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2006

Mechanical Engineering

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Investigation Of Formation And Applications Of High-Speed Liquid Projectiles, Oleg Petrenko Dec 2006

Investigation Of Formation And Applications Of High-Speed Liquid Projectiles, Oleg Petrenko

Dissertations

The work comprises experimental and numerical studies of generation and application of high-speed liquid projectiles. Numerical models were created for a projectile formation by two kinds of launchers, water extruder and water cannon. In the water extruder the kinetic energy of a fast moving piston is transferred to the water load and extrudes the load at a high speed. By contrast in the water cannon the water load itself accumulates the kinetic energy from the expanding combustion gasses. Then, in the course of water motion through the converging nozzle the energy is redistributed between head and tail of the projectile ...


Flow Characteristics And Phase Interactions Of Evaporating Sprays In Gas-Solid Suspensions, Muhammad Mushahid Rafique Qureshi Dec 2006

Flow Characteristics And Phase Interactions Of Evaporating Sprays In Gas-Solid Suspensions, Muhammad Mushahid Rafique Qureshi

Dissertations

Evaporating spray jets have a wide range of applications in many industrial processes such as fluidized catalytic cracking of crude oil in petroleum refinery, coal gasification, fluidized coking to make synthetic crude oil, and condensed mode gas polymerization. The rapid evaporation of spray jets significantly affects the gas-solids mixing, solids concentration, gas/solids temperature and gas/solids velocity acceleration. The complex interactions mechanism of phase change, three phase interaction, heat and mass transfer of gas, solids and evaporating droplets dominate the process efficiency and product quality. In such three-phase flows, the phase transport characteristics are influenced by both droplet-gas interaction ...


Nanoparticle Formation And Coating Using Supercritical Fluids, Abhijit Aniruddha Gokhale Dec 2006

Nanoparticle Formation And Coating Using Supercritical Fluids, Abhijit Aniruddha Gokhale

Dissertations

Jet breakup phenomenon and nanoparticle formation

The focus of this dissertation is to study the SAS process to manufacture nanoparticles with minimum agglomeration, controlled size and size distribution. Solution jet breakup and solvent evaporation into supercritical fluid (SC CO2) is studied using high speed charged coupled device (CCD) camera facilitated with double shot particle image veloimetry (PIV) laser and a high pressure view cell. Particles formation using SAS is studied. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) particles are formed using micron size capillary nozzles and combination of thermodynamically good and poor solvents in order to achieve nano-sized particles with reduced agglomeration and narrow ...


Burmester Curve And Numerical Motion Generation Of Grashof Mechanisms With Perimeter And Transmission Angle Optimization In Mathcad, Peter J. Martin Dec 2006

Burmester Curve And Numerical Motion Generation Of Grashof Mechanisms With Perimeter And Transmission Angle Optimization In Mathcad, Peter J. Martin

Theses

An infinite number of planar four-bar mechanism solutions exist for a series of prescribed rigid-body positions. Given a set of Burmester curves or numerically-generated fixed and moving pivot curves, sorting through the limitless number of possible mechanism solutions to find one that ensures full link rotatibility, satisfies compactness criteria and produces feasible transmission angles can be a daunting task. In this work, two algorithms are developed and presented by which the user can select optimum planar four-bar motion generators (optimum with respect to Grashof criteria, mechanism perimeter criteria and transmission angle criteria) from a set of all mechanism solutions produced ...


Numerical Analysis Of The Operation Of A Water Cannon, Teymuraz G. Bitadze Dec 2006

Numerical Analysis Of The Operation Of A Water Cannon, Teymuraz G. Bitadze

Theses

This study was designed to investigate the operational process of a launcher for generation of high speed water projectiles, and it involved the optimization of the geometry of a launcher body. The objective of the optimization of the internal geometry was to increase the effective momentum of the projectile while the optimization of the external geometry resulted in the reduction of the mass of the launcher.

In the course of the optimization of the internal geometry the exit velocity variation was determined, and used to compute an effective projectile momentum, which actually affects a workpiece. In this research, it was ...


Structuring Emperical Methods For Reuse And Efficiency In Product Development Processes, Marshall Edwin Bare Dec 2006

Structuring Emperical Methods For Reuse And Efficiency In Product Development Processes, Marshall Edwin Bare

Theses and Dissertations

Product development requires that engineers have the ability to predict product performance. When product performance involves complex physics and natural phenomena, mathematical models are often insufficient to provide accurate predictions. Engineering companies compensate for this deficiency by testing prototypes to obtain empirical data that can be used in place of predictive models. The purpose of this work is to provide techniques and methods for efficient use of empirical methods in product development processes. Empirical methods involve the design and creation of prototype hardware and the testing of that hardware in controlled environments. Empirical methods represent a complete product development sub-cycle ...


