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2006

Mechanical Engineering

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Investigation Of Formation And Applications Of High-Speed Liquid Projectiles, Oleg Petrenko Dec 2006

Investigation Of Formation And Applications Of High-Speed Liquid Projectiles, Oleg Petrenko

Dissertations

The work comprises experimental and numerical studies of generation and application of high-speed liquid projectiles. Numerical models were created for a projectile formation by two kinds of launchers, water extruder and water cannon. In the water extruder the kinetic energy of a fast moving piston is transferred to the water load and extrudes the load at a high speed. By contrast in the water cannon the water load itself accumulates the kinetic energy from the expanding combustion gasses. Then, in the course of water motion through the converging nozzle the energy is redistributed between head and tail of the projectile ...


Flow Characteristics And Phase Interactions Of Evaporating Sprays In Gas-Solid Suspensions, Muhammad Mushahid Rafique Qureshi Dec 2006

Flow Characteristics And Phase Interactions Of Evaporating Sprays In Gas-Solid Suspensions, Muhammad Mushahid Rafique Qureshi

Dissertations

Evaporating spray jets have a wide range of applications in many industrial processes such as fluidized catalytic cracking of crude oil in petroleum refinery, coal gasification, fluidized coking to make synthetic crude oil, and condensed mode gas polymerization. The rapid evaporation of spray jets significantly affects the gas-solids mixing, solids concentration, gas/solids temperature and gas/solids velocity acceleration. The complex interactions mechanism of phase change, three phase interaction, heat and mass transfer of gas, solids and evaporating droplets dominate the process efficiency and product quality. In such three-phase flows, the phase transport characteristics are influenced by both droplet-gas interaction ...


Burmester Curve And Numerical Motion Generation Of Grashof Mechanisms With Perimeter And Transmission Angle Optimization In Mathcad, Peter J. Martin Dec 2006

Burmester Curve And Numerical Motion Generation Of Grashof Mechanisms With Perimeter And Transmission Angle Optimization In Mathcad, Peter J. Martin

Theses

An infinite number of planar four-bar mechanism solutions exist for a series of prescribed rigid-body positions. Given a set of Burmester curves or numerically-generated fixed and moving pivot curves, sorting through the limitless number of possible mechanism solutions to find one that ensures full link rotatibility, satisfies compactness criteria and produces feasible transmission angles can be a daunting task. In this work, two algorithms are developed and presented by which the user can select optimum planar four-bar motion generators (optimum with respect to Grashof criteria, mechanism perimeter criteria and transmission angle criteria) from a set of all mechanism solutions produced ...


Numerical Analysis Of The Operation Of A Water Cannon, Teymuraz G. Bitadze Dec 2006

Numerical Analysis Of The Operation Of A Water Cannon, Teymuraz G. Bitadze

Theses

This study was designed to investigate the operational process of a launcher for generation of high speed water projectiles, and it involved the optimization of the geometry of a launcher body. The objective of the optimization of the internal geometry was to increase the effective momentum of the projectile while the optimization of the external geometry resulted in the reduction of the mass of the launcher.

In the course of the optimization of the internal geometry the exit velocity variation was determined, and used to compute an effective projectile momentum, which actually affects a workpiece. In this research, it was ...


Nanoparticle Formation And Coating Using Supercritical Fluids, Abhijit Aniruddha Gokhale Dec 2006

Nanoparticle Formation And Coating Using Supercritical Fluids, Abhijit Aniruddha Gokhale

Dissertations

Jet breakup phenomenon and nanoparticle formation

The focus of this dissertation is to study the SAS process to manufacture nanoparticles with minimum agglomeration, controlled size and size distribution. Solution jet breakup and solvent evaporation into supercritical fluid (SC CO2) is studied using high speed charged coupled device (CCD) camera facilitated with double shot particle image veloimetry (PIV) laser and a high pressure view cell. Particles formation using SAS is studied. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) particles are formed using micron size capillary nozzles and combination of thermodynamically good and poor solvents in order to achieve nano-sized particles with reduced agglomeration and narrow ...


Structuring Emperical Methods For Reuse And Efficiency In Product Development Processes, Marshall Edwin Bare Dec 2006

Structuring Emperical Methods For Reuse And Efficiency In Product Development Processes, Marshall Edwin Bare

Theses and Dissertations

Product development requires that engineers have the ability to predict product performance. When product performance involves complex physics and natural phenomena, mathematical models are often insufficient to provide accurate predictions. Engineering companies compensate for this deficiency by testing prototypes to obtain empirical data that can be used in place of predictive models. The purpose of this work is to provide techniques and methods for efficient use of empirical methods in product development processes. Empirical methods involve the design and creation of prototype hardware and the testing of that hardware in controlled environments. Empirical methods represent a complete product development sub-cycle ...


