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2006

Plant Sciences

Integrated Crop Management News

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Corn Production Field Day, Keven Arrowsmith Aug 2006

Corn Production Field Day, Keven Arrowsmith

Integrated Crop Management News

Who should attend: Farmers and agronomists

Where: Iowa State University Bruner Farm (located 1 mile south of U.S. Highway 30 on "W" Avenue and 1/2 mile east on 240th Street)

When: Thursday, August 24, 10 a.m. to 3 p.m.


Kanawha Research Farm Celebrates 75 Years, Keven Arrowsmith Aug 2006

Kanawha Research Farm Celebrates 75 Years, Keven Arrowsmith

Integrated Crop Management News

In 1931, a group of farmers started the Northern Iowa Research Association to work on problems specific to northern Iowa farmers. The Northern Iowa Research Association purchased a farm on the southern edge of Kanawha and has encouraged Iowa State University researchers to conduct work there. Since its beginning, this farm has conducted research in flax production, sugar beet production, small grain management, corn and soybean breeding, weed management, nutrient management (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium), soybean cyst nematode, tillage, replant decisions, and rotations.


Update: Soybean Rust And Other Foliar Diseases, Daren S. Mueller Aug 2006

Update: Soybean Rust And Other Foliar Diseases, Daren S. Mueller

Integrated Crop Management News

Another growing season is passing and soybean rust remains confined to the southeastern United States. With drier-than-normal conditions throughout much of the southeastern United States early in the spring and well into summer, soybean rust has not been able to spread too far from the overwintering sites. To date for 2006, there are 28 counties in six states with soybean rust. In comparison to 2005, there were 21 counties with soybean rust in early August (see maps).


Bean Pod Mottle Virus: Back With A Vengeance, John H. Hill, Palle Pedersen, Jeffrey D. Bradshaw Aug 2006

Bean Pod Mottle Virus: Back With A Vengeance, John H. Hill, Palle Pedersen, Jeffrey D. Bradshaw

Integrated Crop Management News

As stated in an earlier article in the ICM Newsletter (May 15, 2006), bean leaf beetles are back with a vengeance this year. Based on observations from agronomists across the state, this year seems to have the highest level of bean leaf beetles since 2002. This also has resulted in an apparent high incidence of bean pod mottle virus disease in Iowa fields. Infected plants can be characterized by the leaves, which show a yellow to green blotchy appearance called leaf mottle. Sometimes leaves have a raised or blistered appearance.


The Heat (Has Been) On!, Richard O. Pope Jul 2006

The Heat (Has Been) On!, Richard O. Pope

Integrated Crop Management News

It should come as no surprise that the week of July 23 was a hot one in all of Iowa. We effectively gained an extra day and a half of heat compared with long-term averages in all parts of Iowa. Mind you that as corn and soybean are in the fill stage, degree days themselves aren't as important as they were in the leadup to pollination. Now we look at stresses on plants, and we do have variable moisture and accompanying heat stress in many parts of Iowa.


New Publication Offers Rationale For Nitrogen Use In Corn Production, Jean Mcguire Jul 2006

New Publication Offers Rationale For Nitrogen Use In Corn Production, Jean Mcguire

Integrated Crop Management News

A new publication is available through Iowa State University Extension that explores a recently developed regional Corn Belt approach to nitrogen rate guidelines. Concepts and Rationale for Regional Nitrogen Rate Guidelines for Corn was developed jointly by soil fertility specialists from University of Illinois, Iowa State University (ISU), University of Minnesota,The Ohio State University, Purdue University, and University of Wisconsin.


Corn Now Planted Earlier Than Ever Before!, Roger W. Elmore, Lori Abendroth Jul 2006

Corn Now Planted Earlier Than Ever Before!, Roger W. Elmore, Lori Abendroth

Integrated Crop Management News

The fact that corn is now planted earlier than ever before is not a surprise to most of you. Many have discussed this and have known intuitively that it has happened. Although we are still in the middle of the growing season, let's take a step back and investigate overall trends occurring in Iowa. In this article, we look at National Agricultural Statistics Service data on corn planting progress over the last three decades to add some actual numbers to the discussion. By comparing when 50 percent of the corn crop has been planted, it is clear that planting ...