The Piezoresistive Effect In Microflexures, Gary K. Johns Dec 2006

The Piezoresistive Effect In Microflexures, Gary K. Johns

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this research is to present a new model for predicting the piezoresistive effect in microflexures experiencing bending stresses. A linear model describing piezoresistivity exists for members in pure tension and compression. Extensions of this model to more complex loading conditions do not match experimental results. An accurate model of piezoresistivity in complex loading conditions would expand the design possibilities of piezoresistive devices. A new model to predict piezoresistive effects in tension, compression, and more complex loading conditions is proposed. The focus of this research is to verify a unidirectional form of this proposed model for microflexures in ...


Carbon Monoxide Mass Transfer In A Syngas Mixture, Amir Kapic, Samuel T. Jones, Theodore J. Heindel Dec 2006

Carbon Monoxide Mass Transfer In A Syngas Mixture, Amir Kapic, Samuel T. Jones, Theodore J. Heindel

Mechanical Engineering Publications

A myoglobin assay for measuring concentrations of dissolved carbon monoxide (CO) from an artificial synthesis gas blend (20% CO, 18% CO2, 52% N2, and 10% H2) was utilized to determine volumetric CO−water mass-transfer rates in a 0.211-m-diameter stirred-tank reactor (STR). The data are well correlated using the power density and superficial gas velocity, but this correlation is valid only for this STR size. A gas−liquid scale-up model developed for dissolved oxygen mass-transfer rates using air was used to develop a CO−liquid scale-up model for syngas fermentation. The model is applicable in the STR hydrodynamic range associated ...


Dynamics And Structures Of Segregation In A Dense, Vibrating Granular Bed, Jin Sun, Francine Battaglia, Shankar Subramaniam Dec 2006

Dynamics And Structures Of Segregation In A Dense, Vibrating Granular Bed, Jin Sun, Francine Battaglia, Shankar Subramaniam

Mechanical Engineering Publications

We study the rise dynamics of a large particle in a granular bed under vertical vibration using molecular dynamics simulations. Systematic variation of the particle properties and external wall friction in the simulations shows that the large particle rising is very sensitive to external wall friction. The dynamical response of the granular bed with wall friction is shown to include an expansion stage and a compression stage within one cycle. With wall friction, large-scale force networks bearing larger-than-average forces are found in the compression stage. However, without wall friction, large strong force networks do not exist. The distribution of normal ...


High-Resolution, Real-Time Three-Dimensional Shape Measurement, Song Zhang, Peisen S. Huang Dec 2006

High-Resolution, Real-Time Three-Dimensional Shape Measurement, Song Zhang, Peisen S. Huang

Song Zhang

We describe a high-resolution, real-time 3-D shape measurement system based on a digital fringe projection and phase-shifting technique. It utilizes a single-chip digital light processing projector to project computer-generated fringe patterns onto the object, and a high-speed CCD camera synchronized with the projector to acquire the fringe images at a frame rate of 120frames∕s. A color CCD camera is also used to capture images for texture mapping. Based on a three-step phase-shifting technique, each frame of the 3-D shape is reconstructed using three consecutive fringe images. Therefore the 3-D data acquisition speed of the system is 40frames∕s. With ...


A Dynamic Workflow Framework For Mass Customization Using Web Service And Autonomous Agent Technologies, Daniel J. Karpowitz Dec 2006

A Dynamic Workflow Framework For Mass Customization Using Web Service And Autonomous Agent Technologies, Daniel J. Karpowitz

Theses and Dissertations

Custom software development and maintenance is one of the key expenses associated with developing automated systems for mass customization. This paper presents a method for reducing the risk associated with this expense by developing a flexible environment for determining and executing dynamic workflow paths. Strategies for developing an autonomous agent-based framework and for identifying and creating web services for specific process tasks are presented. The proposed methods are outlined in two different case studies to illustrate the approach for both a generic process with complex workflow paths and a more specific sequential engineering process.


A Torque Based Power Input Model For Friction Stir Welding, Jefferson W. Pew Dec 2006

A Torque Based Power Input Model For Friction Stir Welding, Jefferson W. Pew

Theses and Dissertations

For decades models have been developed for predicting the size of the weld nugget and heat affected zones in fusion welded structures. The basis for these models is the welding heat input, which is fairly well understood for most arc welding processes. However, this traditional approach is not as straightforward for Friction Stir Welding (FSW). To date, there is no definitive relationship to quantify the heat input for FSW. An important step to establish a heat input model is to identify how FSW process parameters affect weld power. This study details the relationship between FSW process parameters and torque for ...