The Piezoresistive Effect In Microflexures, Gary K. Johns Dec 2006

The Piezoresistive Effect In Microflexures, Gary K. Johns

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research is to present a new model for predicting the piezoresistive effect in microflexures experiencing bending stresses. A linear model describing piezoresistivity exists for members in pure tension and compression. Extensions of this model to more complex loading conditions do not match experimental results. An accurate model of piezoresistivity in complex loading conditions would expand the design possibilities of piezoresistive devices. A new model to predict piezoresistive effects in tension, compression, and more complex loading conditions is proposed. The focus of this research is to verify a unidirectional form of this proposed model for microflexures in ...


A Dynamic Workflow Framework For Mass Customization Using Web Service And Autonomous Agent Technologies, Daniel J. Karpowitz Dec 2006

A Dynamic Workflow Framework For Mass Customization Using Web Service And Autonomous Agent Technologies, Daniel J. Karpowitz

Theses and Dissertations

Custom software development and maintenance is one of the key expenses associated with developing automated systems for mass customization. This paper presents a method for reducing the risk associated with this expense by developing a flexible environment for determining and executing dynamic workflow paths. Strategies for developing an autonomous agent-based framework and for identifying and creating web services for specific process tasks are presented. The proposed methods are outlined in two different case studies to illustrate the approach for both a generic process with complex workflow paths and a more specific sequential engineering process.


A Torque Based Power Input Model For Friction Stir Welding, Jefferson W. Pew Dec 2006

A Torque Based Power Input Model For Friction Stir Welding, Jefferson W. Pew

Theses and Dissertations

For decades models have been developed for predicting the size of the weld nugget and heat affected zones in fusion welded structures. The basis for these models is the welding heat input, which is fairly well understood for most arc welding processes. However, this traditional approach is not as straightforward for Friction Stir Welding (FSW). To date, there is no definitive relationship to quantify the heat input for FSW. An important step to establish a heat input model is to identify how FSW process parameters affect weld power. This study details the relationship between FSW process parameters and torque for ...


Large 3-D Deflection And Force Analysis Of Lateral Torsional Buckled Beams, Robert Parley Chase Dec 2006

Large 3-D Deflection And Force Analysis Of Lateral Torsional Buckled Beams, Robert Parley Chase

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis presents research on the force and deflection behavior of beams with rectangular cross-sections undergoing lateral torsional buckling. The large 3-D deflection path of buckling beam tips was closely approximated by circular arcs in two planes. A new chain algorithm element was created from pseudo-rigid-body segments and used in a chain calculation that accurately predicted the force deflection relationship of beams with large 3-D deflections.


Hydrodynamic Wave Contributions To Combustion Instability In Rockets, Esam M. T. Abu-Irshaid Dec 2006

Hydrodynamic Wave Contributions To Combustion Instability In Rockets, Esam M. T. Abu-Irshaid

Doctoral Dissertations

Experimental measurements suggest that a new source of instability in rocket motors is due to hydrodynamic disturbances. These disturbances, if ignored, could impact our assessment of rocket motor performance. In this work, the corresponding problem of hydrodynamic instability is considered. A mathematical model for these disturbances is carried out by perturbing the continuity and momentum equations. A one dimensional model which represents the wave disturbances in time and space is implemented to quantify the amplification rate, in time or space, and the wave amplitude. The only available measurements of these disturbances arise in cold flow experiments that simulate the gas ...


The Thermophysical Roll Of Nanoparticles In Nanofluidic Heat And Mass Transport, Chan Hee Chon Dec 2006

The Thermophysical Roll Of Nanoparticles In Nanofluidic Heat And Mass Transport, Chan Hee Chon

Doctoral Dissertations

Nanofluids are colloids that consist of a base fluid and nanometer sized metallic particles, which serve to improve the heat and mass transport characteristics of nanofluids over those of the base fluid. Many researchers, attracted to the highly enhanced thermal conductivity, have studied nanofluids, and yet have never been able to reveal the basic mechanisms of their characteristic improvements. This present work thus seeks to gain an understanding of the role of nanoparticles in nanofluidic heat and mass transport characteristics through three experimental measurements: 1) thermal conductivity measurement, 2) thermophoretic motion measurement, and 3) evaporation measurement.

Using thermal conductivity, thermophoresis ...


