating specific cultivars under local environmental conditions is unknown. Rooting percentages for producers has been extremely variable. A two year study conducted at Western Kentucky University investigated asexual ...


Impact Of Trap Design, Windbreaks, And Weather On Captures Of European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) In Pheromone-Baited Traps, Brendon James Reardon, Douglas V. Sumerford, Thomas W. Sappington Dec 2006

Impact Of Trap Design, Windbreaks, And Weather On Captures Of European Corn Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) In Pheromone-Baited Traps, Brendon James Reardon, Douglas V. Sumerford, Thomas W. Sappington

Entomology Publications

Pheromone-baited traps are often used in ecological studies of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). However, differences in trap captures may be confounded by trap design, trap location relative to a windbreak, and changes in local weather. The objectives of this experiment were, first, to examine differences in O. nubilalis adult (moth) captures among the Intercept wing trap, the Intercept bucket/funnel UNI trap, and the Hartstack wire-mesh, 75-cm-diameter cone trap (large metal cone trap) as well as among three cone trap designs. Second, we examined the influence of the location of the large metal cone trap ...


Insect-Mediated Seed-Set Evaluation Of 21 Soybean Lines Segregating For Male Sterility At 10 Different Loci, E. Ortiz-Perez, Harry T. Horner, S. J. Hanlin, R. G. Palmer Dec 2006

Insect-Mediated Seed-Set Evaluation Of 21 Soybean Lines Segregating For Male Sterility At 10 Different Loci, E. Ortiz-Perez, Harry T. Horner, S. J. Hanlin, R. G. Palmer

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

The first requirement to establish a successful hybrid soybean program is the availability of a stable male-sterile, female-fertile system. Male sterility has been an important tool in soybean breeding programs to improve traits such as yield, seed-protein and seed-oil content, and seed size. However, improvement of seed-set per se on male-sterile plants has not been an important breeding objective. The evaluation of the out-crossing potential of the available male-sterile, female-fertile soybean lines is crucial to determine the future of hybrid soybean. The objective of this study was to evaluate seed-set among 21 soybean lines segregating for male sterility at 10 ...


Clarification Of Basal Relationships In Rubus (Rosaceae) And The Origin Of Rubus Chamaemorus, Karen Michael Dec 2006

Clarification Of Basal Relationships In Rubus (Rosaceae) And The Origin Of Rubus Chamaemorus, Karen Michael

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Determination of phylogenetic relationships among ancestral species of Rubus has been elusive. Most Rubus species (including blackberries and raspberries), representing nine of the 12 subgenera, occur in a large, well supported clade named 'A' for reference). The remaining nine species are excluded from this group and represent three subgenera: subg. Anoplobatus (R. bartonianus, R. deliciosus, R. neomexicanus, R. odoratus, R. parviflorus, R. trilobus), subg. Chamaemorus (R. chamaemorus), and subg. Dalibarda (R. lasiococcus, R.pedatus). In addition, Rubus dalibarda L. is often treated in its own monotypic genus as Dalibarda repens L. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data from chloroplast regions ...


Restoring Perennial Cover And Ecological Function To Corn Belt Landscapes: The Iowa Farmer's Perspective, Ryan C. Atwell, Lisa A. Schulte, Lynne M. Westphal Dec 2006

Restoring Perennial Cover And Ecological Function To Corn Belt Landscapes: The Iowa Farmer's Perspective, Ryan C. Atwell, Lisa A. Schulte, Lynne M. Westphal

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The tallgrass prairie ecosystem of the North American Corn Belt region has experienced major alteration of hydrologic systems, nearly complete loss of natural perennial vegetation, and concomitant decline in species due to agricultural intensification. In this working landscape, restoration to pre-European settlement conditions is doubtful. However, current research posits that restoring strategically placed patches of perennial cover across agricultural watersheds, such as stream buffers, wetlands and prairies, as well as instituting more diverse cropping rotations, could bolster current ecological function and enhance the conservation of species. These studies also suggest that such restoration might increase socio-economic resilience in the region ...


