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End Matter, Vol. 66 No. 4 Dec 2006

End Matter, Vol. 66 No. 4

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Front Matter, Vol. 66 No. 4 Dec 2006

Front Matter, Vol. 66 No. 4

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Front Matter, Vol. 66 No. 3 Aug 2006

Front Matter, Vol. 66 No. 3

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


End Matter, Vol. 66 No. 3 Aug 2006

End Matter, Vol. 66 No. 3

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


End Matter, Vol. 66 No. 2 May 2006

End Matter, Vol. 66 No. 2

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Front Matter, Vol. 66 No. 2 May 2006

Front Matter, Vol. 66 No. 2

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Front Matter, Vol. 66 No. 1 Feb 2006

Front Matter, Vol. 66 No. 1

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


End Matter, Vol. 66 No. 1 Feb 2006

End Matter, Vol. 66 No. 1

Western North American Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Vascular Flora Of The South Fork Native Plant Reserve, Van Buren County, Arkansas, Theo Witsell, Brent Baker Jan 2006

Vascular Flora Of The South Fork Native Plant Reserve, Van Buren County, Arkansas, Theo Witsell, Brent Baker

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

The South Fork Native Plant Preserve, a property owned and managed by the Gates Rogers Foundation, Inc., is located along the South Fork of the Little Red River (now Greers Ferry Lake) in Van Buren County, Arkansas. We conducted a floristic inventor/ of a 61.3 ha study area consisting of the preserve, adjacent lakefront property owned by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and a riparian corridor on neighboring land from February through November 2005. A total of 582 vascular plant taxa, representing 118 families and 336 genera, was documented including six species (Carex lupuliformis Sartwell ex L ...


Chinese Flame Tree (Koelreuteria Bipinnata Franch.) (Sapindaceae) New To The Arkansas Flora, Brett Serviss, Nicole Freeman, Sara Melancen Jan 2006

Chinese Flame Tree (Koelreuteria Bipinnata Franch.) (Sapindaceae) New To The Arkansas Flora, Brett Serviss, Nicole Freeman, Sara Melancen

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Increased Sea Surface Temperature On Eelgrass Leaf Dynamics: Onset Of El Nin˜ O As A Proxy For Global Climate Change In San Quintı´N Bay, Baja California, Hector A. Echavarria-Heras, Elena Solana-Arellano, Ernesto Franco-Vizcaino Jan 2006

The Role Of Increased Sea Surface Temperature On Eelgrass Leaf Dynamics: Onset Of El Nin˜ O As A Proxy For Global Climate Change In San Quintı´N Bay, Baja California, Hector A. Echavarria-Heras, Elena Solana-Arellano, Ernesto Franco-Vizcaino

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

We present a quantitative study of the effects of sea surface temperatures on eelgrass productivity variables. We compared standing stock variables for Zostera marina for the strong El Nin˜o event of 1986–1987, previously published by other workers for San Quintı´n Bay, Baja California, to our previously unpublished data for the ‘‘normal year’’ of 1992–1993. We found significant differences for most of the variables measured, which included Leaf Area Index, leaf length, width, dry weight and area, biomass, shoot density, and number of leaves per shoot. Inspection of the multivariate ENSO index (MEI) and sea surface temperature ...


Interspecific Competition Between Coleogyne Ramosissima Seedlings And Bromus Rubens, Simon A. Lei Jan 2006

Interspecific Competition Between Coleogyne Ramosissima Seedlings And Bromus Rubens, Simon A. Lei

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Interactive effects of red brome grass (Bromus rubens) density and time of establishment on the early survival and growth of blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima) seedlings were quantitatively investigated. Seeds of Coleogyne and Bromus were collected from Cold Creek of the Spring Mountains in southern Nevada. A series of pot trial experiments were conducted in a controlled environmental glasshouse. In mixed culture pots when Coleogyne seedlings planted four weeks later than Bromus at medium and high density levels, survival of Coleogyne seedlings (experimental populations) was greatly reduced compared to single Coleogyne seedlings that grew alone (control population). Significant interactions were detected between ...