Analysis And Control Of Nonnegative Systems, Jayanthy Ramakrishnan Dec 2006

Analysis And Control Of Nonnegative Systems, Jayanthy Ramakrishnan

Doctoral Dissertations

Nonnegative systems are dynamical systems with nonnegative states for random non- negative initial conditions. A subclass of nonnegative systems are compartmental systems characterized by conservation laws.Nonnegative and compartmental systems have widespread applications in biological systems, medical systems, thermodynamic systems, network systems, economic systems, etc.

In this dissertation we have investigated the applications of nonnegative systems in biological and network systems. The specific focus in biological systems has been in the area of pharmacokinetics and we have addressed the consensus problem in network systems. We have specifically focused on the time-delay present in compartmental systems and have investigated the behavior ...


The Stability Analysis Of Linear Dynamical Systems With Time-Delays, Ajeet Ganesh Kamath Dec 2006

The Stability Analysis Of Linear Dynamical Systems With Time-Delays, Ajeet Ganesh Kamath

Doctoral Dissertations

Time-delay systems, which are also sometimes known as hereditary systems or systems with memory, aftereffects or time-lag, represent a class of infinite-dimensional systems, and are used to describe, among other types of systems, propagation and transport phenomena, population dynamics, economic systems, communication net- works and neural network models. A key method for the stability analysis of time- delay dynamical systems is the Lyapunov’s second method, applied to functional differential equations. Specifically, stability of a given linear time-delay dynamical system is typically shown using a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, which involves a quadratic part and an integral part. The quadratic part is ...


A Parametric Study Of Water Vapor Condensation In Supersonic Nozzle Flow Fields, Todd Branson Vanpelt Dec 2006

A Parametric Study Of Water Vapor Condensation In Supersonic Nozzle Flow Fields, Todd Branson Vanpelt

Masters Theses

Combustion driven hypersonic and supersonic wind tunnels are impaired in their flight simulation abilities by the condensation of water vapor introduced into the test stream by the burning byproducts of air and hydrocarbon fuels. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the abilities of a condensation model to predict the beginning axial locations of vapor changing into liquid droplets and study the correlations with initial combustion chamber conditions. A test matrix with different fuels, chamber pressure, and equivalence ratio was applied to the FIRACON model written by Erickson, et al. [7] using the dimensions of the NASA Langley eight-foot-high ...


Cooling Of Qps Modular Coils Using Embedded Copper Tubes, Shankar Narasimhaswami Dec 2006

Cooling Of Qps Modular Coils Using Embedded Copper Tubes, Shankar Narasimhaswami

Masters Theses

In an era of insatiable appetite for energy, mankind is challenged to develop a sustainable, safe and clean means of energy production, which would virtually eliminate the existing dependence on fossil fuels. In this regard, Nuclear Fusion technology would give man a quantum leap to mark a near end to the long-term energy concerns and redefine the basis of energy production on earth and elsewhere. This explanation holds rationale on two principal elements 1-Abundant supply of cheap fusion fuel and 2-Surpassingly superior energy production efficiency.

But, as every boon comes with a ‘But’, the criticality of technology is that fusion ...


Investigation Of Knock In Gaseous Fuels In The Presence Of Diluents, Roshan Ashok Rodrigues Dec 2006

Investigation Of Knock In Gaseous Fuels In The Presence Of Diluents, Roshan Ashok Rodrigues

Master's Theses

Recent energy security and environmental concerns have prompted growing interest into utilization of alternative fuels such as, natural gas and landfill gas. These gaseous fuels contain significant amount of diluents in the fuel composition, such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor and other trace gases, which vary by geographical location. Successful engine operation is limited by a phenomenon called "knock", which occurs due to auto-ignition of the end gas ahead of the flame front, and therefore, needs to be investigated with the utilization of these gaseous fuels.

The present contribution discusses the experimental set-up, procedure and results of the investigation ...


Defining A Model For Tool Consumption Rate On Asphalt Reclamation Machines, Matthew H. Taylor Nov 2006

Defining A Model For Tool Consumption Rate On Asphalt Reclamation Machines, Matthew H. Taylor

Theses and Dissertations

Asphalt and concrete reclamation machines are used to cut roadways when a repair is required. The performance of these machines can affect the quality of road repairs, and cost/profitability for both contractors and governments. We believe that several performance characteristics in reclamation machines are governed by the placement and pattern of cutting picks on the cutter head. Previous studies, focused on mining and excavation applications, have shown strong correlation between placement and wear. The following study employs a screening experiment (observational study) to find significant contributors to tool wear, in applications of asphalt milling or reclamation. We have found ...