Analysis Of Bulked And Redundant Accessions Of Brassica Germplasm Using Assignment Tests Of Microsatellite Markers, Von Mark V. Cruz, John D. Nason, Richard Luhman, Laura F. Marek, Randy C. Shoemaker, E. Charles Brummer, Candice A. C. Gardner Dec 2006

Analysis Of Bulked And Redundant Accessions Of Brassica Germplasm Using Assignment Tests Of Microsatellite Markers, Von Mark V. Cruz, John D. Nason, Richard Luhman, Laura F. Marek, Randy C. Shoemaker, E. Charles Brummer, Candice A. C. Gardner

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

This study was conducted to determine if Brassica germplasm bulks created and maintained by the USDA-ARS North Central Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) were made with genetically indistinguishable component accessions and to examine newly identified putative duplicate accessions to determine if they can be bulked. Using ten microsatellite primer pairs, we genotyped two bulks of B. rapa L. ssp. dichotoma (Roxb.) Hanelt comprising four accessions and three bulks of B. rapa L. ssp. trilocularis (Roxb.) Hanelt comprising fourteen accessions, as well as four pairs of putatively duplicate accessions of B.␣napus L. Assignment tests on ten individual plants per accession were ...


Determining The Extent Of Frost Damage In Maize Seed Using The Tetrazolium Test, Mindy Devries, A. Susana Goggi Dec 2006

Determining The Extent Of Frost Damage In Maize Seed Using The Tetrazolium Test, Mindy Devries, A. Susana Goggi

Agronomy Publications

Frost damage in seed corn causes a significant decrease in seed quality. The tetrazolium (TZ) test has been used to identify types of physiological damage in several plant species, including frost damage in corn. Quantifying the amount of seed damaged by frost and the consequent loss of seed vigor are important for making management decisions. The current tetrazolium test procedures provide seed viability information but do not estimate seed vigor. In our project, the tetrazolium staining procedure was modified to allow separation of viable seeds into vigor categories. Vigor categories were defined based on Association of Official Seed Analysts (AOSA ...


Microarray Analysis Of Late-Season Velvetleaf (Abutilon Theophrasti) Effect On Corn, David P. Horvath, Robert Gulden, Sharon A. Clay Dec 2006

Microarray Analysis Of Late-Season Velvetleaf (Abutilon Theophrasti) Effect On Corn, David P. Horvath, Robert Gulden, Sharon A. Clay

Agronomy, Horticulture and Plant Science Faculty Publications

Microarray analysis was used to identify changes in gene expression in corn leaves collected from plants at the V11–14 growth stage that resulted from competition with velvetleaf. The plants were grown in field plots under adequate N (addition of 220 kg N ha1) and irrigation to minimize N and water stress. Consequently, only differences resulting from competition for micronutrients, light, and perhaps allelopathic stress were anticipated. Genes involved in carbon and nitrogen utilization, photosynthesis, growth and development, oxidative stress, signal transduction, responses to auxin and ethylene, and zinc transport were repressed in corn growing in competition with velvetleaf ...


Agronomic And Quality Effects In Winter Wheat Of A Gene Conditioning Resistance To Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus, L. A. Divis, R. A. Graybosch, C. J. Peterson, P. Stephen Baenziger, G. L. Hein, B. B. Beecher, T. J. Martin Nov 2006

Agronomic And Quality Effects In Winter Wheat Of A Gene Conditioning Resistance To Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus, L. A. Divis, R. A. Graybosch, C. J. Peterson, P. Stephen Baenziger, G. L. Hein, B. B. Beecher, T. J. Martin

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is one of the most important diseases limiting winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production in the western Great Plains of North America. There is no known effective WSMV resistance within the primary gene pool of wheat. However, a resistance gene (Wsm1) has been transferred to wheat from a perennial relative, intermediate wheat-grass [Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkworth & DR Dewey]. Nebraska-adapted winter wheat lines carrying Wsm1 were used to characterize the effects of this alien introgression on agronomic and quality traits. Sister-lines from six breeding populations were evaluated under virus-free conditions, and under a naturally ...