College Of Engineering Senior Design Competition Fall 2006, University Of Nevada, Las Vegas Dec 2006

College Of Engineering Senior Design Competition Fall 2006, University Of Nevada, Las Vegas

Senior Projects (COE)

Part of every UNLV engineering student’s academic experience, the senior design project stimulates engineering innovation and entrepreneurship. Each student in their senior year chooses, plans, designs and prototypes a product in this required element of the curriculum. A capstone to the student’s educational career, the senior design project encourages the student to use everything learned in the engineering program to create a practical, real world solution to an engineering challenge.

The senior design competition helps to focus the senior students in increasing the quality and potential for commercial application for their design projects. Judges from local industry evaluate ...


Large 3-D Deflection And Force Analysis Of Lateral Torsional Buckled Beams, Robert Parley Chase Dec 2006

Large 3-D Deflection And Force Analysis Of Lateral Torsional Buckled Beams, Robert Parley Chase

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis presents research on the force and deflection behavior of beams with rectangular cross-sections undergoing lateral torsional buckling. The large 3-D deflection path of buckling beam tips was closely approximated by circular arcs in two planes. A new chain algorithm element was created from pseudo-rigid-body segments and used in a chain calculation that accurately predicted the force deflection relationship of beams with large 3-D deflections.


Modeling Of The Size Effects On The Behavior Of Metals In Microscale Deformation Processes, Gap-Yong Kim, Jun Ni, Muammer Koc Dec 2006

Modeling Of The Size Effects On The Behavior Of Metals In Microscale Deformation Processes, Gap-Yong Kim, Jun Ni, Muammer Koc

Gap-Yong Kim

For the accurate analysis and design of microforming process, proper modeling of material behavior at the micro/mesoscale is necessary by considering the size effects. Two size effects are known to exist in metallic materials. One is the “grain size” effect, and the other is the “feature/specimen size” effect. This study investigated the feature/specimen size effect and introduced a scaling model which combined both feature/specimen and grain size effects. Predicted size effects were compared with three separate experiments obtained from previous research: a simple compression with a round specimen, a simple tension with a round specimen, and ...


Reliability-Based Optimization Of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composite Bridge Deck Panels, Michel D. Thompson, Christopher D. Eamon, Masoud Rais-Rohani Dec 2006

Reliability-Based Optimization Of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composite Bridge Deck Panels, Michel D. Thompson, Christopher D. Eamon, Masoud Rais-Rohani

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Research Publications

A reliability-based optimization (RBO) procedure is developed and applied to minimize the weight of eight fiber-reinforced polymer composite bridge deck panel configurations. The method utilizes interlinked finite element, optimization, and reliability analysis procedures to solve the weight minimization problem with a deterministic strength constraint and two probabilistic deflection constraints. Panels are composed of an upper face plate, lower face plate, and a grid of interior stiffeners. Different panel depths and stiffener layouts are considered. Sensitivity analyses are conducted to identify significant design and random variables. Optimization design variables are panel component ply thicknesses while random variables include load and material ...


Carbon Diffusion In Steels: A Numerical Analysis Based On Direct Integration Of The Flux, Olga Karabelchtchlkova, Richard D. Sisson Jr. Dec 2006

Carbon Diffusion In Steels: A Numerical Analysis Based On Direct Integration Of The Flux, Olga Karabelchtchlkova, Richard D. Sisson Jr.

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

In the early 1970s, Professor Dayananda developed a technique for the direct integration of fluxes from the concentration profiles in vapor-solid diffusion couples to determine diffusion coefficients and atomic mobilities. As part of a project to control and optimize the industrial carburization process in mild- and low-alloyed steels, a modified integration analysis was applied to determine the mass transfer coefficient in the gas boundary layer and carbon diffusivity in austenite. Because carbon flux and surface carbon content vary with time during single-stage carburizing even with a fixed carbon potential in the atmosphere, a mass balance at the gas-solid interface must ...


Guest Editorial, Yongho Sohn, Carelyn Campbell, John E. Morral, Richard D. Sisson Dec 2006

Guest Editorial, Yongho Sohn, Carelyn Campbell, John E. Morral, Richard D. Sisson

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Hydrodynamic Wave Contributions To Combustion Instability In Rockets, Esam M. T. Abu-Irshaid Dec 2006

Hydrodynamic Wave Contributions To Combustion Instability In Rockets, Esam M. T. Abu-Irshaid

Doctoral Dissertations

Experimental measurements suggest that a new source of instability in rocket motors is due to hydrodynamic disturbances. These disturbances, if ignored, could impact our assessment of rocket motor performance. In this work, the corresponding problem of hydrodynamic instability is considered. A mathematical model for these disturbances is carried out by perturbing the continuity and momentum equations. A one dimensional model which represents the wave disturbances in time and space is implemented to quantify the amplification rate, in time or space, and the wave amplitude. The only available measurements of these disturbances arise in cold flow experiments that simulate the gas ...