Methods And Metrics For Human Control Of Multi-Robot Teams, Jeffrey D. Anderson Nov 2006

Methods And Metrics For Human Control Of Multi-Robot Teams, Jeffrey D. Anderson

Theses and Dissertations

Human-controlled robots are utilized in many situations and such use is becoming widespread. This thesis details research that allows a single human to interact with a team of robots performing tasks that require cooperation. The research provides insight into effective interaction design methods and appropriate interface techniques. The use of team-level autonomy is shown to decrease human workload while simultaneously improving individual robot efficiency and robot-team cooperation. An indoor human-robot interaction testbed was developed at the BYU MAGICC Lab to facilitate experimentation. The testbed consists of eight robots equipped with wireless modems, a field on which the robots move, an ...


Characterization Of Black Liquor Sprays For Application To Entrained-Flow Processes, Andrew John Mackrory Nov 2006

Characterization Of Black Liquor Sprays For Application To Entrained-Flow Processes, Andrew John Mackrory

Theses and Dissertations

In this work the differences between and characteristics of water and high solids, heated black liquor sprays from air-assist atomizers are examined. Sprays were imaged with a high speed camera and the images analyzed with computer code to produce droplet size data and macroscopic spray characteristics such as mass distribution. Fluid flow rates were measured to allow relevant dimensionless groups for the spray to be calculated. A 1000 degree C tubular furnace was placed around the spray to determine the effect of industrially relevant temperatures on the droplet formation process, relative to room-temperature conditions. It was found that high solids ...


Active Minimization Of Acoustic Energy Density To Attenuate Radiated Noise From A Diesel Generator, Andrew J. Boone Nov 2006

Active Minimization Of Acoustic Energy Density To Attenuate Radiated Noise From A Diesel Generator, Andrew J. Boone

Theses and Dissertations

The focus of this thesis was to use active noise control (ANC) to globally minimize the tonal and broadband noise radiating from a diesel generator enclosure. The major goal of this research was to show that minimizing the noise within the enclosure can lead to an overall sound pressure level (SPL) reduction of radiated noise. The target levels for overall SPL reduction were at least 2 dBA. The control algorithms used in this research were based on a filtered-x LMS adaptive algorithm, which minimizes energy density (ED). Both feedforward and feedback control approaches were investigated. The noise spectrum produced by ...


An Evaluation Of Attributes And Competencies For Manufacturing Engineering Technology Graduates, Loni S. Williamson Oct 2006

An Evaluation Of Attributes And Competencies For Manufacturing Engineering Technology Graduates, Loni S. Williamson

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to determine the required attributes and competencies required for a graduate from a manufacturing engineering technology baccalaureate program. A document called “Competencies of Manufacturing Engineering Technology Graduates” was compiled in October 2004. This document lists twelve attributes thought to be important for MET graduates: Leadership, Professionalism, Creativity and Problem Solving, Management, Materials, Processes, Quality, Systems, Design, Communication, Safety and Environmental Issues, and Global Awareness. Under each attribute is a list of five to seven competencies creating a total of seventy-three competencies for graduates of an MET baccalaureate program. This list of attributes and competencies ...


Agglomeration Of Bed Particles In Low-Temperature Black Liquor Gasification, Mark A. Woodruff Oct 2006

Agglomeration Of Bed Particles In Low-Temperature Black Liquor Gasification, Mark A. Woodruff

Theses and Dissertations

The increasing concern for emissions and pollutants from power generation plants has increased the desire for and the study of biomass fuels. Biomass combustion produces less carbon monoxide as well as other greenhouse gases. Black liquor is a byproduct from the Kraft process in making paper. Black liquor can be gasified and used as a fuel in recovery boilers and fluidized bed steam reformers. Recovery boilers have a low efficiency and are used today because of their reliability. Steam reformers have a much higher efficiency but they are a relatively new science and are not as reliable. One of the ...


Performance Of Algebraic Multigrid For Parallelized Finite Element Dns/Les Solvers, Gregory James Larson Sep 2006

Performance Of Algebraic Multigrid For Parallelized Finite Element Dns/Les Solvers, Gregory James Larson

Theses and Dissertations

The implementation of a hybrid spectral/finite-element discretization on the unsteady, incompressible, Navier-Stokes equations with a semi-implicit time-stepping method, an explicit treatment of the advective terms, and an implicit treatment of the pressure and viscous terms leads to an algorithm capable of calculating 3D flows over complex 2D geometries. This also results in multiple Fourier mode linear systems which must be solved at every timestep, which naturally leads to two parallelization approaches: Fourier space partitioning, where each processor individually and simultaneously solves a linear system, and physical space partitioning, where all processors collectively solve each linear system, sequentially advancing through ...