Spider Mites, Soybean Aphids, And Summer Temperature, Marlin E. Rice Jul 2006

Spider Mites, Soybean Aphids, And Summer Temperature, Marlin E. Rice

Integrated Crop Management News

Temperatures in the high 90s and low 100s have prompted questions about how this will affect pests in soybeans. Spider mites typically flourish in hot, dry weather. Fungal pathogens that suppress spider mites during high humidity and mild temperatures are less effective against mites during very dry and hot conditions. Therefore, spider mites may be a greater concern this year during early August than soybean aphids.


Location, Location, Location!, Richard O. Pope Jul 2006

Location, Location, Location!, Richard O. Pope

Integrated Crop Management News

The biggest factor determining the crop condition in late July is not a new one. If your location has caught some of the sporadic rainfall in the past month, you are likely in reasonable shape. If not, your crops are beginning to struggle. The driest areas in terms of rainfall deficit from normal since May 1 are northwest, west-central and south-central, which are all around 50 percent of normal rainfall. That said, corn and soybean both are hanging in pretty well, and late July and August rainfall will work wonders--if and when it comes.


Soybean Aphids Down In July, Marlin E. Rice Jul 2006

Soybean Aphids Down In July, Marlin E. Rice

Integrated Crop Management News

Reports from extension field crops specialists across Iowa on July 24 indicate that soybean aphids have not reached the economic threshold of 250 aphids per plant in most fields. Soybean aphids can be found, but it appears that overall the populations range from just a few aphids per plant up to 30-50 per plant. There was a report of several fields being sprayed in northwest Iowa near Emmetsburg, but no aphid counts were given for these fields so the population size relative to the economic threshold is unknown.


Rotation-Resistant Corn Rootworms In Iowa, Patricia L. Prasifka, Jon J. Tollefson, Marlin E. Rice Jul 2006

Rotation-Resistant Corn Rootworms In Iowa, Patricia L. Prasifka, Jon J. Tollefson, Marlin E. Rice

Integrated Crop Management News

There are variants of both corn rootworm species in Iowa that are resistant to crop rotation. The northern corn rootworm overcame the annual rotation of corn with another crop by developing a two-year life cycle. This variety of the northern corn rootworm (known as extended diapause) became common and caused extensive damage to rotated corn in the late 1980s in northwest Iowa. Since then it has spread throughout Iowa and is probably found in every county.


Recent Soybean Yellowing May Be Symptom Of Scn, Gregory L. Tylka Jul 2006

Recent Soybean Yellowing May Be Symptom Of Scn, Gregory L. Tylka

Integrated Crop Management News

There have been many yellow spots in soybean fields throughout Iowa so far this season. In most cases, the yellowing is iron deficiency chlorosis. But since mid-July, additional yellowing of soybean fields has appeared, and it is likely that at least some of the newly appearing chlorosis is being caused by feeding of the soybean cyst nematode (SCN). SCN usually is present in fields for many years before population densities increase to a level that causes obvious stunting or yellowing.


These Are The Dog Days, Richard O. Pope Jul 2006

These Are The Dog Days, Richard O. Pope

Integrated Crop Management News

The traditional dog days of summer roughly range from July 4 through about August 10. Although they were named for the time when the dog star, Sirius, rose with the sun, dog days for us is the time when row crops are pollinating and the first half of grain fill. The week starting July 10 was about average in degree day accumulation, and especially in the southern two-thirds of Iowa, some welcome rain fell. Moisture remains a concern, but the week's rainfall coincided with pollination, which is a very good thing.


Manure Management Clinic To Focus On Open Feedlot Manure Issues, Jean Mcguire Jul 2006

Manure Management Clinic To Focus On Open Feedlot Manure Issues, Jean Mcguire

Integrated Crop Management News

The Iowa Manure Management Action Group (IMMAG), in cooperation with Iowa State University (ISU) Extension and the College of Agriculture, is sponsoring a two-day Manure Management Clinic on August 22 and 23, at the Field Extension Education Laboratory (FEEL) near Ames. The purpose of this short course is to train service providers, commodity partners, agency personnel, and Iowa State University Extension field staff in issues related to manure management for open feedlots in Iowa. Producers are welcome to attend.