United States Patent Application Publication: Counter Selection Strategy For Gram-Negative Bacteria, Stephen K. Farrand, Paul E. Staswick, Thomas E. Clemente Nov 2006

United States Patent Application Publication: Counter Selection Strategy For Gram-Negative Bacteria, Stephen K. Farrand, Paul E. Staswick, Thomas E. Clemente

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

A Gram-negative bacterium useful for genetically engineering plants is provided. The Gram-negative bacterium contains, as part of genome, an inducible regulatory sequence operatively linked to a nucleotide sequence encoding a levansucrase. Alternatively, the Gram-negative bacterium comprises a recombinant nucleic acid construct containing an inducible regulatory sequence operatively linked to a nucleotide sequence encoding a levansucrase. Also provided are recombinant nucleic acid constructs comprising an inducible regulatory sequence operatively coupled to a nucleotide sequence encoding a levansucrase and a method for transforming plants using the Gram-negative bacterium of the present invention.


More About Early Seed Discounts, Jim R. Rouse, Roger W. Elmore, Lori Abendroth Nov 2006

More About Early Seed Discounts, Jim R. Rouse, Roger W. Elmore, Lori Abendroth

Integrated Crop Management News

We received a great deal of feedback from our article in the October 9, 2006, issue of the ICM newsletterconcerning early seed discounts. Most of it was very positive and congratulated us for tackling an issue that is important to every grower. There were also a few readers who felt the article missed the mark, so we want to clarify some of the points.


Late Movement Of Soybean Rust, Daren S. Mueller Nov 2006

Late Movement Of Soybean Rust, Daren S. Mueller

Integrated Crop Management News

After a hot, dry summer with very little movement, soybean rust made a late push both up the East Coast and into the Ohio River Valley. After the dust settled from the excitement in October, rust was reported in 159 new counties, including seven new states (Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Tennessee, and Virginia). Soybean rust season totals to date are 230 counties in 15 states on soybean and 262 counties total (including kudzu). Last year at this time, there were only 130 counties in seven states positive for soybean rust. No rust was found in Iowa despite extensive scouting ...


Scn-Resistant Soybean Varieties For 2007: Many Choices, Few Sources Of Resistance, Gregory L. Tylka Nov 2006

Scn-Resistant Soybean Varieties For 2007: Many Choices, Few Sources Of Resistance, Gregory L. Tylka

Integrated Crop Management News

The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is a major yield-limiting pest of soybeans throughout the Midwest that can be managed very effectively through use of SCN-resistant soybean varieties. Resistant varieties reduce the amount of SCN reproduction (and population density buildup) that occurs while producing significantly greater soybean yields than non-resistant (susceptible) varieties in fields infested with the nematode. The Iowa State University Extension publication titled Soybean cyst nematode-resistant soybean varieties for Iowa has recently been updated, is now available, and lists SCN-resistant soybean varieties available to Iowa growers in late maturity group 0 and maturity groups 1, 2, and 3.


Ethanol Webcast Archived Online, Jean Mcguire Nov 2006

Ethanol Webcast Archived Online, Jean Mcguire

Integrated Crop Management News

The Perspectives on Present and Future Corn-Based Ethanol Industry webcast was presented by Iowa State University (ISU) Extension on Monday, November 13. An archive of the program is available athttp://www.extension.iastate.edu/webcast/archive.htm. Seven Iowa State University economists presented economic information on several aspects of the industry during the 3-hour, 15-minute program. Links to papers offering additional information on each topic and the PowerPoint each presenter used are available at http://www.extension.iastate.edu/ag/ethanol.html.


What's Your Type?: An Hg Type Test For Scn Populations, Gregory L. Tylka Nov 2006

What's Your Type?: An Hg Type Test For Scn Populations, Gregory L. Tylka

Integrated Crop Management News

SCN-resistant soybean varieties reduce the amount of SCN reproduction that occurs when soybeans are grown. But if resistant soybean varieties are grown repeatedly, an SCN population capable of reproducing readily on the resistant varieties can develop. This is because resistant varieties are not immune; they allow some low level of SCN reproduction. The possibility of SCN populations building up on resistant varieties is especially a concern because almost all resistant soybean varieties have SCN resistance genes from the soybean breeding line PI88788 (see article on newly published list of SCN-resistant soybean varieties for 2007 in this issue).