Numerical Simulation Of Plasma-Based Actuator Vortex Control Of A Turbulent Cylinder Wake, Nathan Keith Mcmullin Sep 2006

Numerical Simulation Of Plasma-Based Actuator Vortex Control Of A Turbulent Cylinder Wake, Nathan Keith Mcmullin

Theses and Dissertations

A numerical study has been performed to investigate the mechanics of the turbulent wake of a circular cylinder that is controlled by a plasma actuator. The numerical investigation implements a straightforward moving wall boundary condition to model the actuator's effects on the flow. Validations of the moving wall for this simulation are set forth with the understanding that the moving wall can model the plasma actuator bulk flow effects at a distance downstream and not in a region near or on the plasma actuator. The moving wall boundary condition is then applied to a circular cylinder at a Reynolds ...


Design And Fabrication Of Rotationally Tristable Compliant Mechanisms, Tyler M. Pendleton Sep 2006

Design And Fabrication Of Rotationally Tristable Compliant Mechanisms, Tyler M. Pendleton

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research is to develop the tools necessary to create tristable compliant mechanisms; the work presents the creation of models and concepts for design and a demonstration of the feasibility of the designs through the fabrication of tristable compliant mechanism prototypes on the macro scale. Prior methods to achieve tristable mechanisms rely on detents, friction, or power input; disadvantages to these methods include a high number of parts, the necessity for lubrication, and wear. A compliant tristable mechanism accomplishes tristability through strain energy storage. These mechanisms would be preferable because of increased performance and cost savings due ...


Design Of Piezoresistive Mems Force And Displacement Sensors, Tyler Lane Waterfall Sep 2006

Design Of Piezoresistive Mems Force And Displacement Sensors, Tyler Lane Waterfall

Theses and Dissertations

MEMS (MicroElectroMechanical Systems) sensors are used in acceleration, flow, pressure and force sensing applications on the micro and macro levels. Much research has focused on improving sensor precision, range, reliability, and ease of manufacture and operation. One exciting possibility for improving the capability of micro sensors lies in exploiting the piezoresistive properties of silicon, the material of choice in many MEMS fabrication processes. Piezoresistivity—the change of electrical resistance due to an applied strain—is a valuable material property of silicon due to its potential for high signal output and on-chip and feedback-control possibilities. However, successful design of piezoresistive micro ...


Constitutive Modeling Of The Thermo-Mechanics Associated With Crystallizable Shape Memory Polymers, Gautam Barot Aug 2006

Constitutive Modeling Of The Thermo-Mechanics Associated With Crystallizable Shape Memory Polymers, Gautam Barot

Dissertations

This research addresses issues central to material modeling and process simulations. Here, issues related for developing constitutive model for crystallizable shape memory polymers are addressed in details. Shape memory polymers are novel material that can be easily formed into complex shapes, retaining memory of their original shape even after undergoing large deformations. The temporary shape is stable and return to the original shape is triggered by a suitable mechanism such heating the polymer above a transition temperature. Crystallizable shape memory polymers are called crystallizable because the temporary shape is fixed by a crystalline phase, while return to the original shape ...


Dem Simulated Floor Pressure Induced By A Granular Column, Shawn A. Chester Aug 2006

Dem Simulated Floor Pressure Induced By A Granular Column, Shawn A. Chester

Theses

At the end of the 19th century, H. A. Janssen discovered that the bottom floor pressure in a cylindrical container of granular material asymptotes exponentially to a value less than the weight of the material i.e., the pressure becomes independent of the fill height of the column. This phenomenon is investigated using discrete element simulations of inelastic, frictional spheres in a cylindrical vessel having a particle-to-cylinder diameter ratio at approximately 13.3 or 26.6, with varying bed heights in both cases. The axial pressure profile and the load experienced by a piston that is supporting the granular column ...


Recovering Grain Boundary Inclination Parameters Through Oblique Double-Sectioning, Eric Richards Homer Aug 2006

Recovering Grain Boundary Inclination Parameters Through Oblique Double-Sectioning, Eric Richards Homer

Theses and Dissertations

A method for the retrieval of grain boundary inclination parameters of the grain boundary character distribution by oblique double-sectioning is proposed. The method, which is similar to the recovery of the orientation distributions from sets of incomplete pole-figures, is described along with a framework for implementation. The method directly measures grain boundary inclinations in a manner similar to serial sectioning while statistically sampling the microstructure comparably to stereological methods. Computer simulations of the method were used to confirm the mathematical framework. Additional simulations, where the grain boundary normal distributions were recovered by both oblique double-sectioning and stereological methods, showed that ...