Consider Nematode Feeding As Cause For Poor Corn Growth, Gregory L. Tylka Jul 2006

Consider Nematode Feeding As Cause For Poor Corn Growth, Gregory L. Tylka

Integrated Crop Management News

Plant-parasitic nematodes can cause serious damage to corn. There are numerous species that occur in Iowa, including those with common names like the dagger, lance, lesion, needle, spiral, stubby-root, and stunt nematodes. Symptoms of nematode damage on corn include stunting and/or yellowing of foliage, uneven tasseling, and stunting, swelling, and/or browning of roots.


Protect Pollinating Bees From Pesticides, Chuck Eckermann, Joyce Hornstein Jul 2006

Protect Pollinating Bees From Pesticides, Chuck Eckermann, Joyce Hornstein

Integrated Crop Management News

A pesticide applicator is required to notify all owners of registered beeyards (apiaries) within a 2-mile radius of the site of application if the pesticide is labeled as "toxic to bees." Notification is required at least 24 hours and no more than 72 hours before the application. This enables beekeepers to move or otherwise protect their bees from harm. This notification is required by the Iowa Administrative Code rule IAC 21-45.31(206).


Midsummer Soybean Disease Scouting, X. B. Yang Jul 2006

Midsummer Soybean Disease Scouting, X. B. Yang

Integrated Crop Management News

Cool weather this year has resulted in different soybean diseases than we have experienced in other years. Cool and wet conditions are favorable to the development of fungal disease. This year has been cool but not wet; therefore, the disease picture will be unique. This article discusses diseases that you are likely to find during summer disease scouting.


Mite Watch 2006, Carol Pilcher, Richard O. Pope Jul 2006

Mite Watch 2006, Carol Pilcher, Richard O. Pope

Integrated Crop Management News

Whenever hot, dry weather persists, spider mite populations may develop on both corn and soybean. Twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae, are serious pests of many crops throughout the United States. Producers in areas of Iowa where the weather remains dry should be on the lookout for spider mite infestations.


Dry Weather: Worried About High Nitrates In Forages?, Stephen K. Barnhart Jul 2006

Dry Weather: Worried About High Nitrates In Forages?, Stephen K. Barnhart

Integrated Crop Management News

During periods of dry growing conditions, forage producers begin to ask about the increased risk of nitrate accumulation in forages and how best to manage them. Plants take up nitrogen from available soil sources during normal plant growth. Soil-source nitrates are used by the plant to form protein. Since photosynthesis-formed sugars are also components of protein, anything that influences normal plant growth (such as drought) will reduce protein synthesis, and nitrate (NO3) can accumulate in the plant in higher than normal amounts.


Greensnap In Iowa, Roger W. Elmore, Lori Abendroth, George Cummins Jul 2006

Greensnap In Iowa, Roger W. Elmore, Lori Abendroth, George Cummins

Integrated Crop Management News

Straight-line winds as high as 60 mph caused considerable greensnap in corn across north-central and northeast Iowa last Saturday evening, July 1. Damage was more frequent and most severe in a narrow, long band running from eastern Cerro Gordo County generally along county road B60 and across several counties to the east and northeast and included the Iowa State University Northeast Research and Demonstration Farm at Nashua.


July Picks Up Where June Left Off, Richard O. Pope Jul 2006

July Picks Up Where June Left Off, Richard O. Pope

Integrated Crop Management News

The first week of July was slightly cooler than normal statewide, and again, unfortunately, drier than normal. Corn is starting to tassel across Iowa, and moisture stress is a growing concern. Fortunately, crop breeding has provided us with varieties with improved drought tolerance; however, that only works to a point. Monitoring for pests is important, and grasshoppers and spider mites are two key insects to watch for.


Western Bean Cutworm In 2006, Richard O. Pope, Marlin E. Rice Jul 2006

Western Bean Cutworm In 2006, Richard O. Pope, Marlin E. Rice

Integrated Crop Management News

A network of pheromone traps has been placed throughout the state to assist in scouting efforts for western bean cutworm. Iowa State University Extension is cooperating with Pioneer Hi-Bred agronomists to survey for western bean cutworm emergence. Most traps are now in place and results are being posted on a western bean cutworm website. Traps cannot be used to predict which fields should be sprayed; rather, they can indicate those areas that have significant moth flights and where fields should be scouted.