Pollen Wall Ultrastructure Of Araceae And Lemnaceae In Relation To Molecular Classifications, Michael Hesse Jan 2006

Pollen Wall Ultrastructure Of Araceae And Lemnaceae In Relation To Molecular Classifications, Michael Hesse

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

A comparative ultrastructural study of Araceae pollen walls was conducted for the first time. The results are based mainly on investigations by transmission electron microscopy of 101 species in 70 genera (out of a total of 105 genera), while pollen of 83 genera with 219 species were studied by scanning electron microscopy, generally without acetolysis. Special attention was given to Lemnaceae (including Limnobiophyllum) considered to be closely related to Araceae (especially to Pistia). The ultrastructural pollen wall characters are mostly in accordance with and strongly support the morphological classifications and the arrangement of genera within recent molecular trees. For example ...


Patterns In Evolution In Characters That Define Iris Subgenera And Sections, Carol A. Wilson Jan 2006

Patterns In Evolution In Characters That Define Iris Subgenera And Sections, Carol A. Wilson

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

Subgeneric groups have been circumscribed in Iris based on a small number of morphological characters. Recent DNA sequence data has indicated that several of the subgenera, sections, and series that have previously been delineated are paraphyletic or polyphyletic. The evolution of characters that have traditionally been used to distinguish sub generic and sectional groups within Iris was investigated by mapping these characters on a phylogenetic tree based on matK sequence data. Results indicate that rhizomes are pleisomorphic for the genus and that three bulb types have arisen independently. My analysis shows that sepal beards, sepal crests, and seed arils ...


Development Of In Vitro Regeneration Protocols For Arkansas Rice Varieties (Oryza Sativa L.), Moytri Roy Chowdhury, Audrei Dabul, John Hubstenberger, Gregory Phillips Jan 2006

Development Of In Vitro Regeneration Protocols For Arkansas Rice Varieties (Oryza Sativa L.), Moytri Roy Chowdhury, Audrei Dabul, John Hubstenberger, Gregory Phillips

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

Efficient regeneration of in vitro cultures of Oryza sativa L.is essential for successful manipulation of recombinant DNA technologies. Arkansas rice varieties perform better on modified Gamborg (B5)media, than on Murashige and Skoog (MS) orN6 media, which are more frequently reported in the literature. While 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is commonly used for regeneration treatments of rice, Picloram (Pic) provides a possible alternative as a synthetic auxin source. Although regeneration frequency appears low, complete regeneration (whole plantlets) was faster and development of the shoot was superior on picloram treatments as compared to 2,4-D. Screening 5 Arkansas varieties ...


Evaluation Of Cross Pollination Of Zephyranthes And Habranthus Species And Hybrids, Moytri Roy Chowdhury, John Hubstenberger Jan 2006

Evaluation Of Cross Pollination Of Zephyranthes And Habranthus Species And Hybrids, Moytri Roy Chowdhury, John Hubstenberger

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

The genus Zephyranthes and the related genus Habranthus in the family Amaryllidaceae are commonly grown ornamental bulbs having new world homologies. Inter-specific and inter-generic hybridizations are complicated by the fact that some of the species are apomictic, cross incompatible, or have widely variable 2n chromosome numbers. A simple, inexpensive method of pollen storage was tested to evaluate the production of hybrid seed. Intact anthers harvested after pollen release and stored at 4°C were used for pollination. Emasculated flowers were pollinated at noon on the first or second day of anthesis. Hybrid crosses were labeled and seed collected when formed ...


Speciation In Duckweeds (Lemnaceae): Phylogenetic And Ecological Inferences, Daniel J. Crawford, Elias Landolt, Donald H. Les, Rebecca T. Kimball Jan 2006

Speciation In Duckweeds (Lemnaceae): Phylogenetic And Ecological Inferences, Daniel J. Crawford, Elias Landolt, Donald H. Les, Rebecca T. Kimball

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

Species of duckweeds (Letnnaceae) that were resolved as sister taxa in a phylogeny based on combined molecular and non-molecular data were compared for morphological, physiological, and ecological attributes to infer factors important in the initial divergence leading to speciation. The ability to survive extreme conditions such as desiccation and cold temperatures is the most common difference identified between species. Two morphological characters facilitating survival in extreme environments are production of special resting buds called turions and increased seed production. The prevalent geographic pattern for species pairs consists of one restricted species occurring on the periphery of a more widespread taxon ...