The Thermophysical Roll Of Nanoparticles In Nanofluidic Heat And Mass Transport, Chan Hee Chon Dec 2006

The Thermophysical Roll Of Nanoparticles In Nanofluidic Heat And Mass Transport, Chan Hee Chon

Doctoral Dissertations

Nanofluids are colloids that consist of a base fluid and nanometer sized metallic particles, which serve to improve the heat and mass transport characteristics of nanofluids over those of the base fluid. Many researchers, attracted to the highly enhanced thermal conductivity, have studied nanofluids, and yet have never been able to reveal the basic mechanisms of their characteristic improvements. This present work thus seeks to gain an understanding of the role of nanoparticles in nanofluidic heat and mass transport characteristics through three experimental measurements: 1) thermal conductivity measurement, 2) thermophoretic motion measurement, and 3) evaporation measurement.

Using thermal conductivity, thermophoresis ...


Titanium Alloyed With Boron, Seshacharyulu Tamirisakandala, Daniel B. Miracle, Raghavan Srinivasan, Jay S. Gunasekera Dec 2006

Titanium Alloyed With Boron, Seshacharyulu Tamirisakandala, Daniel B. Miracle, Raghavan Srinivasan, Jay S. Gunasekera

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Small additions of boron to conventional titanium alloys have been found to produce significant changes to the microstructures and associated properties. Grain refinement and improved strength and stiffness are first-order effects, which lead to possibilities for developing novel and affordable processing methodologies and to enhance performance over conventional titanium alloys. In this article, we introduce this new class of titanium alloys and describe unique formability benefits achieved via engineering microstructures.


Analysis And Control Of Nonnegative Systems, Jayanthy Ramakrishnan Dec 2006

Analysis And Control Of Nonnegative Systems, Jayanthy Ramakrishnan

Doctoral Dissertations

Nonnegative systems are dynamical systems with nonnegative states for random non- negative initial conditions. A subclass of nonnegative systems are compartmental systems characterized by conservation laws.Nonnegative and compartmental systems have widespread applications in biological systems, medical systems, thermodynamic systems, network systems, economic systems, etc.

In this dissertation we have investigated the applications of nonnegative systems in biological and network systems. The specific focus in biological systems has been in the area of pharmacokinetics and we have addressed the consensus problem in network systems. We have specifically focused on the time-delay present in compartmental systems and have investigated the behavior ...


Cooling Of Qps Modular Coils Using Embedded Copper Tubes, Shankar Narasimhaswami Dec 2006

Cooling Of Qps Modular Coils Using Embedded Copper Tubes, Shankar Narasimhaswami

Masters Theses

In an era of insatiable appetite for energy, mankind is challenged to develop a sustainable, safe and clean means of energy production, which would virtually eliminate the existing dependence on fossil fuels. In this regard, Nuclear Fusion technology would give man a quantum leap to mark a near end to the long-term energy concerns and redefine the basis of energy production on earth and elsewhere. This explanation holds rationale on two principal elements 1-Abundant supply of cheap fusion fuel and 2-Surpassingly superior energy production efficiency.

But, as every boon comes with a ‘But’, the criticality of technology is that fusion ...


A Parametric Study Of Water Vapor Condensation In Supersonic Nozzle Flow Fields, Todd Branson Vanpelt Dec 2006

A Parametric Study Of Water Vapor Condensation In Supersonic Nozzle Flow Fields, Todd Branson Vanpelt

Masters Theses

Combustion driven hypersonic and supersonic wind tunnels are impaired in their flight simulation abilities by the condensation of water vapor introduced into the test stream by the burning byproducts of air and hydrocarbon fuels. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the abilities of a condensation model to predict the beginning axial locations of vapor changing into liquid droplets and study the correlations with initial combustion chamber conditions. A test matrix with different fuels, chamber pressure, and equivalence ratio was applied to the FIRACON model written by Erickson, et al. [7] using the dimensions of the NASA Langley eight-foot-high ...