Fungicides: Safety And Restrictions, Daren S. Mueller, Joyce Hornstein Jul 2006

Fungicides: Safety And Restrictions, Daren S. Mueller, Joyce Hornstein

Integrated Crop Management News

Reading through a pesticide label will give you most of the needed information concerning safety for both yourself and others while spraying field crops. Below is a synopsis of some of the dangers and restrictions for some common fungicides. For details on a specific fungicide, please follow the label's directions for mixing and application along with the instructions for safe use.


Assessing The Risk Of Soybean White Mold In 2006, X. B. Yang Jul 2006

Assessing The Risk Of Soybean White Mold In 2006, X. B. Yang

Integrated Crop Management News

Soybean white mold was prevalent during the 2004 season in eastern Iowa. Many of the infested fields were replanted with soybean this year. Some farmers, especially those in eastern Iowa, have questioned the risk of soybean white mold this year. White mold management measures are preventative and include the application of chemicals. This means that correctly assessing the risk of this disease helps guide our decisions on chemical controls. This article discusses the risk factors to help you assess the risk for this season.


Rain, Rain, Come Again!, Richard O. Pope Jul 2006

Rain, Rain, Come Again!, Richard O. Pope

Integrated Crop Management News

July fires off with soybeans flowering and corn starting to work on tassels in most of Iowa. Crops are mostly in good condition, but additional rainfall would help now, especially as flowering and seed set progresses. Since May 1, all parts of Iowa are below normal rainfall, with northeast Iowa down by only about 11/2", and north-central, central, south-central and west-central Iowa with over 4" of rain deficit. Northwest and southwest are seasonally around -3".


Seed Quality And Conditioning Workshops Offered At The Iowa State University Seed Science Center, Keven Arrowsmith Jun 2006

Seed Quality And Conditioning Workshops Offered At The Iowa State University Seed Science Center, Keven Arrowsmith

Integrated Crop Management News

Iowa State University's Seed Science Center is offering a series of workshops on seed quality evaluation and seed conditioning. The advanced workshops include training required to meet continuing education requirements for the 2006 Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator certification for Category 4. Participants will learn about various aspects of seed conditioning and receive "hands-on" training. Enrollment is limited. Below are three of the workshops; for more information on the full workshop series, please seehttp://www.seeds.iastate.edu/2006ws.pdf.


Fungicides: Plant Health Fungicide Applications, Daren S. Mueller Jun 2006

Fungicides: Plant Health Fungicide Applications, Daren S. Mueller

Integrated Crop Management News

If you take a look at the current distribution of soybean rust in the United States and listen carefully to the experts on the chances of rust making it to Iowa, you have to be encouraged. Despite the good news about soybean rust not spreading quickly (or hardly at all), there have been several reports of chemical reps from major fungicide manufacturers trying to convince growers to purchase fungicides and apply them to soybean to enhance plant health, leading to higher crop yields; suggested treatments involve QoI-containing fungicides, such as Headline® or Quadris®.


Warm And Dry, Richard O. Pope Jun 2006

Warm And Dry, Richard O. Pope

Integrated Crop Management News

June is finishing as it started--slightly warmer than average--so we have gained heat on the season and are drier than usual. The extra warmth has led to relatively rapid crop growth and also rapid development of some pests. For example, western bean cutworm emergence is about 10 days to 2 weeks earlier than usual, so if you are cooperating in the pheromone trapping program with ISU, please set up your traps as soon as possible!


Late-Summer Seeding Of Forage Crops, Stephen K. Barnhart Jun 2006

Late-Summer Seeding Of Forage Crops, Stephen K. Barnhart

Integrated Crop Management News

Late summer can be an excellent time to establish forage crops, provided there is sufficient moisture for germination and good seedling growth. It is also a good time to seed in bare or thin spots in forage stands established this spring. The following steps will improve the chances for successful forage stand establishment in late summer.


Western Bean Cutworm Flight Starts--Early!, Marlin E. Rice Jun 2006

Western Bean Cutworm Flight Starts--Early!, Marlin E. Rice

Integrated Crop Management News

Adult western bean cutworms were first collected at two locations in Iowa on June 23--the earliest date they have ever been collected in the state. Single adults were captured in blacklight traps near Correctionville (Woodbury County) in western Iowa and Ames (Story County) in central Iowa. A blacklight trap in Boone County captured 19 adults on June 26. A historical look of western bean cutworm captures for Woodbury County is shown in the table.