Systematics Of Xanthorrhoeaceae Sensu Lato, With An Emphasis On Bulbine, Dion S. Devey, Ilia Leitch, J. Chris Pires, Yohan Pillon, Mark W. Chase Jan 2006

Systematics Of Xanthorrhoeaceae Sensu Lato, With An Emphasis On Bulbine, Dion S. Devey, Ilia Leitch, J. Chris Pires, Yohan Pillon, Mark W. Chase

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

We provide here results of a combined analysis of plastid genes rbcL, matK, and ndhF for Xanthorrhoeaceae s.l., the Asphodelaceae/Xanthorrhoeaceae/Hemerocallidaceae clade, which are well supported by the DNA data. Xanthorrhoea (often treated as the sole member of Xanthorrhoeaceae) is sister to the hemerocallid clade (former Hemerocallidaceae); and the asphodelid clade (formerly Asphodelaceae) is sister to them both. For additional species of Bulbine and Jodrellia (both Asphodeloideae), we also collected rps16 intron and ITS nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences to better assess their relationships. Bulbine, with Jodrellia, embedded are sister to the collective genera of ...


Molecular Studies Of Subfamily Gilliesioideae (Alliaceae), Michael F. Fay, Paula J. Rudall, Mark W. Chase Jan 2006

Molecular Studies Of Subfamily Gilliesioideae (Alliaceae), Michael F. Fay, Paula J. Rudall, Mark W. Chase

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

We present an analysis of relationships in Gilliesioideae (Alliaceae) based on a combined matrix of plastid rbcL, the trnL intron, the trnL-F intergenic spacer, and the rps16 intron and nuclear ITS ribosomal DNA sequences. The results are generally congruent with previous analyses, indicating two well-supported groups: Ipheion plus allied genera ("lpheieae" ined.) and Gilliesieae. They also provide higher bootstrap support for many patterns of relationships. Polyphyly of lpheion and Nothoscordum is confirmed. Increased taxon sampling (particularly in Gilliesieae) and additional molecular data would be desirable to provide further resolution and to allow an appropriate taxonomic revision ...


Phylogenetics Of The "Tiger-Flower" Group (Tigridieae: Iridaceae): Molecular And Morphological Evidence, Aaron Rodriguez, Kenneth J. Sytsma Jan 2006

Phylogenetics Of The "Tiger-Flower" Group (Tigridieae: Iridaceae): Molecular And Morphological Evidence, Aaron Rodriguez, Kenneth J. Sytsma

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

The phylogenetic relationships among 23 species of the tribe Tigridieae (lridaceae) were inferred using morphological data and nucleotide sequences from nuclear ITS and three intergenic spacers of the cpDNA: psbA-trnH, trnT-trnL, and trnL-trnF. Although all data sets supported a monophyletic Mexican-Guatemalan Tigridiinae including two taxa usually placed in Cipurinae (Cardiostigma longispatha and Nemastylis convoluta), neither morphology, cpDNA, nor ITS resolved phylogenetic relationships within this lineage. A graphical tree of trees analysis showed the cladograms derived from morphology to be the most topologically distinct within the set of all trees examined and ...


Phylogenetics Of Lilliales, Michael F. Fay, Mark W. Chase, Nina Rønsted, Dion S. Devey, Yohan Pillon, J. Chris Pires, Gitte Peterson, Ole Seberg, Jerrold I. Davis Jan 2006

Phylogenetics Of Lilliales, Michael F. Fay, Mark W. Chase, Nina Rønsted, Dion S. Devey, Yohan Pillon, J. Chris Pires, Gitte Peterson, Ole Seberg, Jerrold I. Davis

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

In order to investigate interfamilial relationships of Liliales we analyzed a combined matrix of plastid rbcL, trnL intron, trnL-F intergenic spacer, matK, and ndhF, and mitochondrial atp1 DNA sequences. The results are generally congruent with previous broad analyses and provide higher bootstrap support for many relationships. Important changes relative to previous studies are the recognition of Petermanniaceae distinct from Colchicaceae and the tentative inclusion of Corsiaceae in the order. This brings the number of families in the order from nine to eleven. The additional data presented here strengthen the case for including Uvulariaceae in ...