A Simple Numerical Method Of Cycle Jumps For Cyclically Loaded Structures, D. Cojocaru, Anette M. Karlsson Dec 2006

A Simple Numerical Method Of Cycle Jumps For Cyclically Loaded Structures, D. Cojocaru, Anette M. Karlsson

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

A method for accelerated numerical simulations of structures subjected to cyclic loading is investigated. Of particular interest is a class of structures where the structural properties evolve with time. The proposed method is based on conducting detailed finite element analysis for a set of cycles to establish a trend line, extrapolating the trend line spanning many cycles, and use the extrapolated state as initial state for additional FEA simulations. This includes a control function that automatically monitors the length of the cycle jump to ensure a realistic solution. We compare the proposed method to a reference calculation, where all incremental ...


Investigation Of Knock In Gaseous Fuels In The Presence Of Diluents, Roshan Ashok Rodrigues Dec 2006

Investigation Of Knock In Gaseous Fuels In The Presence Of Diluents, Roshan Ashok Rodrigues

Master's Theses

Recent energy security and environmental concerns have prompted growing interest into utilization of alternative fuels such as, natural gas and landfill gas. These gaseous fuels contain significant amount of diluents in the fuel composition, such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor and other trace gases, which vary by geographical location. Successful engine operation is limited by a phenomenon called "knock", which occurs due to auto-ignition of the end gas ahead of the flame front, and therefore, needs to be investigated with the utilization of these gaseous fuels.

The present contribution discusses the experimental set-up, procedure and results of the investigation ...


A Fuzzy Logic Controller For Autonomous Wheeled Vehicles, Mohamed Trabia, Linda Z. Shi, Neil Eugene Hodge Dec 2006

A Fuzzy Logic Controller For Autonomous Wheeled Vehicles, Mohamed Trabia, Linda Z. Shi, Neil Eugene Hodge

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

Autonomous vehicles have potential applications in many fields, such as replacing humans in hazardous environments, conducting military missions, and performing routine tasks for industry. Driving ground vehicles is an area where human performance has proven to be reliable. Drivers typically respond quickly to sudden changes in their environment. While other control techniques may be used to control a vehicle, fuzzy logic has certain advantages in this area; one of them is its ability to incorporate human knowledge and experience, via language, into relationships among the given quantities. Fuzzy logic controllers for autonomous vehicles have been successfully applied to address various ...


Vision-Based Target Geo-Location Using A Fixed-Wing Miniature Air Vehicle, D. Blake Barber, Joshua D. Redding, Timothy W. Mclain, Randal W. Beard, Clark N. Taylor Dec 2006

Vision-Based Target Geo-Location Using A Fixed-Wing Miniature Air Vehicle, D. Blake Barber, Joshua D. Redding, Timothy W. Mclain, Randal W. Beard, Clark N. Taylor

Faculty Publications

This paper presents a method for determining the GPS location of a ground-based object when imaged from a fixed-wing miniature air vehicle (MAV). Using the pixel location of the target in an image, with measurements of MAV position and attitude, and camera pose angles, the target is localized in world coordinates. The main contribution of this paper is to present four techniques for reducing the localization error. In particular, we discuss RLS filtering, bias estimation, flight path selection, and wind estimation. The localization method has been implemented and flight tested on BYU’s MAV testbed and experimental results are presented ...


The Stability Analysis Of Linear Dynamical Systems With Time-Delays, Ajeet Ganesh Kamath Dec 2006

The Stability Analysis Of Linear Dynamical Systems With Time-Delays, Ajeet Ganesh Kamath

Doctoral Dissertations

Time-delay systems, which are also sometimes known as hereditary systems or systems with memory, aftereffects or time-lag, represent a class of infinite-dimensional systems, and are used to describe, among other types of systems, propagation and transport phenomena, population dynamics, economic systems, communication net- works and neural network models. A key method for the stability analysis of time- delay dynamical systems is the Lyapunov’s second method, applied to functional differential equations. Specifically, stability of a given linear time-delay dynamical system is typically shown using a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, which involves a quadratic part and an integral part. The quadratic part is ...


Defining A Model For Tool Consumption Rate On Asphalt Reclamation Machines, Matthew H. Taylor Nov 2006

Defining A Model For Tool Consumption Rate On Asphalt Reclamation Machines, Matthew H. Taylor

Theses and Dissertations

Asphalt and concrete reclamation machines are used to cut roadways when a repair is required. The performance of these machines can affect the quality of road repairs, and cost/profitability for both contractors and governments. We believe that several performance characteristics in reclamation machines are governed by the placement and pattern of cutting picks on the cutter head. Previous studies, focused on mining and excavation applications, have shown strong correlation between placement and wear. The following study employs a screening experiment (observational study) to find significant contributors to tool wear, in applications of asphalt milling or reclamation. We have found ...