Phylogenetic Analyses And Biogeography Of Trilliaceae, Susan B. Farmer Jan 2006

Phylogenetic Analyses And Biogeography Of Trilliaceae, Susan B. Farmer

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

Trilliaceae are plants of North Temperate forests with a holarctic distribution and a high degree of endemism. Molecular phylogenetic analyses are presented in order to examine the tribal, generic, and species-level classification of the family. These molecular studies, and earlier morphological studies, support the placement of the genus Pseudotrillium as basal in the family and sister to the tribes Trillieae and Parideae, which are monophyletic sister groups. Trillidium (Trillium) govanianum provides an unresolved problem: morphologically it is included within Parideae, but molecular data place it within Trillium as sister to T. undulatum. Within tribe Trillieae, clades are noted that correspond ...


Missing Links Between Disjunct Populations Of Androcymbium (Colchicaceae) In Africa Using Chloroplast Dna Noncoding Sequences, Alberto Del Hoyo, Joan Pedrola-Monfort Jan 2006

Missing Links Between Disjunct Populations Of Androcymbium (Colchicaceae) In Africa Using Chloroplast Dna Noncoding Sequences, Alberto Del Hoyo, Joan Pedrola-Monfort

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

With the objective of clarifying some aspects of the biogeography, phylogeny, and taxonomy of the genus Androcymbium, we sequenced three chloroplastic DNA noncoding regions (trnL intron, trnL-trnF IGS, and trnY-trnD IGS). These data were analyzed with maximum parsimony and the ancestral areas methods following Bremer. Results show that Androcymbium is not monophyletic and that the origin of its distribution and speciation is situated in western South Africa. Later, it dispersed to North Africa, going first to eastern South Africa. Androcymbium austrocapense and A. roseum allow us to phylogenetically connect the species of western ...


Further Evidence For Seed Size Variation In The Genus Zostera: Exploratory Studies With Z. Japonica And Z. Asiatica, Sandy Wyllie-Echeverria, Victoria R. Wyllie-Echeverria, Algernon C. Churchill, Paul A. Cox Jan 2006

Further Evidence For Seed Size Variation In The Genus Zostera: Exploratory Studies With Z. Japonica And Z. Asiatica, Sandy Wyllie-Echeverria, Victoria R. Wyllie-Echeverria, Algernon C. Churchill, Paul A. Cox

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

Recent studies found seed size variation within the seagrass Zostera marina, one of nine species in the genus Zostera. The objectives of this study were to determine if variation also exists in the seeds of two other species Zostera japonica and Zostera asiatica within this genus. Results indicate that: (1) length and weight varied between two populations (one indigenous population from Akkeshi-Ko, Japan, and one exotic population from Willapa Bay, Washington, USA) of the small-bodied intertidal seagrass species Z. japonica, and (2) seed-size classes were discernable. Preliminary investigations were also initiated with a Japanese population of Z. asiatica, a large-bodied ...


Stem Anatomy Of Climbing Palms In Relation To Long-Distance Water Transport, P. Barry Tomlinson Jan 2006

Stem Anatomy Of Climbing Palms In Relation To Long-Distance Water Transport, P. Barry Tomlinson

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

Palms lack secondary growth so their primary vascular system is long-lived and must be minimally vulnerable to dysfunction. For water movement, the axial xylem must be well defended against cavitation. Climbing palms can be very long and represent a maximum solution to transport problems. How is this demonstrated in their anatomy? This article contrasts stem vascular anatomy in a canelike "tree palm" (Rhapis excelsa) with that in the American climbing palm Desmoncus and the Old World rattan genus Calamus. Rhapis, representing the basic classical palm vasculature, has a continuously integrated vascular system determined by branching of the axial (stem) system ...


Genomic Resources For Asparagales, Michael J. Havey, Kenneth C. Sink, Maria Jenderek, Christopher D. Town Jan 2006

Genomic Resources For Asparagales, Michael J. Havey, Kenneth C. Sink, Maria Jenderek, Christopher D. Town

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

Enormous genomic resources have been developed for plants in the monocot order Poales; however, it is not known how useful these resources will be for other economically important monocots. Asparagales are a monophyletic order sister to class Commelinanae that carries Poales, and is the second most economically important monocot order. Development of genomic resources for and their application to Asparagales are challenging because of huge nuclear genomes and the relatively long generation times required to develop segregating families. We synthesized a normalized eDNA library of onion (Allium cepa) and produced II ,008 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for comparative genomic ...


Pollination Biology And Adaptive Radiation Of Agavaceae, With Special Emphasis On The Genus Agave, Martha Rocha, Sara V. Good-Ávila, Fracisco Molina-Freaner, Hector T. Arita, Amanda Castillo, Abisaí García-Mendoza, Arturo Silva-Montellano, Brandon S. Gaut, Valeria Souza, Luis E. Eguiarte Jan 2006

Pollination Biology And Adaptive Radiation Of Agavaceae, With Special Emphasis On The Genus Agave, Martha Rocha, Sara V. Good-Ávila, Fracisco Molina-Freaner, Hector T. Arita, Amanda Castillo, Abisaí García-Mendoza, Arturo Silva-Montellano, Brandon S. Gaut, Valeria Souza, Luis E. Eguiarte

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

Agavaceae are an American family that comprises nine genera and ca. 300 species distributed in arid and semiarid environments, mainly in Mexico. The family is very successful and displays a wide array of ecological, reproductive, and morphological adaptations. Many of its members play important roles as keystone species, because they produce abundant resources during the reproductive season. In this paper we analyze the current knowledge about the pollination ecology of the different genera in the family and the role that pollination systems have played in the ecological and phylogenetic success of the group. After providing an overview of each of ...


The Never-Ending Story: Multigene Approaches To The Phylogeny Of Amaryllidaceae, Alan W. Meerow, Deirdre A. Snuman Jan 2006

The Never-Ending Story: Multigene Approaches To The Phylogeny Of Amaryllidaceae, Alan W. Meerow, Deirdre A. Snuman

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

a whole, strongly supported the mostly African tribe Amaryllideae as sister to the rest of the family, and resolved geographically-based monophyletic groups, but failed to resolve the relationships among several basal lineages in the family (the African Haemantheae and Cyrtantheae, the Australasian Calostemmateae, and the American and Eurasian sister clades). We present analysis of plastid ndhF sequences that fully resolved the major clades of the family. The baccate-fruited Haemantheae and Calostemmateae are sister tribes, and the African endemic Cyrtantheae is sister to them both. This clade is sister to an American/Eurasian clade. We also present preliminary nuclear ribosomal ...


Phylogeny Of Iridaceae Subfamily Crocoideae Based On A Combined Multigene Plastid Dna Analysis, Peter Goldblatt, T. Jonathan Davies, John C. Manning, Michelle Van Der Bank, Vincent Savolainen Jan 2006

Phylogeny Of Iridaceae Subfamily Crocoideae Based On A Combined Multigene Plastid Dna Analysis, Peter Goldblatt, T. Jonathan Davies, John C. Manning, Michelle Van Der Bank, Vincent Savolainen

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

The phylogeny of Crocoideae, the largest of four subfamilies currently recognized in Tridaceae, has eluded resolution until sequences of two more plastid DNA regions were added here to a previously published matrix containing sequences from four DNA plastid regions. Sister to the core Nivenioideae, the woody Klattia, Nivenia, and Witsenia, Crocoideae are a climax group in lridaceae, comprising some 995 species, slightly more than half of the total in the family. Synapomorphies of Crocoideae include pollen exine perforate, pollen aperture operculate, ovule campylotropous (or hypotropous), root xylem vessels with simple perforations, cormous rootstock, inflorescence a spike, and plants deciduous. The ...


A Comparison And Combination Of Plastid Atpb And Rbcl Gene Sequences For Inferring Phylogenetic Relationships Within Orchidaceae, Kenneth M. Cameron Jan 2006

A Comparison And Combination Of Plastid Atpb And Rbcl Gene Sequences For Inferring Phylogenetic Relationships Within Orchidaceae, Kenneth M. Cameron

Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany

Parsimony analyses of DNA sequences from the plastid genes atpB and rbcL were completed for 173 species of Orchidaceae (representing 150 different genera) and nine genera from outgroup families in Asparagales. The atpB tree topology is similar to the rbcL tree, although the atpB data contain less homoplasy and provide greater jackknife support than rbcL alone. In combination, the two-gene tree recovers five monophyletic clades corresponding to subfamilies within Orchidaceae, and fully resolves them with moderate to high jackknife support as follows: Epidendroideae are sister to Orchidoideae, followed by Cypripedioideae, then Vanilloideae, and with ...